PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL  ANATOMY Week 1: Lecture 2    Elaine Wilson, PT
Today’s Theme Song   <ul><li>Welcome to the Spring Semester!!! </li></ul>
I  LOVE  THESE  KIDS!!!
Goals for Today <ul><li>Define commonly used anatomic and kinesiologic terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Describe common movem...
Goals for Today - cont’d <ul><li>Describe how force, torque, and levers affect biomechanical movement </li></ul><ul><li>De...
Medical students at the dissection table in Anatomy lab. Medical College of Virginia, class of 1903
CHAPTER 1 Basic Principles of Kinesiology
Kinematics: Motion of a body without regard to forces <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectilinear motion (straig...
Kinesiology Terminology <ul><li>Anterior: toward the front of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior: toward the back of the...
Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d <ul><li>Inferior :  below, or toward the feet </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal: closer to, or t...
Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d <ul><li>Deep: toward the inside (core) of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Origin: the proximal...
Osteokinematics: Motion of bones relative to 3 cardinal planes <ul><li>Planes of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal pla...
Osteokinematics – cont’d <ul><li>Axes of rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior-posterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions <ul><li>Flexion  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion of one bone approaching the flexor surface of ...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Rotation:  Bony segment spinning about its longitudinal axis of rotation </...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Protraction  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of bone  away  from midline ...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Horizontal adduction and abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder motions i...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Radial deviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral hand movement toward the rad...
Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Inversion and eversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal plane motions of the a...
Osteokinematics: It’s All Relative  <ul><li>Two perspectives of movement at a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Open-chain motion </...
Arthrokinematics: <ul><li>Arthrokinematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion occurring  between  joint articular surfaces </li>...
Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces <ul><li>Roll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple points along on...
Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces – cont’d <ul><li>Spin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single point on...
Arthrokinematics: Mechanics and  Functional Considerations <ul><li>Roll-and-slide mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll–and...
Kinetics <ul><li>Branch of mechanics that describes the effect of forces on the body   </li></ul><ul><li>Force  </li></ul>...
Kinetics: Torque <ul><li>Torque is the rotational equivalent of force </li></ul><ul><li>Amount generated across a joint de...
Kinetics: Biomechanical Levers <ul><li>First-class lever  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to a see-saw; fulcrum located  bet...
Kinetics: Line of Pull <ul><li>Line of pull  describes the direction   of muscular force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial-late...
Homework <ul><li>Read Chapter 2 :  Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA  prior to Tuesday 01/24/12 lecture at 9am. </li><...
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chapter 01 week 1 lecture 2 ew

  1. 1. PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 1: Lecture 2 Elaine Wilson, PT
  2. 2. Today’s Theme Song  <ul><li>Welcome to the Spring Semester!!! </li></ul>
  3. 3. I LOVE THESE KIDS!!!
  4. 4. Goals for Today <ul><li>Define commonly used anatomic and kinesiologic terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Describe common movements of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the planes of motion and axes of rotation for common motions </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement </li></ul><ul><li>Describe arthrokinematic principles of movement </li></ul>
  5. 5. Goals for Today - cont’d <ul><li>Describe how force, torque, and levers affect biomechanical movement </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the three biomechanical lever systems, and explain their advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze how muscular lines of pull produce specific biomechanical motions </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how muscular force vectors are used to describe movement </li></ul>
  6. 6. Medical students at the dissection table in Anatomy lab. Medical College of Virginia, class of 1903
  7. 7. CHAPTER 1 Basic Principles of Kinesiology
  8. 8. Kinematics: Motion of a body without regard to forces <ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectilinear motion (straight line) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curvilinear motion (curved line) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rotation (movement of body about an axis) </li></ul><ul><li>Active movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex, flexing an arm over the head </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Passive movements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex, limb moving without muscle contraction </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  9. 9. Kinesiology Terminology <ul><li>Anterior: toward the front of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior: toward the back of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Midline: an imaginary line that courses vertically through the center of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Medial: toward the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral: away from the midline of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Superior: above, or toward the head </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  10. 10. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d <ul><li>Inferior : below, or toward the feet </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal: closer to, or toward the torso </li></ul><ul><li>Distal: away from the torso </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalad: toward the head </li></ul><ul><li>Caudal: toward the feet, or “tail” </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial: toward the surface (skin) of the body </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  11. 11. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d <ul><li>Deep: toward the inside (core) of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Origin: the proximal attachment of a muscle or ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion: the distal attachment of a muscle or ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Prone: describes the position of an individual lying face down </li></ul><ul><li>Supine: describes the position of an individual lying face up </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  12. 12. Osteokinematics: Motion of bones relative to 3 cardinal planes <ul><li>Planes of motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal plane: left-right division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal plane: front-back division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal (transverse) plane: top-bottom division </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anatomic position </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of planes of motion joint allows </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  13. 13. Osteokinematics – cont’d <ul><li>Axes of rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior-posterior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., hip abduction/adduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial-lateral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., elbow flexion/extension </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical (longitudinal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rotational movements, e.g., trunk rotation </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  14. 