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chapter 01 week 1 lecture 2 ew Presentation Transcript

  • 1. PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 1: Lecture 2 Elaine Wilson, PT
  • 2. Today’s Theme Song 
    • Welcome to the Spring Semester!!!
  • 3. I LOVE THESE KIDS!!!
  • 4. Goals for Today
    • Define commonly used anatomic and kinesiologic terminology
    • Describe common movements of the body
    • Analyze the planes of motion and axes of rotation for common motions
    • Differentiate between osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement
    • Describe arthrokinematic principles of movement
  • 5. Goals for Today - cont’d
    • Describe how force, torque, and levers affect biomechanical movement
    • Describe the three biomechanical lever systems, and explain their advantages and disadvantages
    • Analyze how muscular lines of pull produce specific biomechanical motions
    • Explain how muscular force vectors are used to describe movement
  • 6. Medical students at the dissection table in Anatomy lab. Medical College of Virginia, class of 1903
  • 7. CHAPTER 1 Basic Principles of Kinesiology
  • 8. Kinematics: Motion of a body without regard to forces
    • Translation
      • Rectilinear motion (straight line)
      • Curvilinear motion (curved line)
    • Rotation (movement of body about an axis)
    • Active movements
      • ex, flexing an arm over the head
    • Passive movements
      • ex, limb moving without muscle contraction
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 9. Kinesiology Terminology
    • Anterior: toward the front of the body
    • Posterior: toward the back of the body
    • Midline: an imaginary line that courses vertically through the center of the body
    • Medial: toward the midline of the body
    • Lateral: away from the midline of the body
    • Superior: above, or toward the head
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 10. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d
    • Inferior : below, or toward the feet
    • Proximal: closer to, or toward the torso
    • Distal: away from the torso
    • Cephalad: toward the head
    • Caudal: toward the feet, or “tail”
    • Superficial: toward the surface (skin) of the body
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 11. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d
    • Deep: toward the inside (core) of the body
    • Origin: the proximal attachment of a muscle or ligament
    • Insertion: the distal attachment of a muscle or ligament
    • Prone: describes the position of an individual lying face down
    • Supine: describes the position of an individual lying face up
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 12. Osteokinematics: Motion of bones relative to 3 cardinal planes
    • Planes of motion
      • Sagittal plane: left-right division
      • Frontal plane: front-back division
      • Horizontal (transverse) plane: top-bottom division
    • Anatomic position
    • Degrees of freedom
      • Number of planes of motion joint allows
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 13. Osteokinematics – cont’d
    • Axes of rotation
      • Anterior-posterior
        • e.g., hip abduction/adduction
      • Medial-lateral
        • e.g., elbow flexion/extension
      • Vertical (longitudinal)
        • Rotational movements, e.g., trunk rotation
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 14. Osteokinematics: Body Motions
    • Flexion
      • Motion of one bone approaching the flexor surface of another
    • Extension
      • An approximation of the extensor surfaces of two bones
    • Abduction
      • Frontal plane movement away from the midline
    • Adduction
      • Frontal plane movement toward the midline
  • 15. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Rotation: Bony segment spinning about its longitudinal axis of rotation
      • Internal rotation
        • Anterior bone surface rotates toward the midline
      • External rotation
        • Anterior bone surface rotates away from the midline 
    • Circumduction
      • A circular motion through two planes
  • 16. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Protraction
      • Translation of bone away from midline in a plane parallel to the ground
    • Retraction
      • Movement of a bony segment toward the midline in a plane parallel to the ground
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 17. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Horizontal adduction and abduction
      • Shoulder motions in the transverse plane
      • Horizontal adduction: hands come together
      • Horizontal abduction: extremities move away from midline
    • Pronation
      • Forearm movement that turns the palm posteriorly
    • Supination
      • Forearm movement that turns the palm anteriorly
  • 18. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Radial deviation
      • Lateral hand movement toward the radius
    • Ulnar deviation
      • Medial hand movement toward the ulna
    • Dorsiflexion
      • Sagittal plane ankle motion bringing the foot upward
    • Plantar flexion
      • Sagittal plane ankle motion pushing the foot downward
  • 19. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Inversion and eversion
      • Frontal plane motions of the ankle/foot complex
      • Inversion results in a medial-facing foot sole
      • Eversion results in a lateral-facing foot sole
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 20. Osteokinematics: It’s All Relative
    • Two perspectives of movement at a joint
    • Open-chain motion
      • Movement of distal segment of bone about a relatively fixed proximal segment
    • Closed-chain motion
      • Movement of proximal segment of bone about a relatively fixed distal segment
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 21. Arthrokinematics:
    • Arthrokinematics
      • Motion occurring between joint articular surfaces
    • Convex-concave joint relationship
      • Improves fit (congruency) and stability
      • Properly guides motion
    • Fundamental movements of arthrokinematics vary
      • Depend on whether concave articular surface is moving on a fixed convex surface or vice versa
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 22. Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces
    • Roll
      • Multiple points along one rotating articular surface contact multiple points on another articular surface
        • Ex: a tire rotating across a stretch of pavement
    • Slide
      • Single point on one articular surface contacts multiple points on another articular surface
        • Ex: a stationary tire skidding across a stretch of icy pavement
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 23. Arthrokinematics: Fundamental Movements between Joint Surfaces – cont’d
    • Spin
      • Single point on one articular surface rotates on a single point on another articular surface
        • e.g., rotating toy top spinning on one spot on the floor
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 24. Arthrokinematics: Mechanics and Functional Considerations
    • Roll-and-slide mechanics
      • Roll–and–opposite-direction slide maintains articular stability
      • To maintain firm surface contact, motion must be accompanied by slide in same direction
    • Spin mechanics
      • Spin always occurs about a central longitudinal axis of rotation
    • Functional considerations
      • Motion may be hindered by issues like impingement syndrome
  • 25. Kinetics
    • Branch of mechanics that describes the effect of forces on the body
    • Force
      • “ Push or pull” that can produce, modify, or halt a movement
        • Internal force is generated within the body
        • External force is generated outside the body
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 26. Kinetics: Torque
    • Torque is the rotational equivalent of force
    • Amount generated across a joint depends on:
      • Amount of force exerted
      • Distance between force and axis of rotation (moment arm)
    • Internal torques are generated internally (ex: muscle)
    • External torques are generated externally (ex: gravity)
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 27. Kinetics: Biomechanical Levers
    • First-class lever
      • Similar to a see-saw; fulcrum located between internal and external force
    • Second-class levers
      • Axis of rotation located at one end of the bony lever; internal moment arm always longer than the external moment arm
    • Third-class levers
      • Axis of rotation located at one end of the bony lever; internal moment arm always smaller than the external moment arm
  • 28. Kinetics: Line of Pull
    • Line of pull describes the direction of muscular force
      • Medial-lateral axis of rotation
        • Bony motion anterior of the sagittal plane
      • Anterior-posterior axis of rotation
        • Lateral motion pulls bone laterally
        • Medial motion pulls bone medially
      • Vertical axis of rotation
        • Anterior or medial pull produces inward rotation
        • Posterior or lateral pull produces rotation away from the midline
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 29. Homework
    • Read Chapter 2 : Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA prior to Tuesday 01/24/12 lecture at 9am.
    • Prepare for Quiz – 9am 01/24/12 (covering Chapters 1 and 2 of Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA )