Geothermal Power Generation Final Year Project 2k9 Pakistan

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our aim is to deliver the idea of power generation to tackle the power energy crises and by this we can produce local clean and inexhaustible electricity in Pakistan and all over the world

our aim is to deliver the idea of power generation to tackle the power energy crises and by this we can produce local clean and inexhaustible electricity in Pakistan and all over the world

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  • Renewable Energy is energy that comes from resources which are continually replenished naturally such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower and tidal energy, plus biofuelsThese are grown and harvested without fossil fuelsNon-renewable Energy, such as coal and petroleum, require costly explorations and potentially dangerous and will become more expensive as supplies and demand increases
  • Himalayan Collision ZoneTurboto das & Darkot pass (Gilgit area) temp. ranges up to 910 oCGaramChashma where the subsurface temperature ranges from 850 oC to 2520 oC, based on silica and Na-K geo-thermometers respectively.The temperature estimated at Tattapani ranges from 93 to 1280 oC, and at Mashkinit is about 1690 oC by the Na-K-Ca geo-thermometer. On the other hand the silica geo-thermometer indicates temperatures from 51 to 970 oC at Tattapani, 860 oC at Mashkin and 400 oC at Sassi.Chagai Volcanic Arc The Chicken dik spring and Koh-e-Sultan springs are located chagai volcanic arc. The water temperature ranges from 25-320 oC. Indus Basin Margin In Karachi and Dadu areas there is a large concentration of thermal springs where the average surface temperature is 400 oC. The surface temperature of the springs in the Mangopir area at Karachi is 480 oC. In the Salt range area temperatures of the thermal springs are from 25-32 oC. The spring water is sulphurous and is known to have therapeutic value for skin disease.It is noted that most of them are considered to be mixed with non-thermal waters.
  • Dry Steam Power Plants180-225 ºC4-8 MPa (580-1160 psi)Can achieve 1 kWh per 6.5 kg of steamA 55 MW plant requires 100 kg/s of steamFlash Steam Power PlantsGenerate between 5 and 100 MWUse 6 to 9 tones of steam per hourBinary Cycle Power PlantsLow temps – 100o and 150oCUse heat to vaporize organic liquidE.g., iso-butane, iso-pentaneTypically 7 to 12 % efficient0.1 – 40 MW units common
  • Two wires of different metal alloys.Converts thermal energy into electrical energy.Requires a temperature difference between measuring junction and reference junction.Easy to use and obtainTemperature RangeIts temperature range is -180 oC to 1300 oC.Nikal or platinum Wire wound around an insulator it is positive temperature Range of Pt100: –200° C to +850° C

