Background Brain Conference Reading of Brain Rules Brain Research and Learning Area in Library Learning Groups -The CABAL PD Report Back A Reading List
Brain’s Complexity/Physiology Cellular level - three pints of liquid, three pounds of mass, tens of billions of nerve cells (or neurons), ten times more numerous glial cells that support, insulate and nourish the neurons Brain cells - 30 thousand neurons (300,000 glial cells) fit into the space of a pinhead.
Parts of the Brain Brainstem (survival ) Cerebellum ( autonomic nervous system) Limbic system (emotion) Cortex ( reason/logic) Cortex Cerebellum Brainstem
Frontal lobe - Cortex Creativity - Judgment - Optimism - Context Planning - Problem solving - Pattern making Upper temporal lobe - Wernicke’s Area Comprehension - Relevancy - Link to past (experience) - Hearing - Memory - Meaning Lower frontal lobe - Cortex Speaking/language - Broca’s area Occipital lobe - Spatial order Visual processing - Patterns - Discovery Parietal lobe Motor - Primary Sensory Area - Insights - Language functions Cerebellum Motor/motion - Novelty learning - cognition - balance - posture
Motor cortex Somatosensory cortex Movement and joint positions Sensory associative cortex Pars opercularis Visual associative cortex Broca’s area Grammar and word production Visual cortex Primary Auditory cortex Cerebellum Wernicke’s area Language and Thought
Neurons Connect to other neurons, to muscles, or glands Send and receive chemical information (messages) for behaviors Can be a millimeter in length or as long as a meter Cells nucleus contains DNA (As long a meter)
Neurons contain tubular extensions that are designed to communicate quickly with specific cells in the body network - this is a transportation system, much like a phone system. • The brain has both nerve cells and glial cells. The neurons are cellular agents of cognition; the glial cells act as a scaffolding or insulation for impulses. (The insulation increases the speed of the neural (electrical) messages.)
How the Brain Determines What’s Important Emotion and attention are the PRINCIPAL processes of the brain Primary emotions - innate responses Assemble life-saving behaviors quickly Secondary emotions - also innate reactions Enjoyment, pleasure Students need to talk about their emotions Games, cooperative learning, field trips, interactive projects, use of humor Limit emotional stress
Emerging Brain Research http://www.flickr.com/photos/jj_judes/346850124/sizes/z/in/photostream/
What We Know Brains are as unique as faces. All Brains are not equal in their ability to solve problems Brain is highly plastic. Brain is changed by experience. Brain connects new information to old.
What Is Probably True
Emotions are critical to decision making.
Stress impacts learning – eustress vs bad stress.
Support from others is critical for learning and optimal academic performance.
Feedback and meaningful assessment is important to human learning, through the importance and role of feedback vary greatly across domains and processes.
Human brains seek patterns upon which they predict outcomes, and nueral systems form responses to repeated patterns.
Self Regulation is an integral part of higher order thinking skills.
The elaboration (overt teaching) of key concepts facilitates new learning.
Rehearsal of retrieval cues aids in declarative memory process.
Declarative knowledge acquisition depends on memory and attention.
Importance of metacognition/reflection
Cultural changes impact how brain gets wired via activities/uses culture demands/encourages (Rosen)
We know very little(Judy Willis- Tokuhama-Espinosa)
Stress can be good and bad (ZPD/Flow)
Brain is a Garden- Control what you introduce into it (Willis)
Every brain is unique and has talents
Brains are plastic
Exercise for your brain and your body is good (Ratey)
Intelligence is not fixed (Dweck) Effort /Motivation is as important as ability Deep learning is an active process Importance of “chunking” Teaching Focus Learning is Social Meaning and Sense Photo Credit: Stockphoto/VasiliyYakobchuk)
Brown’s Model (Executive Function)
For Learning Need to develop metacognitive ability in kids Exercise is good Distinquish and address Types of Thinking Stress – manage it Focus – allow for it Differentiate Provide Feedback Change the way we Assess Make learning Sticky-
Spacing and Memory
The Twelve Principles of Brain Based Teaching/Learning What are they? What do they mean? What are the implications of this information to working with/teaching/ understanding ourselves and others?
