UbD and Technology


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  • UbD and Technology

    1. 1. Micdssummerpd09.wikispaces.com
    2. 2. Using UbD to Design Tech Infused Curriculum Theory, Process, and Tools
    3. 3. <ul><li>Elizabeth Helfant </li></ul><ul><li>Certified Geek with UbD Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Pinkertom </li></ul><ul><li>Certified UbD Trainer with Geek Understanding </li></ul>Screen Technology By Rudy on flickr
    4. 4. Technology, Pedagogy, Content Knowledge <ul><li>What lives in each circle? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I live in the center? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do I live in the center? </li></ul><ul><li>TPCK Model </li></ul>
    5. 5. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) can be defined as general knowledge and skills related to teaching. Such knowledge includes knowledge of general teaching methods (such as discovery learning, collaborative learning, problem-based learning, etc.), knowledge of learners including developmental issues for children, classroom management skills, understanding how to motivate students, and so on.
    6. 6. Content knowledge (CK) , on the other hand, is knowledge of the facts, concepts, and skills that exist in a particular domain. This knowledge is independent of pedagogical knowledge. For example, a scientist or historian can know a lot about their domain but not know how to teach it well to others.
    7. 7. Technological knowledge (TK) is the knowledge required to understand and use various technologies. In this class we will simply define technologies as tools. In this class we primarily focus on learning about digital technologies (i.e., typically some kind of hardware or software). There is a wide range of different levels of TK. At a very basic level, TK might include an awareness of different programs and what they allow people to do. Basic TK might also include understanding of different file formats (like .jpg is an image or .doc is a MS Word document) or operating systems (like Windows Vista or MacOS X Leopard). More advanced TK might involve knowing how to download and use particular software programs or how to use a programming language to create a new piece of software. From:http://open.byu.edu/ipt287/resources/unit-3-technology-integration/tpack-introduction/
    8. 9. Using Technology with Marzano’s Best Practices
    9. 11. Web 2.0 Tools that Work
    10. 12. 21 st Century Pedagogy
    11. 13. Curriculum as DNA LegoDNA by mknoles on flickr
    12. 14. Literacies and Skills as Blocks
    13. 15. Basic Literacy <ul><li>Discipline Specific Literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Wagner’s Disciplined Mind </li></ul>
    14. 16. Information Literacy <ul><li>Information Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Is it Reliable? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it Relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it Biased? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it copyright protected? </li></ul><ul><li>Various formats of information (hypertext, multimedia) </li></ul>
    15. 17. Visual/Media Literacy <ul><li>The Power in Images </li></ul>
    16. 18. Digital Citizenship/Ethical Literacy
    17. 19. Intercultural Literacy
    18. 20. Network Literacy
    19. 21. Attention Literacy (Executive Function)
    20. 22. Bloom’s Digital - Revised
    21. 23. The 3 C’s <ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>Create </li></ul>
    22. 24. Deciding on a Unit <ul><li>What’s a unit that you’d like to rewrite to make it fantastic? </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Overview </li></ul>
    24. 26. Share with a neighbor… <ul><li>1)Who was the most effective teacher you ever had? What made him/her so? </li></ul><ul><li>Share examples, then generalize: “the best teachers…” </li></ul><ul><li>2)When was a time you made significant progress/improvement as a learner? What was it that made that possible? </li></ul><ul><li>Share examples, then generalize: “the greatest learning happens when…” </li></ul>
    25. 27. Common Responses: <ul><li>Upfront explicit goals and performance requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Models and modeling provided </li></ul><ul><li>The bigger picture, the “why”, is made clear </li></ul><ul><li>Working back and forth from whole to part </li></ul><ul><li>A genuine challenge/problem frames the work that stretches you- real, meaningful tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Work culminates in real or realistic application </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and error, reflection and adjustment are needed and expected </li></ul><ul><li>Constant helpful feedback opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Safe environment for trying out, getting feedback, adjusting </li></ul>
    26. 28. Understanding by Design <ul><li>Look at two questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is good design? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is understanding? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A set of ideas and tools that are an embodiment of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>common sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ best practice” in design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what we know about learning </li></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Two questions: <ul><li>What is good design? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best done “backward” from the desired result </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is understanding? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer of knowledge- long term goal and key evidence of understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Big Ideas to focus the work along with the transfer tasks </li></ul></ul>
    28. 30. Why the Need for Understanding? <ul><li>In even our best students and their work, we see frequent… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid knowledge, no transfer of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does this sound familiar? </li></ul></ul>
    29. 31. What is Transfer of Learning? <ul><li>The use of knowledge and skills (acquired in earlier context) in a new context . It occurs when a person’s learning in one situation influences that person’s learning and performance in other situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferability is Understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding reveals itself as transfer: an appropriate and affective use of knowledge and skill, on one’s own; using good judgment, with minimal cues and prompting, in various important situations, about which content is needed when and why . </li></ul></ul>
