+ Unit 3: Physical activity participation and physiological performance
+ Area of Study 1– Monitoring and Promotion of Physical Activity Assessment of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour
+ Lifestyle Diseases• Lifestyle diseases are those conditions usually attributed to dramatic shifts in the way humans live their lives, often due to advancements in a society or its scientific progress.• Most of these illnesses can be classed as caused by the way humans behave• Chronic diseases of lifestyle account for millions of deaths each year globally. These diseases share similar modifiable risk factors, including hypertension, tobacco smoking, diabetes, obesity and physical inactivity.
+ Top 10 Causes of Death Worldwide Based on data from World Health Organisation Fact Sheet No 310: 2008 World Deaths in Millions % of Deaths Coronary heart disease 7.2 12.2 Stroke and other 5.71 9.7 cerebrovascular diseases Lower respiratory infections 4.18 7.1 Chronic obstructive 3.02 5.1 pulmonary disease Diarrhoeal diseases 2.16 3.7 HIV/AIDS 2.04 3.5 Tuberculosis 1.46 2.5 Trachea, bronchus, lung 1.32 2.3 cancers Road traffic accidents 1.27 2.2 Prematurity and low birth 1.18 2.0 weight
+ WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. 2009
+ Physical Activity Measurement Physical activity measurement has several important uses, in informing the overall health promotion effort and is used in: • research, to understand the relationship between physical activity and a range of physical health and mental health outcomes. • the monitoring and surveillance of physical activity levels in and among populations. • understanding the correlates and determinants of physical activity, and to explain why some people or groups are more active than others. • measuring the impact and effectiveness of health promotion programmes and interventions designed to increase physical activity. • providing a sound and strong evidence base for broader initiatives in health promotion policy and practice.
+ Measurable Components of Physical Activity Physical activity is a set of complex physical behaviours, with possible measurements made of its duration, frequency, intensity or setting. • How often activity is undertaken: measures of frequency • Duration of physical activity per session: expressed as total time per day • Intensity of activity: activities may be classified as light, moderate or vigorous based on their assigned energy expenditure values („MET‟ values or Multiples of Basal Resting Energy) • Type: specific physical activity or sport performed • Domains or settings where the physical activity is performed: leisure time (organised – non organised), occupational, domestic, active commuting, incidental and sedentary.
+ Metabolic Equivalent (METS) Intensity METS Energy % Max HR Examples of Classification Expended Activities (kJ/min Low Intensity <3 <15 <50 Walking slowly, golf, gardening, household chores, sitting Moderate 3-6 15-30 50-70 Surfing, Intensity performing massage, social badminton Vigorous 7+ 30+ 70+ Australian rules intensity football, shovelling ditches, squash
+ National Activity Guidelines0 – 5 Years • 0 – 1 floor based play should be encouraged • 1 – 3 – should be physically active for at least three hours each day • 2 – 5 – sitting using electronic media should be limited to less than one hour per day
+ National Activity Guidelines5 – 12 Years • At least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate to vigorous intensity activity should be completed every day • no more than 2 hours per day should be spent using electronic media for entertainment
+ National Activity Guidelines 12 – 18 Years • At least 60 minutes (and up to several hours) of moderate to vigorous intensity activity should be completed every day • no more than 2 hours per day should be spent using electronic media for entertainment
+ National Activity Guidelines Adults 18 - 65 • Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience • Be active in as many ways as possible • Put together at least 30 mins of moderate intensity activity on most, preferably all, days • If possible enjoy some regular vigorous activity
+ National Activity Guidelines Older Adults 65+ • Continue to be active no matter what your age • Be active every day in as many ways as possible • Accumulate at least 30 mins of moderate intensity activity on most, preferably all, days • If commencing exercise for the first time begin gradually • If maintained activity levels continue to exercise at a safe level which you are capable of maintaining
+ Measuring Physical Activity Accurate assessment of physical activity is influenced by “behavioural reactivity” – in which the use of measurement tools can change physical activity behaviours. • Objective methods of data collection do not need the participant to process information and exists independently of what the participant thinks. Objective measures include:- - Direct observation - Pedometers - Accelerometers - Heart rate monitors • Subjective measures of data collection require some level of cognitive or perceptual processing by the participant to create the data. These measures require participants to think about, and record, information about their physical activity levels. Subjective measure include:- • Self Report include assessment methods such as interviews, diaries, logs and questionnaires and rely on people to estimate or recall their own activity level
+ • Accelerometers are electronic motion sensors that detect movement in a vertical plane as a combined function of the frequency and intensity of the movement. Movement counts are averaged over defined time frames, which are stored in memory and subsequently downloaded to a computer. Accelerometer
+ • Involves watching subjects behave in a particular environment such as homes, workplaces, parks or school yards. Direct Observation
+ • Heart rate monitors measures heart rate response to exercise which provides an indicator of activity that reflects physiological stress on the body. Heart Rate Monitors
+ • Pedometers assess the total number of steps taken and some models can estimate total distance travelled, time of total movement and energy expenditure. • The benchmark number of steps for achieving health benefits is 10,000 steps. Pedometers
+ • Self Report can be divided into two basic categories:- i. Recall based approaches - obtain actual information on activity on specific days. ii. General measures - focus on typical activity behaviour and often involve a series of questions about general activity patterns. • Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ) • International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ) Self Report