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chapter 01 week 1 lecture 1

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  • 1. PTHA 1513 FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY Week 1: Lecture 1 Elaine Wilson, PT
  • 2. Today’s Theme Song 
    • Welcome to the Spring Semester!!!
  • 3. Goals for Today
    • Review the course syllabus
    • Define commonly used anatomic and kinesiologic terminolgy
    • Describe common movements of the body
    • Analyze the planes of motion and axes of rotation for common motions
  • 4. Syllabus Review
  • 5. Expectations for Functional Anatomy
  • 6. CHAPTER 1 Basic Principles of Kinesiology
  • 7. Kinematics
    • Translation
      • Rectilinear motion (straight line)
      • Curvilinear motion (curved line)
    • Rotation (movement of body about an axis)
    • Active movements
      • e.g., flexing an arm over the head
    • Passive movements
      • e.g., resistance of a stretched ligament
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 8. Kinesiology Terminology
    • Anterior: toward the front of the body
    • Posterior: toward the back of the body
    • Midline: an imaginary line that courses vertically through the center of the body
    • Medial: toward the midline of the body
    • Lateral: away from the midline of the body
    • Superior: above, or toward the head
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 9. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d
    • Inferior : below, or toward the feet
    • Proximal: closer to, or toward the torso
    • Distal: away from the torso
    • Cephalad: toward the head
    • Caudal: toward the feet, or “tail”
    • Superficial: toward the surface (skin) of the body
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 10. Kinesiology Terminology – cont’d
    • Deep: toward the inside (core) of the body
    • Origin: the proximal attachment of a muscle or ligament
    • Insertion: the distal attachment of a muscle or ligament
    • Prone: describes the position of an individual lying face down
    • Supine: describes the position of an individual lying face up
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 11. Osteokinematics
    • Planes of motion
      • Sagittal plane: left-right division
      • Frontal plane: front-back division
      • Horizontal (transverse) plane: top-bottom division
    • Anatomic position
    • Degrees of freedom
      • Number of planes of motion joint allows
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 12. Osteokinematics – cont’d
    • Axes of rotation
      • Anterior-posterior
        • e.g., hip abduction/adduction
      • Medial-lateral
        • e.g., elbow flexion/extension
      • Vertical (longitudinal)
        • Rotational movements, e.g., trunk rotation
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 13. Osteokinematics: Body Motions
    • Flexion
      • Motion of one bone approaching the flexor surface of another
    • Extension
      • An approximation of the extensor surfaces of two bones
    • Abduction
      • Frontal plane movement away from the midline
    • Adduction
      • Frontal plane movement toward the midline
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 14. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Rotation
      • Bony segment spinning about its longitudinal axis of rotation
      • Internal rotation
        • Anterior bone surface rotates toward the midline
      • External rotation
        • Anterior bone surface rotates away from the midline 
    • Circumduction
      • A circular motion through two planes
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 15. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Protraction
      • Translation of bone away from midline in a plane parallel to the ground
    • Retraction
      • Movement of a bony segment toward the midline in a plane parallel to the ground
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 16. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Horizontal adduction and abduction
      • Shoulder motions in the transverse plane
      • Horizontal adduction: hands come together
      • Horizontal abduction: extremities move away from midline
    • Pronation
      • Forearm movement that turns the palm posteriorly
    • Supination
      • Forearm movement that turns the palm anteriorly
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 17. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Radial deviation
      • Lateral hand movement toward the radius
    • Ulnar deviation
      • Medial hand movement toward the ulna
    • Dorsiflexion
      • Sagittal plane ankle motion bringing the foot upward
    • Plantar flexion
      • Sagittal plane ankle motion pushing the foot downward
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 18. Osteokinematics: Body Motions – cont’d
    • Inversion and eversion
      • Frontal plane motions of the ankle/foot complex
      • Inversion results in a medial-facing foot sole
      • Eversion results in a lateral-facing foot sole
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 19. Osteokinematics: It’s All Relative
    • Two perspectives of movement at a joint
    • Open-chain motion
      • Movement of distal segment of bone about a relatively fixed proximal segment
    • Closed-chain motion
      • Movement of proximal segment of bone about a relatively fixed distal segment
    Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
  • 20. Homework
    • Read Chapter 1 : Essentials of Kinesiology for the PTA prior to Thursday 01/19/12 course at 9am.