11th grade asessment benchmarks notes final

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11th grade asessment benchmarks notes final

  1. 1. FCAT Benchmark<br />CHEMISTRY<br />SC.A.1.4.3<br />The student knows that a change from one phase of matter to another involves a gain or loss of energy.<br />Phase changes<br />Heat of fusion<br />Gizmos: Calorimetry Lab Phase Changes<br />the sate of matter of a substance is determined by the motion of its particles and the strength of the attraction between the particlesSolidLiquidGas<br />Particles move more quickly when they have more kinetic energy. <br />not all the particles in a sample of matter have the same amount of energy<br />temperature is the average kinetic energy of a substance<br />thermal energy is the total kinetic and potential energy of all the particles in a sample of matter<br />heat is the transfer of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object is<br />when a substance is heated it gains thermal energy and the particles move faster<br />matter changes from one state to another when thermal energy is gained or lost<br />heat of fusion is the amount of energy required to change 1kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid (melting point) <br />increasing energy>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>><br /><<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<decreasing energy<br />During Phase change you can either absorb or release energy.<br />SC.A.1.4.4<br />The student experiments and determines that the rates of reaction among atoms and molecules depend on the concentration, pressure, and temperature of the reactants and the presence or absence of catalysts.<br />Catalyst<br />Pressure as a catalyst<br />Reaction rate<br />Surface area and rate of diffusion<br />Concentration<br />Factors Affecting Rate of Reactions<br />Gizmo:Collision Theory<br />CHEMICAL REACTIONS <br />Chemical formula – tells you what elements are in a compound and how many atoms of each<br />C6H12O6<br />Chemical reaction- the process of making or breaking the chemical bonds that link atoms and changing one substance into a different one<br />Chemical equation- convenient way of summarizing a chemical reaction<br />C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O <br />Reactants- the substances that take part in a chemical reaction<br />Products- the substances that are formed as a result of a chemical reaction<br />Metabolism- all the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in each cell<br />Activation energy- the amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction <br />Endothermic reactions- absorb energy<br />Exothermic reactions-give off energy<br />Factors that affect chemical reactions<br />Temperature- increasing the temperature makes atoms move faster increasing the rate of chemical reaction<br />Concentration- increasing the concentration of enzyme or substrates (reactants) increases the speed of chemical reactions<br />Pressure- increasing the pressure brings the atoms closer together increasing the rate of chemical reactions<br />pH- acidity/alkalinity- enzymes only work in narrow ranges of pH<br />Catalysts (enzymes)- a substance that increases the speed of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.<br /> <br />Enzyme- a protein that works as a biological catalyst <br />Substrate- the molecule on which the enzyme acts (reactant)<br />Active site- the part of the enzyme that attaches to the substrate<br />Enzymes work by reducing the activation energy needed to start a chemical reaction<br />The key to an enzyme’s activity is its shape. An enzyme is a protein with folds that create pockets or crevices that precisely fit the substrate<br />Enzymes:<br />Provide a surface for the reaction to take place<br />Puts stress on a bond to break it<br />Brings substrates close together in the right orientation for new bonds to fo<br />SC.A.2.4.5<br />The student knows that elements are arranged into groups and families based on similarities in electron structure, and that their physical and chemical properties can be predicted.