Transcript

  • 1. 1/35
  • 2. 2/35 M. Faizan Mughal, Umair Khaliq, Tasswar Hussain, Arshad Mehmood Contact: umairkhaliq24@gmail.com Supervisor: Mukhtar Ahmed DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING SWEDISH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY WAH CANTT JULY 2013 GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION Final Year Project
  • 3. 3/35 Introduction Renewable Energy Vs. Non-Renewable Energy [1]
  • 4. 4/35 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Geothermal Energy is energy stored in the form of heat beneath the surface of the solid earth. Geothermal production of energy is 3rd highest among renewable energies. It is behind hydro and biomass, but before solar and wind. Layers of Earth [2,3]
  • 5. 5/35 Geothermal in Pakistan  According to Alternative Energy Board of Pakistan, a global seismic belt passes through Pakistan and the country has a long geological history of geotectonic events. Two-third of Pakistan lies on fault lines
  • 6. 6/35 6
  • 7. 7/35 LOCATIONS OF GEOTHERMAL SPRINGS IN PAKISTAN LOCATIONS TEMPERATURES Himalayan Collision Zone Turboto das (Gilgit area) Darkot pas (Gilgit area) Garam Chashma Tatta pani Mashkin Sassi ranges up to 910 oC ranges up to 910 oC 850 oC to 2520 oC 51 to 970 oC 860 oC 400 oC Chagai Volcanic Arc Chicken dik spring Koh-e-Sultan springs 25-320 oC Indus Basin Margin (Karachi and Dadu areas) Mangopir area Salt range area 480 oC 25-32 oC Locations of Geothermal Resources in Pakistan [4]
  • 8. 8/35 GEOTHERMAL USAGE 1 : Direct Use  Geothermal heat is used directly rather than for power generation  For example space heating ,greenhouse heating, Bathing and swimming, Geothermal heat pumps  Extract heat from low temperature geothermal resources  < 150 oC or 300 oF.  Applications sited near source (<10 km)
  • 9. 9/35 GEOTHERMAL usage 2 : indirect use  Dry Steam Power Plants  Flash Steam Power Plants  Single flash  Double flash  Binary Cycle Power Plants  Combined Cycle Power Plants (Flash and Binary)
  • 10. 10/35 KEY FEATURES  There is no pollution  This mean of power generation is Emission free  Infinite source of heat energy  It is inexpensive and prices of electricity will be Stable  Base load energy supplies low-cost energy at constant rate in order to meet the region’s continuous energy demand.
  • 11. 11/35 OBJECTIVE  Working model of geothermal power generation  Power production to tackle the power energy crises  Get rid of use of fossil fuel  Great geothermal source potential in Pakistan  No practical work and productive plant yet
  • 12. 12/35 STEAM GENERATING ASSEMBLY SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE PRESSURE GAUGE TEMPERATURE SENSORS TURBINE GENERATOR POWER SUPPLY LOAD DIGITAL VOLT & CURRENT METER EXTERNAL WATER TANK WATER PUMP TEMPERATURE METER EXHAUST FANS WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER STEAM VALVE CONTROLLER PROJECT BLOCK DIAGRAM
  • 13. 13/35 Algorithmic diagram TURBINE GENERATOR VALVE CONTROLLER TEMPERATURE SENSOR STEAM GENERATING ASSEMBLY WATER PUMP & EXTERNAL RESERVOIR WATER LEVEL CONTROOLER & SENSOR SOLENOID VALVE SOLENOID VALVE If temperature is = > 85 ⁰ C on on If water level is less than the predefined level
  • 14. 14/35 Physical Diagram
  • 15. 15/35 • Steam generating assembly is assembled by the combination of following • equipments o Pressure cooker o Burnerpipe o Frame o Copper Pipe Steam generating assembly
  • 16. 16/35 FRAME  Material = iron  Shape= angle iron  Size = l*w* h= 4*3*3 (in feet)
  • 17. 17/35 PIPE  Material copper  Size 5/16 inch  Copper has high melting point (1023⁰C) and it does not get oxidized  Purpose  Steam and water flow
  • 18. 18/35 Temperature Sensors • Thermocouples (K-type) •Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
  • 19. 19/35 pressure gauge  Operating voltage  220 v  Control flow of water and steam  Scale  15psi (pounds per square inch) ~1 bar It shows the temperature of pressure cooker in degree centigrade. SOLENOID VALVE thermometer
  • 20. 20/35 TURBINE  Cross flow  No. of blades 24 blades  Blade size l*w=11cm* 1cm
  • 21. 21/35 generator  DC 12 Volt  RPM measured by using RPM meter  Voltage RPM  2 v 497 rpm  4 v 1200 rpm  8 v 2410 rpm  12 v 3420 rpm
