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  • 1. A. Computer Basics Unit Objectives: 1.01-1.04 1.00 Examine the Role of Hardware and Software. Updated 08/2009 - BH
  • 2. What Is A Computer?
    • An electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result (output).
    • A collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed).
  • 3.
      • These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1.
        • Called the binary system.
        • Combining bits (0 and 1), you can
        • represent any character or number.
  • 4. Benefits of Using Computers
    • Error-free calculations
    • Speed
    • Flexibility
    • Storage
    • Consistency and repetition
  • 5. What Is A Computer System?
    • Hardware : the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as:
        • Computer Case
        • Monitor
        • Keyboard and Mouse
        • Disk Drive
        • Speakers
  • 6.
    • Software : the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs.
    • Two types of software
      • Application
      • System Software
  • 7. Types of Computers
    • Supercomputer: most powerful - Used to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellites
    • Mainframes and Minicomputers :
    • Used by business and government to process large amounts of information
  • 8.
    • Personal computers: smaller and less powerful than the other types of computers
        • Desktop
        • Notebook or Tablet
        • Laptop
  • 9. Personal Computers
    • Desktop computer : designed to be used on a desktop.
    • Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable.
    • Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap.
  • 10.
    • Web TV : provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer.
      • Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data.
    Additional Types of Computers
  • 11.
    • PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC.
      • May have a special keyboard, some use a pen or stylus for entering data
      • - Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computer
  • 12. Data Communications
    • The technology that enables computers to communicate.
    • The transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another.
    • Popular examples: Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes, and electronic or online banking
  • 13.
    • Four components:
      • Sender : the computer that is sending the message.
      • Receiver : the computer receiving the message.
      • Channel : the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic)
      • Protocol : the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent.
  • 14.
    • When computers are connected to other computers
    • They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers)
    • Two Types: Local-Area and Wide-Area
    Network
  • 15.
      • Local Area Networks (LAN):
      • Computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department.
      • The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server.
  • 16.
      • Wide Area Networks (WAN):
      • When local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.
  • 17.
    • The microprocessor, the brains of the computer. Referred to a CPU or processor
      • Housed on a tiny silicon chip
      • Chip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions.
    Central Processing Unit
  • 18.
        • CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software).
      • CPU has two primary sections:
        • Arithmetic/logic unit
        • Control unit
  • 19.
    • Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU):
    • - Performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks.
      • - Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division.
      • - Logical operations involve comparisons.
  • 20.
    • Control Unit : is the “boss” and coordinates all of the CPU’s activities.
      • Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor.
        • We communicate with the computer through programming languages.
          • Examples: COBOL, C++, HTML, Java Script or VisualBasic.net
  • 21.
    • Memory
    • Found on the motherboard
        • Short term
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
        • Long term
    • Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • 22.
    • Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • Memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips. Known as the main memory .
    • This memory is considered volatile.
      • The computer can read from and write to RAM.
  • 23.
      • When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears.
      • “ Temporary Memory” – Short Term
  • 24.
      • Read-Only Memory (ROM)
      • Memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored.
        • This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip.
  • 25.
        • The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off.
        • Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer.
        • “ Permanent Memory” – Long Term
  • 26.
    • Basic Controllers:
    • On the motherboard, a device that controls the transfer of data from the computer to a peripheral device and vice versa.
    • Generally stored on one single chip.
    • Examples: keyboards, mouse, monitors, and printers
  • 27.
    • Serial and Parallel Ports
    • Used to connect our peripheral devices to the computer; usually one serial and one parallel port on a computer.
        • Serial devices transmit data one bit at a time. A modem may be connected to this port.
        • Parallel devices transfer several bits at a time. A printer may be connected to this port.
  • 28.
    • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    • A new standard that supports data transfer rates of up to 12 million bits per second.
    • A single USB port can be used to connect up to 127 peripheral devices
    • Expected to replace serial and parallel ports in the near future.
  • 29.
    • Expansion Slots
    • An opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted.
      • Examples: Additional Memory, video cards, modem cards, and sound cards .
  • 30. How Does A Computer Process Data?
    • PC system case – the metal and plastic case that houses the main system components of the computer.
    • Central to all of this is the motherboard or system board that mounts into the case.
  • 31.
      • Motherboard
      • Is a circuit board (a thin plate or board that contains electronic components) that contains many integral components.