<br />Electron configuration<br />Periodic Trends<br />Periodic table<br />Gizmos: Element Builder Electron Configuration Covalent Bonds<br />The Modern Periodic Table<br />Atomic number<br />The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. <br />In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged according to atomic number. <br />Atomic number increases by one as you move from element to element across a row. <br />Number of protons equals number of electrons<br />Atomic mass equals protons and neutrons in the nucleus<br />Isotopes- atoms of an element with differing number of neutrons<br />Electron orbital/shells/energy levels<br />electrons are arranged in orbitals around the nucleus<br />electrons are added to orbitals until they are full <br />when an orbital is full a new orbital begins to fill<br />1st orbital can hold up to two electrons<br />2nd and 3rd orbitals can hold up to 8 electrons in four pairs of 2<br />Groups/ families-each vertical column in the periodic table<br />All the atoms in a family have the same number of electrons in the outermost electron shell or valence electrons<br />For elements in Groups 1 and 2, the group number equals the number of valence electrons<br />For elements in Groups 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, the second digit in the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons. <br />The number of valence electrons in the outermost shell determines the chemical characteristics and behavior of an element<br />Because elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons, they have similar properties. <br />Noble gases- the elements in the last group of each period are inert(do not react) because they have full outer orbital (8 valence e-)<br />Periods- each horizontal row in the periodic table<br />each period starts with a new electron shell<br /> 13 14 15 16 17<br />Physical States and Classes of the Elements<br />Metals<br />The majority of the elements are metals. They occupy the entire left side and center of the periodic table.<br />Metals are elements that have luster, conduct heat and electricity, and usually bend without breaking. <br />All metals except mercury are solids at room temperature; <br />Metalloids<br />Metalloids are located in the “staircase” along the boundary between metals and nonmetals. <br />Metalloids have characteristics of both metals and nonmetals<br />A semiconductor is an element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal, but does conduct slightly better than a nonmetal.<br />Nonmetals<br />Nonmetals occupy the upper-right-hand corner. Most nonmetals don’t conduct electricity, are much poorer conductors of heat than metals, and are brittle when solid. <br />Many are gases at room temperature; those that are solids lack the luster of metals. <br />With the exception of carbon, nonmetals have five, six, seven, or eight valence electrons. <br />Ionic bonding- electrons are gained or lost (transferred) <br />Between a metal and a nonmetal<br />Groups 1, 2, 3 (metals) tend to give up their valence electrons to form positive ions (cations).<br />Groups 5, 6, 7 (nonmetals) tend to gain electrons to form negative ions (anions).<br />Covalent bonding - electrons are shared<br />Between nonmetals and nonmetals<br />ENERGY<br />SC.B.1.4.1<br />The student understands how knowledge of energy is fundamental to all the scientific disciplines (e.g. the energy required for biological processes in living organisms and the energy required for the building, erosion, and rebuilding of the Earth).,<br />Energy- the ability to do work (exert a force over some distance)<br />Types of Energy<br />Chemical: that part of the energy in a substance that can be released by a chemical reaction<br />Light: The only form of energy that you can see directly.<br />Radiant Energy: comes from the sun in electromagnetic light waves.<br />Heat: The energy of a material due to the random motion of its particles. Also called thermal energy. The word "heat" is used when energy is transferred from one substance to another.<br />Nuclear: Nuclear Energy is heat produced by nuclear fission. It is seen as a long term alternative to fossil fuels for power stations.<br />Sound: The energy that you can hear that travels in vibrating waves through the air.<br />Electrical: Energy of electrical charges as a result of their position or motion.<br />Mechanical: Energy an object has because of its motion (KE) or position (PE). ME = KE = PE.<br />Kinetic Energy: Comes from motion. Mathematical Formula: KE=1/2 mv2 (m= mass, v= speed)<br />Potential Energy: energy of position. PE = mgh (m= mass, g= gravitational acceleration 9.81m/s2, h= height)<br />Trophic level ITrophic level IITrophic level IIITrophic level IVThe Energy Pyramid: <br />Radiant energy from the sun is captured by the green plants (producers in trophic level I) transformed into chemical energy through photosynthesis and passed on through the various trophic levels. <br />The flow of energy is unidirectional i.e., non-cyclic. <br />Only 10% is passed from one trophic level to the next<br />The rest is lost in the form of heat at every stage in the atmosphere.