  • 22. 22/35 EXHAUST FANS  Operating voltage 12 volt dc  7.8 watt  Operating voltage  220 volt ac  22 watt WATER PUMP
  • 23. 23/35 WATER LEVEL CONTROLLER  Check water level of steam generating assembly  Control water pump and solenoid valve
  • 24. 24/35 Water Level Controller
  • 25. 25/35 POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT  Power circuit takes 220v ac and step down to 24 volts which are further rectified and filtered by capacitor.  7812 IC is used to get 12v for exhaust fans.  7805 IC is used to get 5v for volt and ammeter.  Direct 220v ac is supplied to other circuitry.
  • 26. 26/35 Power Supply CIRCUIT 7812 7805 11 2 2 33 220 Vac 2200μF 20 pF 12 Vac
  • 27. 27/35 Steam Valve Controller TEMPERATURE METER C POWER SUPPLY 220 Vac SOLENOID VALVE (STEAM FLOW) 94kohm 47kohm 520ohm 12 Vdc RELAY 12 Vdc /220 Vac TEMPERATURE SENSORS
  • 28. 28/35 Project Wiring Diagram 220 Vac DC POWER SUPPLY STEAM VALVE STEAM VALVE CONTROLLER +5V +12V WATER VALVE WATER VALVE CONTROLLER WATER PUMP EXHAUST FAN GND TEMPERATURE METER VOLT AND AMMETER
  • 29. 29/35 PROJECT CALCULATION  At 7.5 psi pressure of steam , Generator produces 3.6 volt  RPM at 4 volt: 1200rpm
  • 30. 30/35 CONCLUSION  It can be seen that a number of thermal springs exist in Pakistan. Studies of these springs are far from complete.  It is suggested that detailed geochemical and radiometric studies should be carried out. After the data is collected of these springs is ascertained some of them can be developed as power generation plants as in China, France, USA and Iceland.
  • 31. 31/35 references  What is Geothermal Energy? Mary H. Dickson and Mario Fanelli, Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse , Pisa, Italy  [1] http://clilenergies.wikispaces.com/1.+Energy+and+sources+of+energy  [2] http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys2900/homepages/Marianne.Hogan/inside.html  [3] http://www.kentlaw.edu/faculty/fbosselman/classes/Spring2003/studentpresentations/Geoth ermalRobinson.ppt  [4] Investigation of Major Geothermal Fields of Pakistan Using Isotope and Chemical Techniques Manzoor Ahmad, Muhammad Rafiq, Naveed Iqbal, Waheed Akram, M. Azam Tasneem, Mubarik Ali Radiation and Isotope Application Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005 Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005
  • 32. 32/35 references  [5] An Overview of Geothermal Resources of Pakistan Malik Sikander Bakht Geological Survey of Pakistan 84, H-8/1, Islamabad, Pakistan. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2000 Kyushu - Tohoku, Japan, May 28 - June 10, 2000  [6] Geothermal Resources of Pakistan and Methods For Early Stage Exploration Mohammad Naseer Mughal Geological Survey of Pakistan, A.K. Directorate 65.B. Upper Chatter, Muzaffarabad AK, Pakistan Geothermal Training Programme, Orkuslofnun, Grensasvegur 9, IS-108 Reykjavik, Iceland  [7] The Economical, Environmental and Technological Evaluation of Using Geothermal Energy Mohammed Awwad Ali Al-Dabbas European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.38 No.4 (2009), pp 626-642 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009
  • 33. 33/35 references  [8] Geothermal Power Plant Projects in Central America: Technical and Financial Feasibility Assessment Model Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, School of Engineering and Natural Sciences University of Iceland, Reykjavík, 2012  [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermocouple  [10]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistance_thermometer  [11] http://janderson99.hubpages.com/hub/Excellent-Prospects-for-Geothermal-Power-in- Australia-America-and-Worldwide https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermistor http://www.personal.psu.edu/ked2/EE210/Temperature%20Measurement%20using%20sensors%20and%20signal%20conditioning.p pt http://oscar.iitb.ac.in/OSCARPP/Mechanical%20Engineering/UploadedStoryboards/SME030 1P0434Steam%20Turbine.ppt https://sites.google.com/site/ee535test/pavan-naga http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surface_condenser
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