Dr. Gary Small, MD- iBrain• Digital technology is changing the brain.• Kids spending 1/3 of day engaged in video and digital media.• Neuroscientists tell us that the brain is a use it or lose it organ. Parts of the brain that are no longer used are withering away.• Brain Plasticity – Neural circuits grow and rewire as they are worked• Neurogenesis – Neurons do regenerate!
What Does Learning Look Like?From a Brain’s Perspective• Experience• Repetition• Physical Changes
Learned Physical Pathways/Structures in the Brain• Multiplication Tables• Vocabulary Recognition• Balancing Equations• Stress Reduction• Addictions – Once learned information is hard to undo
Brain Development• Emotional areas of the brain are fully developed around the age of 10-12 yrs.• Regions responsible for rational thought and emotional control mature closer to 22-24 yrs. – Strategy: Count to 10 before reacting – Strategy: Spell your name backwards before reacting • (Giedd, Molloy, & Blumenthal, 2003; Johnson, B.lum & Giedd, 2009)
Brain Structure• No two are identical, and each is organized differently.• Different brains can wire the same pieces together in different ways.• Some learn faster than others and in different ways.• Some students learn more slowly because they process information more deeply. • David Sousa- The Basics of Creating a Brain Compatible Classroom
Memory Capacity• When students learn something new, they process it in the temporary memory called working memory. (frontal lobe)• Newer studies tell us that the capacity is much less than previously thought …closer to 4 items. • (Cowan, Morey, Chen, Gilchrist, & Saults, 2008)• CHUNKING
Mind, Brain, and Education Science • Research based information in the areas of: • Neuroscience • Psychology • Education What we know as fact (not a lot!) What is probably true What is “believed” passed on, sold but unhelpful, misguided, wrong (“Neuro-myths”)
Instructional Guidelines for Teachers By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa1: Environments2: Sense, Meaning and Transfer3: Different Types of Memory Pathways4: Attention Spans5: The Social Nature of Learning6: The Mind-Body Connection7: Orchestration and “Midwifing”8: Active Processes9: Metacognition and Self-Reflection10: Learning Throughout the Life Span
Instructional Guideline 1: Environments• Good learning environments in education are those with physical and mental security, respect, intellectual freedom, self-regulation, paced challenges, feedback, and active learning (Billington 1997) By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Teachers must convey: • Like • BelieveCarol S. Dweck, Ph.D.
• Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa Donna Walker Tileston
Instructional Guideline 2: Sense, Meaning and Transfer• Students learn best when what they learn makes sense, has a logical order, and has some meaning in their lives. (Sousa 2000) By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Learning to Learn 1. Play the whole game. 2. Make the game worth playing. 3. Work on the hard parts. 4. Play out of town. 5. Uncover the hidden game. 6. Learn from the team…and the other team. 7. Learn the game of Learning.
Instructional Guideline 3: Different Types of Memory Pathways• Teachers should teach to auditory, visual, and kinesthetic pathways as well as allow for both individual and group work in order to improve the chances of recall. By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Instructional Guideline 4: Attention Spans• The average student has an attention span between 10 and 20 minutes. Students learn best when there is a change of person, place or topic every 10 to 20 minutes. Interest impacts attention spans and, consequently, the motivation for learning. “Time flies when you are having fun”. By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Myth of Multitasking• The brain cannot carry out two cognitive processes at the same time.• What we refer to multitasking is actually task switching. - – Dr. Larry Rosen, PhD – “Understanding the iGeneration”
Instructional Guideline 5: The Social Nature of Learning• Debate is one of the most effective teaching methods. It forces students to think critically and to interact with each other; it also prepares them to deal with countering opinions. By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Instructional Guideline 6: The Mind- Body Connection• This includes active learning techniques and serves as a reminder of the importance of sleep, nutrition and physical exercise. By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Sleep• REM - In 8 to 9 hour sleep cycle there are usually 4-5 REM stages.• HS students typically get between five and six hours of sleep on a school night (Carskadon, Acebo, & Jenni, 2004)• Preadolescents need 9-10 hrs. and 8-9 hours for adolescents. » stewickie
Sleep• A brain deprived of sleep has diminished attention, executive functions, working memory, mood, logical reasoning, quantitative skills, and motor dexterity.• Poor grades and depression increases with loss of sleep.• Loss of sleep can damage the hippocampus, leading to cognitive dysfunction and possible mood disorders• During sleep is when the brain establishes long term memory circuits needed for remembering new information and skills.
Brain Fuel• The brain cells consume oxygen and glucose (a form of sugar) for fuel. The more challenging the brain’s task, the more fuel it consumes.• Low amounts of oxygen and glucose in the blood can produce sleepiness.• Just 50 grams of glucose increased long-term memory recall in a group of young adults by 35%.• Water is essential for healthy brain activity is required to move neuron signals through the brain.