Twelve Basic Principles Related to Learning Brain is a parallel processor Learning engages the entire physiology Learning is developmental Each brain is unique Every brain perceives and creates parts and wholes simultaneously Learning always involves conscious and unconscious processes
The search for meaning is innate Emotions are critical to learning Learning is enhanced by challenge and inhibited by threat The search for meaning occurs through patterning We can organize memory in different ways The brain is a social brain
The Brain is a Parallel Processor Both hemispheres work together Many functions occur simultaneously Edelman(1994) found when more neurons in the brain were firing at the same time, learning, meaning, and retention were greater for the learner. 1
Learning Engages the Entire Physiology Food, water, and nutrition are critical components of thinking. We are “holistic” learners - the body and mind interact the peptides in the blood are chains of amino acids that become the primary source of information transfer. 2
Learning is Developmental Depending upon the topic some students can think abstractly, while others have a limited background and are still thinking on a concrete level. Building the necessary neural connections by exposure, repetition, and practice is important to the student. 3
Each Brain is Unique • We are products of genetics and experience • The brain works better when facts and skills are embedded in real experiences 4
Each Brain Perceives and Creates Parts and Wholes Simultaneously Some think more easily inductively while others find deductive thinking more comfortable - use both Shank (1990) Telling stories is one of the most influential techniques because you give the information, ground the meaning in structure, provide for emotion, and make the content meaningful. Our brain loves storytelling. How might you make use of this? 5
Learning Involves Conscious and Unconscious Processes The brain and body learn physically, mentally, and affectively Body language as well as actual language communicate • How you treat students and how you permit them to treat each other makes a difference in their learning and desire to learn. • How the physical environment is organized makes a difference. 6
The Search for Meaning Is Innate Each person seeks to make sense out of what he/she sees or hears Capitalize on this quality! Present ideas, experiences that may NOT follow what one expects: Speculate • Question Experiment • Hypothesize Thinking Strategies 7
Emotions Are Critical to Learning A common form of communication within our brain is the electrical-chemical-electrical process between neurons. Emotions trigger the chemicals active in the axon-synapse-dendrite reaction. This permits or inhibits communication between the cells. 90% of the communication is carried out by peptides (which are strings of amino acids that travel the blood stream and permit information transfer. Peptides are the glue that connect the body and the brain. Learning is affected by emotions. 8
Learning is Enhanced by Challenge and Inhibited by Threat The brain’s priority is always survival - at the expense of higher order thinking Stress should be kept to a manageable level Provide opportunities to “grow” and to make changes Have high, but reasonable expectations The Zone The Flow 9
The Search for Meaning Comes Through Patterning Tie learning to prior knowledge Use Know - Want to know - Learned cycle Bain (What the Best College Teachers Do) suggests working from “big” questions to be answered. 10
Brain Organizes Memory In Different Ways Retrieval often depends upon how the information was stored. Relevancy is one key to both storage and retrieval Connect to what students know, what they are interested in Provide and get examples Spaced Repitition Student talk!!! Of varying types 11
Memory Short-term memory TO HELP: Combine or “chunk” Recognition Long-term memory Declarative - Factual Episodic -Events or experiences Semantic - Words Procedural - Step by step
Memory When objects and events are registered by several senses, they can be stored in several interrelated memory networks. This type of memory becomes more accessible and powerful. Conversation helps us link ideas/thoughts to our own related memories. Students need time for this to happen!! Storytelling - Conversations Debates - Role playing Simulations - Songs Games - Films
Techniques to Help Memory Define the “gist” - OVERVIEW Sequence events Plot out pictorially the information Tell the information to others in own words - TALK Peer teaching/tutoring Amplify by giving examples Use multiple parts of the brain (emotional, factual, physical) Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic, Talk Combine Use color effectively Yellow and orange as attention-getters
The Brain is a Social Brain • The brain develops better in concert with others
When students have to talk to others about information, they retain the information longer and more efficiently!
Make use of small groups, discussions, teams, pairings, and question and answer situations.