<br />PHYSICS<br />SC.C.1.4.1<br />The student knows that all motion is relative to whatever frame of reference is chosen and that there is no absolute frame of reference from which to observe all motion. (Also assessesC.1.4.2 and C.2.4.6) acceleration<br />RELATIVE MOTION & ACCELERATION<br />Speed (m/s) = distance (d)/time(t)<br />Standing frame of reference: same direction (+) add; Opposite direction (-) subtract<br />Moving: same direction (-) subtract opposite direction: (+) add<br />Acceleration = (final velocity or speed – initial velocity or speed) / time<br />SC.C.2.4.1<br />The student knows that acceleration due to gravitational force is proportional to mass and inversely proportional to<br />the square of the distance between the objects.SC.C.2.4.1<br />GRAVITATIONAL FORCE<br />FORCE A quality that tends to produce movement or acceleration of a body on the direction of its application; a push or pull.<br />Gravity - a force of attraction between two masses.<br />1- Gravitational force of Earth on an object (falling)<br /> F= mgF= weight (N) m= mass g= gravitational acceleration of Earth = 9.81m/s2<br />2- Horizontal motion of a moving object (not gravity)<br /> F=MA force = mass x acceleration<br />3- Gravitational attraction between 2 objects both exerting the same attraction<br /> Gravitational Force: F= m1 m2/(d)2 <br />m= masses of objectsd= distance b/w the 2 objects<br />EARTH SPACE<br />S.C.D.1.4.1<br />The student knows how climatic patterns on Earth result from an interplay of many factors (Earth's topography, its rotation on its axis, solar radiation, the transfer of heat energy where the atmosphere interfaces with lands and oceans, and wind and ocean currents).<br />Climate- weather pattern of an area over long period of time (mainly affected by temperature and rainfall)<br />Factors that affect climate<br />Temperature- because the earth is a sphere sunlight hits the earth at different angles hits most directly at the equator so these regions are warmer<br />Because of the tilt of the earth different areas get different amounts of sunlight at different times of the year creating seasons<br />Seasons are more pronounced farther away from the equator<br />When the area, north of south hemisphere is tilted towards the sun it is summer, the days are longer and it is warmer<br />When an area is tilted away from the sun it is winter, days are shorter and temperatures are lower<br />Latitude- distance from the equator<br />Equator is 0, as you move away latitude increases and temperature decreases<br />Distance from bodies of water- ocean breeze causes cooler summers and milder winters<br />Mountains- affect rainfall patterns<br />As moist air from the coast rises it cools and falls as rain or snow<br />The side of the mountain near the body of water gets plentiful precipitation<br />Rain shadow- on the other side of the mountains the air is dry<br />Altitude- height above sea level. As altitude increases temperature decreases creating climate zones similar to those created by latitude<br />S.C.D.1.4.2<br />The student knows that the solid crust of Earth consists of slow-moving, separate plates that float on a denser, molten layer of Earth and that these plates interact with each other, changing the Earth's surface in many ways (e.g., forming mountain ranges and rift valleys, causing earthquake and volcanic activity, and forming undersea mountains that can become ocean islands).<br />The Earth is composed of five layers. <br />The crust is solid, while the mantle is like melted plastic. <br />Because the mantle is plastic-like and very hot, it can bend, flow, and move. <br />The Earth’s crust is solid but is broken into a number of large tectonic plates plus a number of smaller ones.<br />The tectonic plates are located right on top of the mantle. <br />Because the mantle can bend, flow, and move, the tectonic plates can also bend and move. Caused by convection currents.<br />PLATE TECTONICS<br />Divergent Boundary – moving apart (away from each other)<br />Continental – continental plate<br />Creates rift valleys on land. Example: east African rift valley <br />Oceanic- oceanic plate<br />Creates ridges in ocean (under water, volcanic mountains). Example: mid-Atlantic ridge <br />Shallow earthquakes<br />Convergent Boundary – moving towards each other<br />There are three types of convergent boundaries.<br />oceanic – oceanic<br />denser plate moves under the other subduction zone<br />deep ocean trenches, island arcs with volcanoes <br />oceanic –continental<br />The denser ocean floor moves underneath the continental crust. This is called a subduction zone. <br />The ocean crust is forced down, and subjected to very high pressure and temperature, destroying the crust & turning it back into molten rock. Creating composite volcanoes, trenches and large earthquakes that can produce tsunamis.