    30. 32. Example: NAEP 8 th Grade Test Item <ul><li>“ How many buses does the army need to transport 1,128 soldiers if each bus holds </li></ul><ul><li>36 soldiers?” </li></ul>
    31. 33. Answer from 30%: <ul><li>“ 31 buses, remainder 12” </li></ul>-remainder 12
    32. 34. Example: Earth
    33. 35. Common Answer
    34. 36. What teachers have done… <ul><li>Identify content </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm activities, lessons, learning plan </li></ul><ul><li>Come up with an assessment </li></ul><ul><li>This can occur without checking for alignment </li></ul>
    35. 37. <ul><li>3 Stages of Backward Design </li></ul>
    36. 38. 3 Stages <ul><li>1) Indentify desired results </li></ul><ul><li>2) Determine acceptable evidence ( assessment ) </li></ul><ul><li>Then and only then- </li></ul><ul><li>3) Plan learning experiences and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for alignment between stages </li></ul>
    37. 39. Stage 1: Desired Results <ul><li>Established Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Understandings </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul>
    38. 40. Established Goals <ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Course and Program Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>What relevant goals will this design address? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Unpack” the goals to find the big ideas, understandings, essential questions, key knowledge and skills. </li></ul>
    39. 41. Understandings <ul><li>Big Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Transferable </li></ul><ul><li>Inference (not fact) </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual foundations for basic skills </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><li>What specific understandings are desired? </li></ul><ul><li>What misunderstandings are predictable? </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically frame the Understandings- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The student(s) will understand THAT …” </li></ul></ul>
    40. 42. Finding the Big Ideas: <ul><li>Look at… </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Issues/Debates </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Paradoxes </li></ul><ul><li>Themes </li></ul><ul><li>Problems/Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions/Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li> … Surrounding a topic </li></ul>
    41. 43. Focusing in On Understandings- Nutrition <ul><li>Familiar: </li></ul><ul><li>General eating patterns and menus from the past </li></ul><ul><li>Different conditions requiring dietary restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>Important: </li></ul><ul><li>Types of food in each of the food groups and their nutritional value </li></ul><ul><li>The USDA Food Pyramid guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional information on food labels and how to interpret </li></ul><ul><li>Big Ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional Needs </li></ul><ul><li>Understandings: </li></ul><ul><li>The students will understand that… </li></ul><ul><li>“ You are what you eat.” Your diet affects you health, appearance and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>People have different dietary needs based on age, activity level, weight and various health considerations. </li></ul>
    42. 44. Essential Questions <ul><li>Open ended </li></ul><ul><li>Thought provoking, engaging and focused inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual or philosophical issues, problems and debates </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to other questions </li></ul><ul><li>Naturally recurring </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulants for vital ongoing rethinking of big ideas and prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Select and develop Essential Questions to guide inquiry into big ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>What provocative questions will foster inquiry, understanding, and transfer of learning? </li></ul>
    43. 45. Creating Essential Questions <ul><li>What questions are raised by this idea or topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What, specifically, about the idea or topic do you want students to come to understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why study _____? So what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes the study of _____ universal? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the Big Idea implies in the skill or process of _____? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What larger concept, issue or problem underlies _____? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What couldn’t we do if we couldn’t understand _____? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How is _____ used and applied in the larger world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a real-world insight about _____? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the value of studying _____? </li></ul></ul>
    44. 46. Essential Questions: Music Theory <ul><li>Why study music theory? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is engaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What makes the study of music theory universal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It involves feelings and emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What makes music engaging? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does music convey feeling and evoke emotion? </li></ul></ul>
    45. 47. <ul><li>How are “form” and “function” related in biology? </li></ul><ul><li>How do effective writers hook and hold their readers? </li></ul><ul><li>Who “wins” and who “loses” when technologies change? </li></ul><ul><li>What distinguishes fluent foreigners from native speakers? </li></ul><ul><li>How would life be different if we couldn’t measure it? </li></ul><ul><li>How many legs does a spider have? How does an elephant use his trunk? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “foreshadowing”? Can you find an example of it in the story? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the original meaning of the term, “technology” (from its Greek root, techne)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some French colloquialisms? </li></ul><ul><li>How many minutes are in an hour? How many hours are in a day? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Nonessential Questions </li></ul>
    46. 48. Now you try- <ul><li>What is the relationship between popularity and greatness in literature? </li></ul><ul><li>When was the Magna Carta signed? </li></ul><ul><li>Crustaceans- what’s up with that? </li></ul><ul><li>Which president of the United States has the most disappointing legacy? </li></ul><ul><li>When is an equation linear? </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent are common sense and science related? </li></ul>