  • 32. Data Representation
    • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
    • The most popular and widely used standardized coding system
  • 33.
    • Byte
    • Eight bits or combinations of ones and zeros represent a character.
    • Example: 00000001 =1 or 00001010 - 10
    • KB-Kilobyte roughly 1 thousand bytes
      • MB-Megabyte roughly 1 million bytes
      • GB-Gigabyte roughly 1 billion bytes
      • TB-Terabyte roughly 1 trillion bytes
  • 34. Input, Output, & Storage Devices
    • Input device : hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer.
    • Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user
    Input/Output - Storage device : hardware that allows you to store or retrieve information
  • 35. Computer Input Devices
    • Keyboard
    • Mouse/Trackball
    • Joystick
    • Light pen
    • Pointing Stick
    • Touchpad
    • Touch screen
    • Bar code reader
    • Scanner
    • Microphone
    • Graphics Tablet
    • Digital Cameras
  • 36. Computer Output Devices
    • Monitor : screen that display information such as text, numbers, and pictures-softcopy.
    • Printer : gives you information from the computer in printed form – hardcopy.
    • Speakers : allow you to hear voice, music, and other sounds from your computer.
    • Modem : allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers.
  • 37. Three Types of Printers
    • Dot Matrix
      • Gives a printed image in a pattern (matrix) of tiny ink dots.
        • Less expensive and not as clear
    • Inkjet Printer
      • Better quality of printed document
        • Machine uses an ink cartridge and a printing element to print a finer image on the paper.
  • 38.
    • Laser
    • Best quality of printed documents
        • Laser beam and an ink toner cartridge are used to produce the images.
        • More expensive
        • Quick
  • 39. Storage Devices
    • Magnetic storage devices use oxide-coated plastic storage media called mylar.
    • As the disk rotates in the computer, an electromagnetic read/write head stores or retrieves data in circles called tracks.
  • 40.
      • Tracks are numbered from the outside to the inside and as data is stored on the disk it is stored on one of these numbered track.
        • Each track is labeled and the location is stored in a log on the disk known as a file allocation table (FAT).
  • 41. Types of Storage Devices
    • Hard Disk Drive
    • Used to store data inside of the computer
    • Magnetic platter that holds a large amount of information in a form the computer can understand.
  • 42.
        • Accessing data is faster
        • Amount of data that can be stored is much more than what can be stored on a floppy disk.
        • Size of Hard drive is measured in megabytes or gigabytes.
  • 43.
      • Floppy Disk
      • Flat circles of iron oxide-coated plastic enclosed in a hard plastic case.
      • Most are 3 ½ inches and have a capacity to hold 1.44 MB or more of data.
  • 44.
      • Zip Disk
      • Capable of storing tremendous amounts of information
      • They are only the size of a 3 inch disk but can hold as much as 1 gigabyte of data
  • 45. Types of Storage Devices
    • Magnetic Tape Drives
    • Used for making backup copies of large volumes of data.
        • Very slow
        • Can be used to replace data that may have been lost on the hard drive
        • Look similar to audio tapes.
        • Holds more than Floppy
  • 46.
    • Optical Discs
    • Use laser technology to read and write data on silver platters
      • Compact Disk (CD) can store 650MB to 800MB of information and data. CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) can only read data from a CD-ROM.
      • You can store data on a CD only if you have a CD Burner and CD-R (writable) or CD-RW (rewritable) CD.
  • 47.
      • DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) is the size of a regular CD and can be played in a regular CD or in a DVD movie player.
      • DVD can store 4.8GB to 8.0GB of information and data. DVD-ROM is readable only (a movie DVD).
      • You can store data on a DVD only if you have a DVD Burner and DVD+R/DVD-R (writable) or DVD-RW (rewritable) DVD.
  • 48. Systems Software
    • A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.
    • Enables all components of the computer system to communicate.
    • Operating System, Utility Programs, and Graphic User Interface (GUI).
  • 49. Systems Software
    • Operating System (OS):
    • Provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware.
      • Win 95/98/2000/XP/Vista
      • Mac System 6/7/8/9
  • 50.
    • Utility Programs
    • Help you perform housekeeping chores; complete specialized tasks related to managing the computer’s resources, file management, and so on.
    • GUI (Graphical User Interface)
    • Interface between the operating system and the user. Graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects.
  • 51. Application Software
    • Programs that work with the operating system software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work.