<br />continental-continental<br />plates are about the same density highly deformed and folded rock is forced upward creating mountain ranges, Mt Everest<br />Transform Fault Boundary – moving past each other<br />Transform-Fault Boundaries move laterally. <br /> When pressure builds and releases, we experience a strong Earthquake. <br />One of the most active Transform-Fault boundaries is the San Andreas Fault in California.<br />Hot spots <br />Volcanoes that form in the middle of a plate are called “hot spot”.<br />Most volcanoes form along plate boundaries<br />Occur when the oceanic plate moves over a “hot spot”, magma pushes through the lithosphere forming volcanic mountains. Examples of a “hot spot” are the Hawaiian Islands.<br />SC.D.2.4.1<br />The student understands the interconnectedness of the systems on Earth and the quality of life. (Also assesses SC.G.2.4.4)<br />Threats to ecosystem that can cause erosion<br />Threats to ecosystemLogging Overgrazing IrrigationOil extract Desserts Grassland Rainforest Tundra’s <br />Air pollution affects the following:<br />Global Warming is the increase in Earth’s average surface temperature.<br />Cuased mainly by Carbon Dioxide<br />One result of air pollution is global warming. <br />Humans cause global warming by burning the fossil fuels. <br />Levels of carbon dioxide are also increased by deforestation and cement production. <br />Ozone Depletion is the depletion of the layer that exists in the atmosphere and absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun.<br />Caused by CFC’s<br />Acid Precipitation is precipitation with a pH of less than 5.0<br />SC.E.1.4.1<br />The student understands the relationships between events on Earth and the movements of the Earth, its moon, the other planets, and the Sun. (Also assesses SC.E.1.4.2 and SC.E.1.4.3)<br />Day/night: caused by the east to west rotation of Earth every 24h<br />Seasons<br />Caused by <br />tilt of the Earth on imaginary axis (23.5o from vertical) <br />Daylight hours changes depending on time of year<br />Sunlight strikes the Earth at different angles<br /> revolution around the sun (365 days)<br />Revolutionary path (orbit) around the sun is an elliptical<br />The point at which the Earth is closest is called its perihelion & aphelion is pt farthest away <br />Revolutionary distance does not cause the seasons. . It is the way the Earth revolves around the sun that affects the angle of the Earth to the Sun<br />Equinox- when the sun is directly overhead at the equator<br />Equal daylight and nighttime hours (12h).<br />occurs twice a year (spring and autumn) <br />Solstice- point at which the Sun is at its greatest distance north or south of the equator (see pic ) <br />Longest day (summer June 21) shortest day (winter December 21)<br />Occurs twice a year when the Earth’s axis is pointed toward the sun or away from the sun.<br />NewCrescentCrescentFirst quarterThird quarterFullGibbousGibbousWaxing --------------------------------------------->Waning ---------------------------------------------><br />Moon phases – differences in the appearance of the moon due to change in position relative to the Earth & Sun.<br />Moon rotates east to west around its axis and revolves around the Earth in 27.3 days <br />One Moon rotation = 1 revolution around Earth therefore same side of the Moon always faces Earth<br />Waxing- the sunlit part of the moon gets larger<br />Waning- the sunlit part of the moon gets smaller<br />Eclipses<br />Solar Eclipse – Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun covering the Sun and casting a shadow on Earth.<br />Only occur during a new moon phase.<br />Happen in the daytime<br />Lunar Eclipse- Earth is between the Sun and Moon, blocking sunlight and casting a shadow on the moon. <br />Only occur during a full moon.<br />Happen at nighttime.<br />Umbra – darkest shadow penumbra- lightest shadow<br />Tides – huge wave produced by gravitational pull among Earth, Moon, Sun (height= 1-2 m, length= 1000+ km)<br />High tide- top of wave reaches shore <br />Low tide – trough of the wave approaches the shore & water recedes<br />Spring tides- Sun, Earth, Moon in straight line<br />High tides are higher than normal, low tides are lower than normal<br />Neap tides – Sun, Earth, & Moon form a right angle<br />High & low tides are weak<br />BIOLOGY<br />SC.F.1.4.1<br />The student knows that the body processes involve specific biochemical reactions governed by biochemical principles. (Also assesses SC.F.1.4.3 andSC.F.1.4.5)<br />Enzymes see SC.A.1.4.4<br />Photosynthesis<br />H2O + CO2 + ENERGY (sunlight)--------------------- C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2<br />Cellular respiration<br />C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2 -------------------------- H2O + CO2 + ENERGY (ATP)<br />Concentration gradients Cell membrane functions<br />Organic compounds always contain carbon and hydrogen.<br />Inorganic compounds typically lack carbon.