    47. 49. “ Unpacking” Goals <ul><li>Understandings: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience and purpose influence literary techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Different genres have unique organizational patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What am I trying to achieve through my writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Who am I writing for? </li></ul><ul><li>How do great writers hook and hold their readers in different genres? </li></ul><ul><li>Language Arts- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All students will write in clear, concise, organized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language that varies in content and form for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different audiences and purposes. (New Jersey Language Arts Standard 3.3) </li></ul></ul>
    48. 50. Knowledge and Skills <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Key factual information </li></ul><ul><li>Formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Critical details </li></ul><ul><li>Important events and people </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence and timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Basic- decoding, arithmetic, computation </li></ul><ul><li>Communication- listening, writing, speaking </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking- comparison, inference, analysis, interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Research, inquiry, investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Study- note taking </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal- group skills </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul>
    49. 51. Knowledge and Skills: <ul><li>What key knowledge and skills will students acquire as a result of this unit? </li></ul><ul><li>What should they eventually be able to do as a result of such knowledge and skills? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge specifically framed as, “Students will know …” </li></ul><ul><li>Skills specifically framed as, “Students will be able to …” </li></ul>
    50. 52. “ Unpacking” Goals <ul><li>Know: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual art design elements (list of basics). </li></ul><ul><li>Visual art design principles (list of basics). </li></ul><ul><li>Ways artists employ various technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant historical and cultural information about various periods. </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze and interpret works of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare works of art from different periods and cultures to determine the distinguishing visual characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate their analyses and interpretations verbally and visually. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The students will recognize the visual arts as a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic aspect of history and human experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Baltimore County, Public Schools) </li></ul></ul>
    51. 53. Stage 1 Review: Science Topic or Content Standard The student will understand biological adaptation.
    52. 54. Stage 2: Assessment <ul><li>Performance Tasks and Rubrics </li></ul><ul><li>Other Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent do the assessments provide valid, reliable and sufficient measures of the desired results? </li></ul>
    53. 55. Assessment Methods <ul><li>Traditional Tests/Quizzes- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worth being familiar with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to do and know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Tasks and Projects- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to do and know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big Ideas and Understandings </li></ul></ul>
    54. 56. Collect Diverse Evidence from Assessments <ul><li>Informal checks for understanding- ongoing assessments such as questioning, observations, dialogue, examining work, think alouds </li></ul><ul><li>Tests and Quizzes- simple, content focused items </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Prompts- open ended questions, problems that require students to think critically, not just recall knowledge, and to prepare a specific academic response, product or performance </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Tasks- complex challenges that mirror the issues and problems faced by adults, ranging from short-term to long term tasks, multistaged projects, they yield one or more tangible products and performances. </li></ul>
    55. 57. Performance Tasks: Construction using GRASPS <ul><li>The students need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G oal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A udience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S ituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P roduct/Performance/Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S tandards and Criteria for Success </li></ul></ul>
    56. 58. Performance Tasks: Assessing for Understanding <ul><li>Ask students to use… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in their performance tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Known as the Six Facets of Understanding </li></ul>
    57. 59. “ Unpacking” Goals <ul><li>Performance Task Ideas: </li></ul><ul><li>Have students create a mathematical model for a selected real-world situation (e.g., seasonal temperatures). </li></ul><ul><li>Have students critically review a mathematical model for its appropriateness to a given situation (e.g., the Mercator Projection for representing the globe in two-dimensions). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All students will connect mathematics to other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning by understanding the interrelationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of mathematical ideas and the roles that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mathematics and mathematical modeling play in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other disciplines and in life. (New Jersey Math Standards 4.3) </li></ul></ul>
    58. 60. Collection of Assessment Evidence: Nutrition revisited <ul><li>Performance Task: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You Are What You Eat- Students create an illustrated brochure to teach younger children about the importance of good nutrition for healthful living. Offer students ideas for breaking bad eating habits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chow Down- Students develop a three-day menu for meals and snacks for an upcoming Outdoor Education camp experience. They write a letter to the camp director to explain why their menu should be selected (by showing that it meets the USDA Food Pyramid recommendations, yet is tasty enough for students). Include at least one modification for a specific dietary condition (diabetic or vegetarian) or religious consideration. </li></ul></ul>
