Project Based Learning Elizabeth Helfant 1851micds!*%! 1851micds SHIFT1851
AGENDA Why PBL? What is and isn’t PBL? Pedagogy within PBL Experience PBL Design PBL Unit
• Defining projects Components of projects Managing projects Creating projects Grading projects The realities of projects
Other Objectives Make you think and question things Put you in some PBL learning situations Expose you to some technology support tools Have you build a unit for next year
An Invitation Saturday August 20th 9-2
Today’s Site http://goo.gl/qeE17 And a Video
Task One: Get into Groups of 4 (If 3, reporter and recorder become 1) Introductions Assign each member one of these rolls
Recorder – Records groups thoughts and class notes that might be important
Facilitator/Discussion Leader – Keeps group on task, maintains full participation, also records important information from instructions
Reporter- Reports out to larger group
Reflector/Evaluator – Will assess group and individual contribution/engagement
Record these rolls on the Google Site Under Group Work – Group Numbers are on the Table- This page will be your working location.
Task 2 What is PBL? What are the essential ingredients? Give an example. Why these images? Did you include these things- http://goo.gl/5ZUAY Be mindful of your role.
Task 3 Role Discussion How did each member perform their role? Fill out the assessment on the Group Site- It’s a Google Form-
MICDS Upper School Reasons
What Kids ShouldLearn http://www.bie.org/research/21st_century_skills
7 Cs + 3Rs Content Understanding Critical Thinking Cross Cultural Understanding Collaboration Communication Computing Skills Career and Civic Learning and Self-Reliance
Partnership for 21st Century Skills Must be defined with Essential/Driving Questions! http://www.p21.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=254&Itemid=120
21st Century Skills (Engage) Basic, Scientific and Technological Literacy Visual and Information Literacy Cultural Literacy and Global Awareness Inventive Thinking: Digital Age Literacy: Adaptability and Managing Complexity Curiosity, Creativity and Risk Taking Higher Order Thinking and Sound Reasoning Effective Communication: High Productivity: Teaming, Collaboration and Interpersonal Skills Personal and Social Responsibility Interactive Communication Prioritising, Planning and Managing Results Effective Use of Real World Tools High Quality, Meaningful Results
Skill Inventory What skills do your students need more practice with? Which 1-2 skills do you teach well and how do you do that? Individual Writing- Everyone contribute to the google doc- (we’ll do it anonymously but in PBL, I’d have kids logged in) http://goo.gl/o6Bbe
Consider Dispositions and Habits Perkins Learning Dispositions for Good Thinking The Disposition to be curious and questioning The Disposition to think broadly and adventurously The Disposition to reason clearly and carefully The Disposition to organize one’s thinking The Disposition to give time to thinking From The Thinking Classroom-Learning and Teaching in a Culture of Thinking, Perkins, Tishman, Jay
Habits of Mind 3P Grading Grading for Product Grading for Process (Habits of Mind) Grading for Progress (Skills Development) How do you assess these?
Another Reason for PBL:How Kids Learn?
Seven BIG Learning Messages Intelligence is not fixed Effort (Motivation) is as important as ability Learning is strongly influenced by emotion We all learn in different ways Deep learning is an active process Learning is messy Learning is Social Photo Credit: Stockphoto/VasiliyYakobchuk)
Chapter 2: How the Brain Processes Information What strikes you as consistent or inconsistent with the way we teach skills and content now?” What might this have to do with PBL? Recorder contributes thoughts on EtherPad http://ietherpad.com/XmxidQ6b8y
Blooms, Daggett, Flow, ZPD
THE PBL PROCESS
The PBL Process REFLECTION Skim 7 Essentials
Begin with the End in Mind Craft the Driving Question Plan the Assessent Map the Project Manage the Process
PBL, Projects, IBL, ProjectBL, Exercises Let’s visit the PBL Google Site- Exercises vs. Problems and the Role of HW- Vatterott Chapter 4 – Rethinking HW
PBL Design and UBD
Generating Ideas for Projects
Where do Ideas Come From Online
Sample Projects (we will evaluate these later)
Current Events/News NonFiction Readings Student Conversations Anywhere- Try Keeping an Evernote Notebook and clip stuff that might turn into an idea
1 Projects are authentic, real world.
Projects use a driving question or problem. 2
3 Projects require the production of an artifact.
Projects value depth over breadth. 4
Components of projects
5 Projects require a task or series of tasks.
Students follow a process or investigation to complete task(s) and produce artifact. 6
Project task(s) afford multiple paths to completion and learning. 7
8 Students should have choice in the topic(s) and/or process of investigation.
9 Scaffolds help students perform at a higher level with project tasks.
10 Resources are evaluated and synthesized to produce artifact(s).
11 Collaborations allows students to negotiate content and receive feedback.
12 Assessment encompasses process and product.
13 Artifacts afford multiple representations of knowledge.
14 Projects take time.
15 Good projects offer students opportunities to gauge their learning.
16 Teachers embed mechanisms to help students manage projects.
17 Projects achieve multiple standards/objectives at the same time.
18 Projects should encourage students to at least apply knowledge.
Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS)