<br />Carbon can share 4 electrons or make 4 bonds <br />Macromolecules are polymers consisting of many small repeating molecules.<br />The smaller molecules are called monomers.<br />Carbohydrates (sugars and starches)<br />Units sugars made of C, H, and O with a ratio of (C1H2O1)<br />Functions structure and as energy sources.<br />Kinds <br />Sugars<br />Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides <br />Polymers of glucose <br />Starch- how plants store energy<br />Glycogen- how animals store energy<br />Cellulose – structural function in plants<br />Lipids (fats, oils, steroids)<br />Nonpolar and insoluble in water.<br />Simple lipids<br />Units- fatty acids made of C, H, and O.<br />Functions components of cell membranes.<br />Kinds<br />fats or triglycerides contain glycerol and fatty acids;<br />Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acids.<br />Complex lipids<br />Functions cell membranes phospholipids<br />Steroids<br />Made of Four carbon rings<br />Part of membranes.<br />Proteins<br />Units - amino acids.<br />Function- cell structure and function.<br />Kinds <br />Muscle tissue-<br />Enzymes - proteins that speed chemical reactions.<br />Transporter - proteins move chemicals across membranes.<br />Nucleic Acids<br />Units - nucleotides.<br />Nucleotides consist of a:<br />Pentose sugarPhosphate groupNitrogen-containing base (purine or pyrimidine)<br />Kinds<br />DNA RNA<br />MOVEMENT ACROSS CELL MEMBRANE<br />Concentration is the amount of solute in a solvent<br />Concentration gradient: <br />more solute in 1 part of a solvent than another<br />Diffusion- movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration<br />Osmosis- movement of water across a semipermeable membrane<br />Passive transport- movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy down a concentration gradient<br />Diffusion – through membrane <br />Facilitated diffusion- through carrier proteins<br />Active transport- transport of substances across the membrane requiring <br />energy and going against the concentration gradient <br />SC.F.2.4.3<br />The student understands the mechanisms of change (e.g., mutation and natural selection) that lead to adaptations in a species and their ability to survive naturally in changing conditions and to increase species diversity. (Also assesses SC.D.1.4.4 and SC.F.1.4.2)<br />Evolution- the process of change over time as a result of natural selection.<br />Genetic equilibrium – genetic makeup is the same, population is not evolving (impossible in nature)<br />Evolution can occur due to the following: <br />Natural Selection- change in population caused by the reproduction and survival of organisms with favorable variations (better adaptation).<br />Variations passed to the next generation.<br />There are three types of natural selection;<br />Stabilizing selection- favors average individuals in a population (common traits)<br />Directional selection – favors one of the extreme variations of a trait<br />Disruptive selection- favors any of the extreme variations of a trait. <br />Mutation- <br />Can be caused by environmental factors (radiation, chemicals) or by chance.<br />Evidence of evolution:<br />Fossils & where they are found<br />Anatomy of organisms- organisms evolved from a common ancestor<br />Homologous structures: body structures similar in arrangement, function, or both.<br />Does not always mean that the species are related ex: whale forelimb, bird wing<br />Analogous structures: structures that did not evolve from a common ancestor but are similar in function:<br />The wing of a butterfly and the wings of birds are similar in function but not in structure and they do not have a common origin.<br /> MitosisMeiosisResults in2 Diploid Cells (2N)4 Haploid Cells (N)Cells areGenetically IdenticalGenetically DifferentOccurs inSomatic (Body) CellsSex CellsOccurs inSomatic (Body) CellsSex Cells<br />Haploid – 1 set of chromosomes<br />–Example: the humans have 23 different chromosomes (n=23).<br />Diploid – 2 sets of chromosomes<br />-Human diploid cells, have 46 chromosomes (2n=46).<br />Homologous – same chromosomes that each came from the opposite sex parent <br />chromatids - identical copies <br />Mitosis: Purpose is to preserve chromosome number.<br />Meiosis: Purpose is to create haploid gametes (sperm and egg), and to create new genotype combinations<br />A process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.<br />The Cell Cycle<br />Interphase<br />G1 <br />SDNA is Replicated<br />G2<br />Mitosis – division of the nucleus and chromosomes<br />prophase- preparation<br />metaphase- middle<br />anaphase- apart<br />telophase- terminate<br />cytokinesis- division of the cell and cytoplasm<br />Meiosis usually involves 2 distinct stages<br />Meiosis I<br />Meiosis II<br />DNA AND RNA<br />• DNA is composed of nucleotides and is shaped like a double helix.