Instructional Guideline 7: Orchestration and “Midwifing”• Similar to an orchestra director a teacher immerse students in complex experiences that support learning by calling on individuals one by one to bring out their voices and then weaving them into a single class experience. Successful teachers will integrate the strengths and weakness of all learners. By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Instructional Guideline 8: Active Processes• Human brains learn best when they are active.• (i.e., “I hear and I forget. I listen and I understand. I do and I remember – Confucius”)• ). By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Importance of Movement (David Sousa)• Movement turns on the brain: 7% more intelligent through standing. Nobody really understands why this is.• The species with the biggest brains play the most. So many advantages to play.• Play and exercise: a way to develop resilience. By: CC: Redjar
Instructional Guideline 9: Metacognition and Self-Reflection• Teaches allow time for reflection about the concepts being taught and create spaces to “think about thinking.” By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa– Journal writing,– Electronic Flashcards • Quizlet• what if …. By: Lee Haywood
Instructional Guideline 10: Learning Throughout the Life Span• Wider windows of learning than previously thought. – Resist the temptation to label students who don’t meet the standard developmental milestones. – Provide remedial activities to help the student fill in the gaps in knowledge that may exist By: Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa
Different Brains, Different Learners:Rethinking “Intelligence” for the 21st Century Dr. Jane M. Healy, PhD• A child born today in the US has a 30% chance of being diagnosed with some type of learning problem.• New research suggests 1/3 of US kids meet clinical criteria for anxiety disorders.
Environment of Childhood has Changed Dr. Jane Healy, Ph.D.• A recent study of highly successful entrepreneurs found that close to 50% of them were dyslexic.• Michael Barry, financial whiz who read the financial statements and who sold short on the sub-prime mortgage market has Asperger’s.• Dyslexia: talent or liability? Picasso was dyslexic- global spatial awareness. Dyslexics have better recognition of impossible figures, better quality of peripheral vision.• Are ADHD kids distracted by clearer objects in the periphery of their vision?
Dr. Larry Rosen, PhD – Understanding the iGeneration• Communicate differently – Nielsen 3705 text messages per month. (share everything)• Auditory, visual and tactile/kinesthetic learners• Social connections are everything.• They want constant reinforcement• Spend hours creating content By: jerrycharlotte
What Motivates the “Net” Generation? Tony Wagner – Ed.DInstant gratification…always on connection, use theweb for1) extending friendships2) interest driven, self-directed learning3) as a tool for self-expression,• Less fear and respect for authority• They want to make a difference and do interesting/worthwhile work.
What Motivates the “Net” Generation? Tony Wagner – Ed.DThe Global Achievement Gap is the gap between what even our best schools are teaching and testing. VersusThe skills all students will need for careers, college, and citizenship in the 21st centuryWhat gets tested is what gets taught: having the wrong metric is worse than having none at all.
Judy Willis, M.D. Engagement Strategies• Attention Is Not Voluntary Choice• Whatever is new or different will get priority.
Judy Willis, M.D. Engagement Strategies• The more ways • Examples: something is • Multiple forms of learned, the more review memory pathways are • Visual imagery built • Personal relevance• Multiple stimulation mean better memory • Role-play • Produce product or models
Engagement Strategies• Attention is not a voluntary choice – input must be selected by sensory filter. If it does not reach per-frontal cortex, it does not make it to long term memory.• Must be selected to make it to the Reticular Activating System (RAS). Survival skills for animals.
The RAS – Judy Willis• Curiosity alerts the RAS• Sound (voice volume, pitch, cadence)• Color, placement of objects• Your appearance (costumes, hats) do something unusual• Novelty and curiosity• Predictions are great (which one do you want 1 penny doubled for a year or $1000,000?)• Optical Illusions http://www.michaelbach.de/ot/• Grumpy faces do not allow passage to pre-frontal cortex
Stress Management• Boredom is stressful. – The lower reactive brain is in control.• Behavior – Fight (Disruptive) – Oppositional Defiant – Flight (Withdrawal) – ADHD and ADD – Freeze (Zone Out) social anxiety syndrome, seizures, OCD – Children are misdiagnosed when the brain is not the problem. Kids are bored. Children want the dopamine pleasure that games and technology brings.
Learning Retention – Harold Pashler, PhD• Longer time frames between study sessions provides greater long term retention.• If you want to remember for years….need to space 2nd study session at least 6 months away.• For best test performance – 1 day spacing• Closed book quizzes between initial exposure and final assessment.
Working Memory Retention• Learners can hold items in working memory longer than previously thought - up to several weeks. Then discard when they serve no further purpose – like after a test – (Lewandowsky & Oberauer, 2009)• Rote and Elaborative Rehearsal – Memorize Poem – Assign Meaning• Massed and Distributive Practice• CLOSURE
Connecting Emotions to Content• It helps to make emotional connections to curriculum in order to achieve long term retention.• For example by considering the emotional toll of the US Civil War may connect learning much more than isolated battles, and persons involved. The two structures in the brain responsible for long- term remembering arelocated in the emotional area of the brain. By Mc Knoell - http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/deed.en
Laugh• Humor has many benefits for increased retention.• Provides more oxygen to the brain• Laughter causes the release of endorphins in the blood. Endorphins stimulate the brain’s frontal lobes, thereby increasing the degree of focus and amount of attention time.• Humor also decreases stress, pain and blood pressure.• Humor boosts immune defenses.• Be Happy!
Intelligence for a Digital Age: Dr. Jane M. Healy - PhD• Symbolic analysis, creative imagination, self- regulation, moral reflection.• Consider that difference may be an asset.• Teach students to be masters of their tools.
“Brain Maintenance Manual” http://goo.gl/TS2pj
Brain CeNTeReD Curriculum CeNTeReD C
• Graphic Organizers• Mind Maps – Spiderscribed.net – Bubbl.us – Mindomo MONITOR TO Send file or collect file
• Cartoons – Add captions• Animoto• ClassDoJo
• Quizlet• StudyBlue• Break it Up -Linoit
• YouTube Videos• Current Events• Infographics - http://delicious.com/ehelfant/infographics http://www.easel.ly/
• Groupings with Monitor• Google Forms to Identify Groups• Audio -auditory learners – AudioPal – AudioBoo