Three Must Conditions for Learning An optimal state of mind that we call relaxed alertness, consisting of low threat and high challenge. The orchestrated immersion of the learner in multiple, complex, authentic experience. The regular, active processing of experience as the basis for making meaning.
Bloom’s Taxonomy HOTS Complexity Difficulty LOTS
Thinking Routines (Teacher Directed)
Flashcards with Spacing
Think, Pair, Share
Graphic Organizers and Mind Maps
Tech Tools for Differentiation and Feedback, Changing Assessment Conditional Activities LAMS Moodle 2 Canvas Portfolio Assessment (focus on progress and process) Chalk and Wire
Perkin’s Thinking Classroom Dimensions of Culture of Thinking Language Thinking dispositions Mental management Strategic spirit Higher order thinking Transfer (sense and meaning-Sousa)
Consider Dispositions and Habits Perkins Learning Dispositions for Good Thinking The Disposition to be curious and questioning The Disposition to think broadly and adventurously The Disposition to reason clearly and carefully The Disposition to organize one’s thinking The Disposition to give time to thinking From The Thinking Classroom-Learning and Teaching in a Culture of Thinking, Perkins, Tishman, Jay
Thinking Language Terms to share with kids about thinking and thinking processes Typically more specific than what is often used in classrooms IDK
Teacher’s job is to make explicit that which we had hoped would be implicit to our students.
Rigor/Relevance Framework GAP Frederick Douglas Global Climate Change History Museum
Tony Wagner Rigor Redefined Seven Survival Skills
Habits of Mind 3P Grading Grading for Product Grading for Process (Habits of Mind) Grading for Progress (Skills Development) How do you assess these?
Thinking Organization DEREK CABRERA iDSRP Distinctions, systems, relationships, and perspectives
Types of Thinking Creative Critical Design Systems Strategic/Logical (Problem Solving) Empathetic Disciplinary Reflective Ethical
RAFTS Blog Prompts Use your “red hat” to answer this raft? Which hat did you use?
Totally 10 Totally 10 is a student choice format for differentiating projects or assessments. Each task a student chooses is given a score of 2,4,6, or 10, where the higher scores reflect greater challenge and complexity. Students must select either one project with a score of 10, or several that add up to a score of 10. Students will choose rigor to do fewer projects. Totally 10 may also be used to design an assessment. Students choose which questions they will answer as long as the total point score equals 10. This gives students choice and lets them think they are making up their own test. (Heacox, 2002). Shift to selecting three hats to complete a unit-
Reflective Thinking What kind of thinking did I use?
Learning Journals Portfolios Blogs Google Docs (shared) OneNote Shared notebooks
Thinkertoys Electronic Thinkertoys
Thinking Worlds “Thinking Worlds is a tool that puts people with creative ideas, not just programmers, fully in control of high-impact immersive design.”
Going Forward Introduce portfolio as assessment tool Shift conversation to improving and growth over grades (3P –process, progress, product) Use portfolio for reflection about learning (provide a model) Put concept of Habits of Mind in front of kids Put growth mindset in front of kids Thinking Strategies Thinkertoys – Advisory Activities Brain Owner’s Manual
The "How People Learn" FrameworkThe "How People Learn" (HPL) framework takes the form of four overlapping lenses (see Figure 1) that can be used to analyze and enhance any learning situation (Bransford et al., 1999). Harris, Bransford, and Brophy (2002) describe the following dimensions of HPL learning environments: 1. Learner centeredness. Instruction is tailored, based on a consideration of learners' prior knowledge as well as their prior experiences, misconceptions, and preconceptions about an instructional topic. 2. Knowledge centeredness. Issues related to what learners need to know are emphasized, along with how knowledge is structured and applied in various contexts. (This lens has implications for how instruction should be sequenced to support comprehension and use of this knowledge in new situations.) 3. Assessment centeredness. Frequent opportunities to monitor students' progress toward the learning goals are provided. Results are fed back to both instructors and learners. 4. Community centeredness. This HPL lens recognizes that students are members of multiple communities, including their classrooms, their departments, and their future professions. Opportunities encourage students and instructors to share and learn from each other.