<br />• A nucleotide has three parts: a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous <br /> base.<br />• Bases always form complementary base pairs: <br />adenine binds with thymine, and <br />cytosine binds with guanine.<br />Replication - Complementary base pairing enables DNA to replicate, or copy itself.<br />DNA Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine Deoxyribose Phosphate<br />RNA Adenine Guanine Cytosine Uracil RibosePhosphate <br />Genes, sections of DNA that code for a specific trait, are linked together on chromosomes.<br />PROTEIN SYNTHESIS<br />protein synthesis- process of manufacturing proteins<br />• Protein synthesis occurs in two stages: transcription and translation.<br />• Transcription is the process by which information is copied from DNA into a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA).<br />• Translation is the process by which the information from nucleic acids is coded for amino acids.<br />messenger RNA- carries coded instructions for protein synthesis<br />ribosomal RNA- makes up the ribosome with other proteins<br />transfer RNA- brings amino acids to the ribosome in the correct order to build new proteins<br />codon- section of three bases in mRNA that code for an amino acid<br />anticodon- section of three bases in tRNA that code for an amino acid<br />MUTATIONS<br />• A random change in an organism’s DNA is a mutation. <br />A mutation can be beneficial, but it is usually harmful to or has no effect on the organism<br />DNA mRNA ribosomes + tRNA + amino acids = proteins<br />INHERITANCE<br />genetics, the scientific study of heredity<br />Since sexual reproducing organisms have two parents, then they have two forms of the same gene – one from each parent<br />alternate forms of genes are called alleles<br />If both alleles from each parent are the same, then it is said to be homozygous (dominant or recessive)<br />If they are different, then it is said to be heterozygous<br />An individual’s genetic make-up is known as the genotype<br />The physical characteristics resulting from an individual’s genetic make-up is known as the phenotype.<br />Dominant genes-In cases in which two or more forms (alleles) of the gene for a single trait exist, some forms of the gene may be dominant and others may be recessive.<br />The dominant gene is the one that is expressed.<br />Incomplete dominance- effect of 2 alleles are combined <br />Heterozygous phenotype is blend between the two homozygous phenotypes<br />ex: red + white flowers = pink<br />Co-dominance- both traits are fully expressed <br />ex: AB blood type<br />NATURAL SELECTION<br />Natural selection; is the mechanisms for evolution. <br />is the process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than do other individuals.<br />Genetic Variation is the source of Natural Selection<br />DNA is the blue-print for building ALL living things on planet Earth<br />DNA sequences are changed by random mutations, <br />radiation, viruses, chemicals, sexual reproduction, migration, geological events, etc.<br />Mutation: change in an organisms DNA, replaces an allele with a new version.<br />As a result there is variation within populations of a species.<br />Those individuals of a particular species with a phenotype (as a result of their genotype) that is more fit to survive in a given environment has a better chance to reproduce.<br />Those individuals who reproduce more pass-on their genes at a higher frequency than those who do not.<br />As time passes, populations change through time….they evolve!<br />Evolution is the process of change over time as a result of natural selection<br />Evolutionary fitness: contribution of an individual (phenotype) to the next generation. Reproductive success.<br />SC.G.1.4.1<br />The student knows of the great diversity and interdependence of living things. (Also assesses SC.G.1.4.2)<br />Ecology- the science that studies living things and how they interact with their environment<br />Biotic factors- living things in the environment<br />Abiotic factors- nonliving things in an environment: Soil, rain, temperature, light, wind, latitude<br />.BiomesEcosystem- Community - BioticPopulation Organisms Cells ChemicalBIOSPHEREbiotic, and abiotic<br />Levels of organization<br />Individuals- one organism<br />Population- all the individuals of a single species in an area<br />Community- all the populations that live and interact with each other in one environment<br />Ecosystem- all the populations and the abiotic factors in an area<br />Biomes- large areas of similar ecosystems with similar climate, rainfall, temperature etc. and the plants and animals that are adapted to these conditions<br />Biosphere- the regions of the earth that support life. From the depths of the ocean to about 8 km into the atmosphere<br />Habitat- the type of environment in which a species lives and which it is adapted to<br />Energy flow through food chains<br />All organisms contain energy.