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Module 8a spirochetes


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  • 1. Spirochetes Spirochetes Mycoplasma Rickettsia & ChlamydiaMicrobiology HTL
  • 2. Spirochetesx Gram negative, motile, x Heterogenous group long helical corkscrew of motile organisms appearance x Contains one outerx spirochete flagella - sheath of endoflagella glycosaminoglycansx aerobic & facultative x Contains series of anaerobes cytoplasmic tubulesx reproduce by transverse (body fibrils) fissionMicrobiology HTL
  • 3. Spirochetes x Family Spirochaaetaceae ( free living, large spiral organisms ) x Family Treponemataceae – Genus Treponema – T. pallidum – Genus Borrelia – B. recurrentis – Genus Leptospira – L. interrogansMicrobiology HTL
  • 4. Treponema pallidum Subspecies Disease Pallidum Syphillis Pertenue Yaws Endemicum Endemic syphilis ( Bejel) Carateum PintaMicrobiology HTL
  • 5. Characteristics of Treponema x 0.2 um in diameter up to 15 um in length x Actively motile, rotating steadily around their endoflagella even after attaching to cells x Spirals are thin and only seen in immunofluorescent stain or darkfield microscopy x Can be stained with silver impregnation mtdMicrobiology HTL
  • 6. Culture x Has never been cultured continuously on artificial media, in fertile eggs, or in tissue culture x Nonpathogenic treponemes ( Reiter Stain ) can be cultured anaerobically in vitro x They are saprophyticMicrobiology HTL
  • 7. Growth characteristics x Microaerophilic organism x Survives best with 1-4% oxygen x Grows in a defined medium with 11 amino acids, vitamins, salts & serum albumin x Remain motile 3-6 days at 25 degrees, and in whole blood remain viable for at least 24 hours at 4 degrees  clinical significance in blood transfusionMicrobiology HTL
  • 8. Reactions & antigens x Killed by drying or temperature elevation (42 degrees) x Immobilized and killed by trivalent arsenic, mercury & bismuth x Slow killing time with penicillin, sometimes tolerance is demonstrated x Not culturable = hard to characterize antigens = more than 100 antigensMicrobiology HTL
  • 9. Syphillis x Acquired Syphillis x Congenital Syphillis – 10th to 15th fetal week x Nontreponemal antigen Test – (VDRL) x Treponemal Antibody test – Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody (FTA-ABS) – Particle Agglutination test – TP-PAMicrobiology HTL
  • 10. Trivia x Most common type of Syphilis is “Rabbit Syphilis” caused by T.cuniculi x Natural STD in rabbits producing minor lesions in the genitalia x Moral of the story: Doesn’t pay to be too sexually active like the rabbit! ( Hooray for bugs bunny )Microbiology HTL
  • 11. Microbiology HTL
  • 12. Borrelia x B. reccurrentis causes relapsing fever in epidemic form x Transmitted by the human body louse x Highly flexible and move by rotation & twisting x Stain readily with blood stains ( Wright’s & Giemsa stain )Microbiology HTL
  • 13. Culture & Growth x Cultured in media containing blood, serum, tissue x Rapidly loses pathogenicity for animal after repeated culture in vitro x Multiplication is quick in chick embryo x Can survive at 4 degrees in infected blood or cultureMicrobiology HTL
  • 14. B. burgdorferi x Causes lyme disease ( named after the place Lyme, CT ) x Isolated in children and transmitted thru the bite of a small ixodes tick x Characteristic skin lesion, erythema migrans, along with flu like symptoms with late manifestations often with arthritisMicrobiology HTL
  • 15. Microbiology HTL
  • 16. Leptospira & leptospirosis x L. interrogans causes leptospirosis which is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution x Contains more than 260 serotypes x Tightly coiled spirochete and not easily stainable ( silver impregnation) x No traditional method of classification due to high heterogeneityMicrobiology HTL
  • 17. Culture, growth & antigens x Grow best under aerobic conditions at 28-30 degrees in serum containing semi- solid media ( Fletcher’s or Stuarts media ) x Derives energy from oxidation of long chain FA & cannot use aminoacids and carbohydrates x Mainstream antigens are called serovars (many) with rodents & canine urine as main sourceMicrobiology HTL
  • 18. Microbiology HTL
  • 19. Mycoplasmax lack of cell wall x also causes rhinitis -x obligate intracellular nose of chickens & parasites & fermenters turkeysx colonies : fried egg x due to absence of cell appearance wall can squeeze thrux long spiral to perfectly small openings ,not round cocci filterable.x Mycoplasma pneumoniae – Penicillin & - atypical Streptomycin AbMicrobiology HTL
  • 20. Microbiology HTL
  • 21. Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (1)x Gram(-) bacteria which x R. typhi - endemic used to be grouped w/ typhus virus because of its size x R. rickettsi - Rockyx Chlamydia - 0.2 -0.7 u mountain spotted feverx Rickettsia - 0.3 - 1.0 u x Coxiella burnetti - Qx obligate intracellular fever parasites x Rickettsial diseases arex R. prowazekii - epidemic all systemic typhus x C. trachomatis -Microbiology HTL trachoma ( blindness)
  • 22. Rickettsia & Chlamydia: (2)x C. psittaci - psittacosis x Chlamydia has 2 cell (parrot fever) types:x Rickettsial pathogens are – Chlamydiospore- carried by arthropods elementary body (lice, ticks, mites) – Vegetative cell -x chlamydia are from reticulate body human to human x most importantx rickettsia reproduce by substance needed by simple division both from host isMicrobiology HTL ATP
  • 23. Microbiology HTL
  • 24. Microbiology HTL