    59. 61. <ul><li>Other Evidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiz- The food groups and the USDA Food Pyramid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt- Describe two health problems that could arise as a result of poor nutrition and explain how these could be avoided. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skill Check- Interpret nutritional information on food labels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student Self-Assessment and Reflection: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-assess brochure, You Are What You Eat . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-assess the camp menu, Chow Down . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect on the extent to which you eat healthy at the end of the unit (compared to the beginning). </li></ul></ul>
    60. 62. Stage 3: Learning Plan <ul><li>Instructional strategies and learning experiences needed to achieve the desired results (Stage 1) as reflected in the assessment evidence to be gathered (Stage 2). </li></ul><ul><li>UbD refers to WHERETO in designing an effective and engaging learning plan- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>W here/ W hy/ W hat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H ook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xplore/ E xperience/ E quip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ethink/ R ehearse/ R evise/ R efine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ailored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O rganized </li></ul></ul>
    61. 63. Tech collaboration with UbD
    62. 64. What is Transfer of Learning? <ul><li>The use of knowledge and skills (acquired in earlier context) in a new context . It occurs when a person’s learning in one situation influences that person’s learning and performance in other situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Transferability is Understanding </li></ul>
    63. 65. Diagnostic Assessment and Technology
    64. 66. Collect Diverse Evidence from Assessments Technology and the Research Process Making Learning Transparent Increasing Formative Assessment and Feedback
    65. 68. Zoho Shared Notebook Exercise Workbook wih Audio and Video Ability to Share Also good for Research Notebook
    66. 69. Diigo and Delicious
    67. 70. Performance Tasks: Construction using GRASPS <ul><li>The students need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G oal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A udience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S ituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P roduct/Performance/Purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S tandards and Criteria for Success </li></ul></ul>
    68. 71. Project Based Learning <ul><li>US Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final Project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adv History Documentaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blip.tv </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global Climate Change Symposium </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan Documentary </li></ul><ul><li>Comic Life Graphic Novels </li></ul><ul><li>Frederick Douglas Oratory Contest </li></ul>
    69. 72. The Six Facets <ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Knowledge </li></ul></ul>
    70. 73. Reflection- The Sixth Facet
    71. 74. Scribe Blogs
    72. 75. Teaching Collaboration
    73. 76. WHERETO <ul><ul><li>Creating the Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan W here/ W hy/ W hat - </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H ook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xplore/ E xperience/ E quip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ethink/ R ehearse/ R evise/ R efine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E valuate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ailored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O rganized </li></ul></ul>
    74. 77. WHERETO <ul><ul><li>Plan W here/ W hy/ W hat – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan collectively with Google Docs or Wiki </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Expectations Clearly Online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H ook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider Multimedia as a hook </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider Nonfictions – guided annotation reading </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WebNotes or Diigo </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    75. 78. WHERETO <ul><ul><li>E xplore/ E xperience/ E quip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver information on Skills via Online Video- </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lab Skills on Video or Voicethread </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ethink/ R ehearse/ R evise/ R efine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ustream Presentations for reflection and critique </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use OneNote Tags as Reflection Study Tool </li></ul></ul></ul>
    76. 79. WHERETO <ul><ul><li>E valuate (self-Evaluation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DyKnow Polls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PollEverywhere </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Google Forms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ailored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Creative Tools – Vary Them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Photostories, Graphic Novels, WikiBook, Mixbook </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O rganized </li></ul></ul>
    77. 80. Template
    78. 81. Works Cited <ul><li>Understanding by Design, Professional Workbook Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding by Design, Advanced Summer Institute Binder. Authentic Education </li></ul>
    79. 82. Resources: <ul><li>Understanding by Design, Expanded 2 nd Edition by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding by Design, Professional Workbook by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggins </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding by Design, Advanced Summer Institute. Authentic Education </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding by Design, Train the Trainer Summer Institute. Authentic Education </li></ul><ul><li>www.authenticeducation.org </li></ul>