<br />Producers (autotrophs) get energy from the sun.<br />Photo synthesizers: Produce energy from the sun. (Ex: plants algae) self feeders.<br />Consumers (heterotrophs) get energy from other organisms<br />3 common types of consumers<br />Herbivores – eat only plants<br />Carnivores – eat other animals (meat)<br />Omnivores – eat plants and animals (everything)<br />How the food pyramid is arranged:<br />Tertiary: Least amount of energy<br />Secondary consumer: has more energy then the tertiary, usually consists of carnivores<br />Primary consumers: have more energy then the secondary but are typically herbivores<br />Producers: the most energy and usually receive their energy from the sun.<br />Every step up looses energy. ONLY 10% goes into each level. 90% of the energy is used by organisms life process.<br />Food Webs consist of many overlapping food chains.<br />Biodiversity is the variety of life in an ecosystem<br />When many species contribute to the survival of many others, this makes the ecosystem stable.<br />SC.G.2.4.2<br />The student knows that changes in a component of an ecosystem will have unpredictable effects on the entire system but that the components of the system tend to react in a way that will restore the ecosystem to its original condition. (Also assesses SC.B.1.4.5 and SC.G.2.4.5)<br />Succession<br />Ecological succession- process through which a series of new communities in an ecosystem gradually replace existing ones<br />Causes:<br />Natural disturbances: earthquakes, floods fires, volcanic eruptions etc.<br />Human activities: mining, logging, construction, farming, abandoned land<br />Primary succession- the series of changes during the process in which a new community arises in an area where none existed before<br />Ex. area where there has been a volcanic eruption an there is no soil or life<br />Secondary succession- the series of changes in the development of a new community in a previously occupied habitat that has been cleared of living things by a disturbance but in which soil remains.<br />Ex. Abandoned farmland, forest fire<br />Pioneer community- first organisms to occupy an area during succession<br />Climax community- the final organisms that become established in an ecosystem that encounter little ecological succession <br />SCIENTIFIC METHOD<br />SC.H.1.4.1<br />The student knows that investigations are conducted to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts and to compare different theories. (Also assesses SC.H.1.2.1, SC.H.1.2.2, SC.H.2.4.2, SC.E.2.4.6, and SC.E.2.4.7)<br />SC.H.2.4.1<br />The student knows that scientists assume that the universe is a vast system in which basic rules exist that may range from very simple to extremely complex, but that scientists operate on the belief that the rules can be discovered by careful, systematic study.<br />Experimental design<br />Data Analysis<br />Drawing conclusions<br />Hypothesis<br />Communicating results<br />Repetition<br />Scientific theories<br />The scientific Method:<br />Is a way of going about to figure things out.<br />Science is an ONGOING process.<br />Steps to the scientific method.<br />Ask question<br />Gather info<br />Form a hypothesis<br />Set controlled experiment<br />Record/analyze results<br />Draw conclusion<br />Repeat<br />Theory: a well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations<br />Write down procedure step by step and always include a material list. Include quantity.<br />Manipulating / independent variable: variable that changes<br />Responding / dependent variable: variable that is observed<br />Control is the group that represents the standards. (Standard comparison)<br />Constants: materials that are kept the same/repeated throughout test groups<br />Data: information gathered<br />SC.H.3.4.2<br />The student knows that technological problems often create a demand for new scientific knowledge and that new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend their research in a way that advances science. (Also assesses SC.H.3.4.5 and SC.H.3.4.6)<br />Applications of new technology<br />Research technologies<br />Models- represent an idea, object or event that cannot be submitted to experimentation.<br />Simulate very large/small phenomena ex hurricanes, DNA, stars, planets, and cells<br />Technology – application of science to improve the quality of life.<br />Gene therapy<br />Artificial valves<br />Electronics<br />robotics<br />

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