  • 52. Application Software Categories
    • Business
    • Communications
    • Graphics and Multimedia
    • Education and Reference
    • Entertainment and Leisure
    • Integrated Programs
  • 53. Business Software
    • Spreadsheet
      • Manipulate Numeric Data
      • Intersection of row and column is a cell
      • Grade Book, Financial Report
    • Database
      • Lets you set up an electronic filing systems
      • Sort and Search
      • Address book, Card Catalog
    Word Processing Create, edit, and print text documents Report, flyer, memo
  • 54.
    • Communications
      • Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers.
      • Exchange computer files and email
    • Graphics Software
      • Uses pictures or images to help communicate messages.
  • 55.
    • Multimedia
    • Combines text, graphics, animation, video, and audio.
    • Clip art
    • Graphical images to be added to documents
    • Desktop Publishing
    • Uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documents.
    • Newsletters and brochures
  • 56.
    • Education & Reference
      • Available on many topics
      • Easier
      • Quicker
      • AR, CCC, & Encyclopedia
    • Entertainment & Leisure
    • Fun
    • Games and simulations
    • Tests your skills
    • Interactive
  • 57. Integrated Software
    • Combine several software applications into one program.
    • Include: Work Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, & Communication
    • Examples: MS Works, MS OFFICE, & Lotus SmartSuite
  • 58. Proper Computer Care
    • Keep food and drinks away from the computer and keyboard.
    • Avoid dusty locations.
    • Use a surge protector.
    • Keep magnets Away.
  • 59.
    • Do not block vents on the CPU.
    • Avoid bright sunny locations.
    • Do not move the computer while it is in use.
    • Always exit programs properly.
    • Use a virus check program on a regular basis.
  • 60. Proper Diskette Care
    • Do not remove from drives while drive in running or light is on.
    • Avoid contact with magnets and electromagnetic fields.
    • Keep disks stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.
  • 61.
    • Keep protective metal slider in place.
    • Use a virus check program on a regular basis.
    • Avoid hot and cold locations.
    • Make a back-up copy of your programs and files.
  • 62. Proper CD or DVD Care
    • Keep CDs or DVDs stored in a clean, cool and dry place with a protective cover.
    • Avoid touching the back side of the CD or DVD; to avoid scratches.
    • Avoid hot and cold locations.
  • 63.
    • Make a back-up copy of your programs and files on CD or DVD.
    • Insert into CD or DVD Drive properly; label facing up.
    • Only write on CD’s or DVD;s with a proper marking Pen on a label or the correct side of the CD or DVD.
  • 64. Proper Care of Printers
    • Avoid cold, hot, and dusty locations.
    • Always use the correct ink or toner replacement.
    • Always have the proper printer cable connected to your computer.
  • 65.
    • Never pull paper out of a printer in motion.
    • Do not turn off the printer while printing.
    • Read the instruction manual before operating a printer.
    • Always use the proper type of paper in your printer.
  • 66. How to Maintain your Computer System
    • Start a notebook of information on your system.
      • Serial numbers
      • Vendor support telephone numbers
      • User IDs
      • Date and vendor for each equipment and software purchase.
      • Trouble log
  • 67.
    • Periodically review disk directories & delete unneeded files.
    • Make sure all plug-ins are secure at all times.
    • Turn off the power and disconnect the equipment form the power source before you open the inside of you computer.
  • 68.
    • Keep surrounding area dirt and dust free.
    • Back up files and data regularly.
    • Periodically defragment your hard disk.
    • Protect your system from computer viruses
    • Learn to use system diagnostic programs
  • 69. Ergonomics
    • The science of designing equipment for a comfortable and safe working environment.
    • Proper Computer Ergonomics
      • Sit up straight and lean forward slightly from the waist.
      • Keep your feet flat on the floor.
      • Your body should be about a hand’s length from the front of the keyboard and centered with the keyboard.
  • 70.
    • Place all materials you will type on the right side of the computer and supplies on the left side.
    • Keep any items you are not using off your desk.
    • Occasionally rest your eyes and take short breaks.
    • Avoid lights that cause glare on the monitor.
  • 71.
    • Keep your fingers on the home row keys and curved.
    • Keep your wrists up, not touching the keyboard or desk.
    • Focus your eyes on the book, copy or screen.
  • 72. Questions of the Day 1. Definition of Hardware 2. Definition Of Software 3. Definition of CPU 4. Definition of RAM 5. Information Processing Cycle (Draw the Cycle)