19 Students will segment their learning from one class or topic to another.
20 Students will gauge what is easy to do and choose the path of least resistance.
21 Students' previous experiences with projects will impact what artifacts students produce.
22 The amount of time and the resources available to the student will impact the artifacts students produce.
23 Projects should be rigorous
24 Projects take longer to grade...but the final grade shouldn't be the first grade.
25 Projects may aggregate multiple sources of knowledge into a portfolio.
26 Students will weigh what's good enough versus the amount of time and effort required.
27 It is practically impossible for an artifact to represent all that has been learned.
28 Process and product must be assessed in order to accommodate all that has been learned.
The realities of projects
29 Teachers and students must recognize and accept their roles in project-based learning.
30 Teachers and students must be comfortable with the physical messiness of project-based learning.
31 Teachers and students must have a tolerance for ambiguity in project-based learning.
32 Project-based learning must be integrated with the reality outside a teacher’s classroom.
Successful Inquiry Involve students in initial planning Sharing learning goals Negotiating success criteria Planning questions which further learning Using strategies which maximise student thinking and articulation
Making notes or drafting
Using thinking skills
Sorting and organising
Interpreting and analysising
Synthesising and applying
Use of ICT
Use of software
Layout and design
Learning to Learn Skills
Organisation and time management
Tracking and asking for assistance
Self and peer reflection
What is assessment?
What is assessment? An ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning Evidence that students know, can do and understand It’s more than just collecting data
Assessment Focus on how we come to know, as opposed to what we know Focus on the development of information-processing and problem-solving skills
Authentic assessment Assessing the students’ ability to use what they’ve learning in tasks similar to those in the outside world.
What can be assessed? Student learning characteristics -Ability differences -Learning styles Student motivational characteristics -Interest -Effort -Goal orientation Learning -Content knowledge -Ability to apply content knowledge -Skills -Dispositions and attitudes -Performances
Why do we need to assess?
Importance of Assessment To find out what the students know (knowledge) To find out what the students can do, and how well they can do it (skill; performance) To find out how students go about the task of doing their work (process) To find out how students feel about their work (motivation, effort)
Ways we can assess True –False Item Multiple Choice Completion Short Answer Essay Practical Exam Papers/Reports Projects Questionnaires Inventories Checklist Peer Rating Self Rating Journal Portfolio Observations Discussions Interviews
Self Assessment Data Gathering Understanding Reflection/Analysis Creativity
Self Assessment Evidence of Data Gathering Have I gathered enough information? Do I have sufficient evidence of research? Have I described/defined the problems that are at the core of my inquiry?
Self Assessment Evidence of Understanding Do I understand the information/material I am researching? Have I used my own words to summarise my research?
Self Assessment Evidence of Reflection/Analysis Does my work show that I have used the information to form my own ideas? Have I addressed the issues at the core of my inquiry? Have I drawn conclusions?
Self Assessment Evidence of Creativity Have I created anything that shows my own views and opinions of my inquiry? Have I taken any action to do something about my findings?
AssessmentConversations “When kids are given choices in what they read and what they write, and time to think about what they are doing, their writing and reading get better. When we trust them to set goals and to evaluate their learning in progress, we will begin to realize that they know much more than we allow them to tell us through our set curriculums, our standardized tests, our writing samples.” Linda Reif
‘In times of change the learners will inherit the earth, while the knowers will find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.’ Eric Hoffer
Working in your team - Looking at your inquiry plan for next year: Decide on exactly what it is that you are going to assess Decide the best way that the skill, understanding, knowledge, application, attitude, performance, etc. can be assessed. List the criteria you will assess against. Design an authentic task to assess that skill, understanding, knowledge, application, attitude, performance, etc.
Attention Keller attention can be gained in two ways: (1) Perceptual arousal – uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events; or (2) Inquiry arousal – stimulates curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems to be solved. Methods for grabbing the learners’ attention include the use of: Active participation -Adopt strategies such as games, roleplay or other hands-on methods to get learners involved with the material or subject matter. Variability – To better reinforce materials and account for individual differences in learning styles, use a variety of methods in presenting material (e.g. use of videos, short lectures, mini-discussion groups). Humor -Maintain interest by use a small amount of humor (but not too much to be distracting) Incongruity and Conflict – A devil’s advocate approach in which statements are posed that go against a learner’s past experiences. Specific examples – Use a visual stimuli, story, or biography. Inquiry – Pose questions or problems for the learners to solve, e.g. brainstorming activities.
Relevance Establish relevance in order to increase a learner’s motivation. To do this, use concrete language and examples with which the learners are familiar. Six major strategies described by Keller include: Experience – Tell the learners how the new learning will use their existing skills. We best learn by building upon our preset knowledge or skills. Present Worth – What will the subject matter do for me today? Future Usefulness – What will the subject matter do for me tomorrow? Needs Matching – Take advantage of the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power, and affiliation. Modeling – First of all, “be what you want them to do!” Other strategies include guest speakers, videos, and having the learners who finish their work first to serve as tutors. Choice – Allow the learners to use different methods to pursue their work or allowing s choice in how they organize it.
3. Confidence Help students understand their likelihood for success. If they feel they cannot meet the objectives or that the cost (time or effort) is too high, their motivation will decrease. Provide objectives and prerequisites – Help students estimate the probability of success by presenting performance requirements and evaluation criteria. Ensure the learners are aware of performance requirements and evaluative criteria. Allow for success that is meaningful. Grow the Learners – Allow for small steps of growth during the learning process. Feedback – Provide feedback and support internal attributions for success. Learner Control – Learners should feel some degree of control over their learning and assessment. They should believe that their success is a direct result of the amount of effort they have put forth.
4. Satisfaction Learning must be rewarding or satisfying in some way, whether it is from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment. Make the learner feel as though the skill is useful or beneficial by providing opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge in a real setting. Provide feedback and reinforcement. When learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn. Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic. Do not patronize the learner by over-rewarding easy tasks.