14. Osteokinematics: Body Motions <ul><li>Flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion of one bone approaching the flexor surface of another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An approximation of the extensor surfaces of two bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal plane movement away from the midline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal plane movement toward the midline </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Rotation: Bony segment spinning about its longitudinal axis of rotation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior bone surface rotates toward the midline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior bone surface rotates away from the midline  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A circular motion through two planes </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Protraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translation of bone away from midline in a plane parallel to the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of a bony segment toward the midline in a plane parallel to the ground </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  17. 17. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Horizontal adduction and abduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder motions in the transverse plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal adduction: hands come together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal abduction: extremities move away from midline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearm movement that turns the palm posteriorly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forearm movement that turns the palm anteriorly </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Radial deviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral hand movement toward the radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ulnar deviation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial hand movement toward the ulna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal plane ankle motion bringing the foot upward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sagittal plane ankle motion pushing the foot downward </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d <ul><li>Inversion and eversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal plane motions of the ankle/foot complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inversion results in a medial-facing foot sole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eversion results in a lateral-facing foot sole </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  20. 20. Osteokinematics: It’s All Relative <ul><li>Two perspectives of movement at a joint </li></ul><ul><li>Open-chain motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of distal segment of bone about a relatively fixed proximal segment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed-chain motion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of proximal segment of bone about a relatively fixed distal segment </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  21. 21. Arthrokinematics: <ul><li>Arthrokinematics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion occurring between joint articular surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convex-concave joint relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves fit (congruency) and stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly guides motion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamental movements of arthrokinematics vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on whether concave articular surface is moving on a fixed convex surface or vice versa </li></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  22. 22. Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces <ul><li>Roll </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple points along one rotating articular surface contact multiple points on another articular surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: a tire rotating across a stretch of pavement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Slide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single point on one articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: a stationary tire skidding across a stretch of icy pavement </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  23. 23. Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces – cont’d <ul><li>Spin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single point on one articular surface rotates on a single point on another articular surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., rotating toy top spinning on one spot on the floor </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  24. 24. Arthrokinematics: Mechanics and Functional Considerations <ul><li>Roll-and-slide mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll–and–opposite-direction slide maintains articular stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To maintain firm surface contact, motion must be accompanied by slide in same direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spin mechanics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spin always occurs about a central longitudinal axis of rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion may be hindered by issues like impingement syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Kinetics <ul><li>Branch of mechanics that describes the effect of forces on the body </li></ul><ul><li>Force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Push or pull” that can produce, modify, or halt a movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal force is generated within the body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External force is generated outside the body </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  26. 26. Kinetics: Torque <ul><li>Torque is the rotational equivalent of force </li></ul><ul><li>Amount generated across a joint depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of force exerted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance between force and axis of rotation (moment arm) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal torques are generated internally (ex: muscle) </li></ul><ul><li>External torques are generated externally (ex: gravity) </li></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  27. 27. Kinetics: Biomechanical Levers <ul><li>First-class lever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to a see-saw; fulcrum located between internal and external force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second-class levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis of rotation located at one end of the bony lever; internal moment arm always longer than the external moment arm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third-class levers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axis of rotation located at one end of the bony lever; internal moment arm always smaller than the external moment arm </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Kinetics: Line of Pull <ul><li>Line of pull describes the direction of muscular force </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial-lateral axis of rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bony motion anterior of the sagittal plane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior-posterior axis of rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral motion pulls bone laterally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medial motion pulls bone medially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical axis of rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior or medial pull produces inward rotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior or lateral pull produces rotation away from the midline </li></ul></ul></ul>Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  29. 29. Homework <ul><li>Read Chapter 2 : Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA prior to Tuesday 01/24/12 lecture at 9am. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for Quiz – 9am 01/24/12 (covering Chapters 1 and 2 of Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA ) </li></ul>
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