There are hundreds of behaviors that serve as useful learning strategies. Stern’s classification of learning strategies divides learning strategies into five categories. Stern’s Categories:1. Management and Planning Strategies • Commitments/ Goals • Methodology/ Resources • Monitor/ Evaluate Progress • Example: Concrete Goal “I will speak only speak Spanish with my friends.”
2. Cognitive Strategies • Clarification/ Verification • Inductive/ Deductive Reasoning • Practice/ Memorization • Example: Making Flashcards 3. Communicative/ Experiential Strategies • Gesturing • Paraphrasing • Asking for Repetition/ Explanation 4. Interpersonal Strategies • Interact with Native Speakers • Become Familiarized with Target Culture • Example: Study Abroad
5. Affective Strategies• Recognizing and Overcoming Emotional Obstacles• Building Self Confidence• Forming Positive Relationships with Language, Culture, and Learning Activities.• Example: “If I spend one hour talking to my language partner I will go to a movie tonight as a reward.”
Use a variety of learning strategies. Are aware of why and how they use their learning strategies. Select language strategies that work well together and tailor them to the required task. •Less aware of strategies they use •Less effective learners apply strategies at random
Studies have shown that strategy training is frequently successful but isn’t always as effective in some skill sets as it is in others. The most effective strategy training is explicit and learners are told exactly which behaviors are likely to be helpful. Blind training, where students are led to strategies without realizing it is less successful. Strategy training works best when it is woven into regular class activities.
In order to teach learning strategies teachers have to learn about the student’s, their interests, motivations, and learning styles. Teachers should analyze lesson plans to see if they use a variety of learning styles and strategies. Teacher should be aware of whether his strategy training is implicit, explicit, or both and if there are different ways for learners to approach tasks.
Learning Strategies- http://www2.elc.polyu.edu.hk/CILL/strategy .htm Language Learning Strategies in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching- http://iteslj.org/Articles/Hismanoglu- Strategies.html