Examining Research on Learning:
Implications for the Classroom
A Story
Elizabeth Helfant
ehelfant
Instructional Technology
Coordinator of Pedagogical Innovation
MICDS
Educational Collaborators
...
Tell a Story – Power of Narrative
Any story requires the “willing
suspension of disbelief”
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Story =...
How can I create a new learning
story – one that embraces
change?
Culture that is
Contemporary Childhood
Our
Protagonist
Informal Learner
Multi-Tasker
Can Focus when Motivated
Need to Learn Balance
Technology as Cognitive toolkit
How can Rebecca learn to use
tech to be a better thinker?
How can we as educators help
her...
Thinking Frameworks
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Bloom’s According to Seinfiled
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsBna5IV
BYg
SOLO Taxonomy
Structure of Observed
Learning Outcome
Marzano’s Framework
Research on metacognition, particularly in literacy and mathematics, makes a
convincing case that inst...
The Institution’s Story
The Journey of 1:1 AND Faculty Learning
The
Setting
Started with
Toolkit
But…..
It is NOT about
Technology
Content includes Skills
Skills
• Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
• Collaboration Across Networks and
Leading by Influence
• Agility and Adap...
New
OR
Evolved/More Sophisticated
SKILLS?
Effective Oral and Written
Communication
Consume and Create
Writing Foundation for Expression
Hypertext
Image-Supported
Image as Necessary
Video
Multimodal/Multimedia
Audience
Writing
ResearchInformation Literacy
iCyte
Media Literacy
Partnership for 21st century learning
What Skills do you now teach that you
didn’t teach before?
Which skill(s) do you need to start
teaching more deliberately?
Innovation
“Change that creates a new
dimension of performance.”
management guru Peter Drucker
• Still focusing on
Product
• Need to focus on
Student Learning –
on Process…
“What all young innovators have in
common is the importance of play,
passion and purpose in their lives.” p. 139
“The valu...
Skillful Thinking
Needs to be taught intentionally!
Choice 1
Where to Document the Thinking
Student Centric,
Collaborative,
Differentiated
PBL
JunoEd
Differentiation
Flipped Classroom
Flipped
Tools
What Does the Research Say?
• grade, socioeconomic
status, race, or school
setting….When feedback
and corrective procedure...
How Big is
Your Bubble?
Where do you need to set learning goals?
Which bubble(s) need to grow?
Story’s Structural Elements and
Conventions
The CABAL
A grassroots group – Caring About the Brain and
Learning
“A cabal is a group of people united in some
close desi...
Brain Research
•Importance of metacognition/reflection
•Cultural changes impact how brain gets wired via
activities/uses c...
• Intelligence is not fixed (Dweck)
• Effort /Motivation is as important as ability
• Deep learning is an active process
•...
Brain Timing
• Use Maximum Learning Times in Class
• Flash cards vs MC practice
• Closure
• Spaced Repetition
Key Ideas For Learning
• Need to develop metacognitive ability in kids
• Exercise is good
• Distinquish and address Types ...
Brain Checklist- CeNTeReD C
Brain Checklist
Is this appropriately chunked? Brain can
manage 4 items in working memory-
Use...
What does the Research Say?
Rank factors in order of importance to learning-
Self-Reporting Grades
Feedback
Microteaching
Formative Assessment
Class S...
Rank factors in order of importance to learning-
Self-Reporting Grades 1.44 1
Feedback 0.72 10
Microteaching 0.82 6
Format...
SAMR in Practice:
Digital Storytelling
PSA
Three Acts and What Can You Do with That?
Creating a Digital World
History Course
Shift to Thematic Approach
Organizing Concepts
• Geographic Location
• Chronological Sequencing
• Knowledge Connections
• Skills – backed by Standard...
Skills Packet
BOOM
2012
Knowledge Connections:
Use of Mind Maps
Collaborative Mind Maps – Matchware
Mindview+Shared Workspaces
Need to Export and
...
Motivation = Value X Expectancy
Connections
• Connect to current events
• Connect to STEM
• Connect to Art
• Connect to Math
Choice 3 – Engagement
and Mot...
DyKnow Lectures
OneNote Student
Notes
Teaching Reading Annotation
Teaching Writing with Google Docs
(Canvas Collaborations)
Teaching Research with NoodleTools
Teaching Intellectual Property: TurnItIn
Creating Products
• Piktochart Infographics – Show data
• Livestream – Presentations with Prezi
• Adobe Premiere Documenta...
Assessment
Canvas Quizzes
Canvas Graded
Discussions
Student Portfolio and
Mapping in Chalk and Wire
Standards-Based Gradebook
The Last Piece: TimeMap
Requirements
• Tag events with type, location, time period
• Color code
• Add information
• Show o...
BOOM
Brain Owner’s
Operating Manual
m.socrative.com/student
Choice 1 – Teaching Thinking
Choice 2- Power of Feedback
Choice 3- Engagement and Motivation Strat...
Beyond Choose Your Adventure
Perkin’s Thinking Classroom
Dimensions of Culture of Thinking
–Language
– Thinking dispositions
–Mental management
–Strate...
Consider Dispositions and Habits
Perkins Learning Dispositions for Good Thinking
• The Disposition to be curious and quest...
Thinking Language
• Terms to share with kids about thinking and
thinking processes
• Typically more specific than what is ...
Teacher’s job is to make explicit
that which we had hoped would
be implicit to our students.
Carol Tomlinson
“Skillful thinking is the proficient and strategic
application of appropriate thinking skills and
productive habits of min...
Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts
THINKING SKILLS
HABITS OF MIND
METACOGNITION
And Struggles
of Mind
Habits of Mind
Grading
3P – Product, Progress, Process
Standards Based Grades–
• ActiveGrade
• Blue Harvest
• Jupiter Grades
• Canvas
Habits of Mind
Brown’s Model of Executive Function
And Struggles
of Mind
Types of “ Skillful” Thinking in a
Culture of Thinking
• Creative (Design)
• Critical
• Systems
• Strategic/Logical (Probl...
Levels of Thinking
Complexity
not Difficulty
Complexity Bloom’s Taxonomy
Daggett’s
Rigor
Relevance
Framework
SKILLFULTHINKING
GAP
Frederick Douglas
Global Climate
Change
History Museum
PBL
Where are your Questions?
SKILLFULTHINKING
SOLO Thinking Framework
SOLO Heirachy
How do I teach thinking?
How do I teach student’s to take
responsibility for their learning?
BOOM
2012
Lumosity
Brainology
Thinking Routines
Harvard Project Zero
http://goo.gl/HvYUv
Visible Thinking-
Use of the Senses
to “see” thinking
Thinking Routines (Teacher Directed)
Thinking Routines Matrix
Ritchhart, Ron; Church, Mark; Morrison, Karin (2011-03-25). Making Thinking Visible:
How to Promo...
Rethinking the Toolkit
Toolkit
Teaching Types of Thinking
http://bigthink.com/inside-singularity-university/exponential-thinking
Creative
Creativity / Design
Empathy Map
Jot Not
Keeping it
ELECTRONIC
but not
underestimating
the power of f2f
and traditional
methods!
Critical Thinking
Performance Task
CWRA/CLA  Assessing Critical Thinking
http://goo.gl/mA6VO
http://goo.gl/WK2Py
STEPS
• IDENTIFY SCENARIO
• Write Problem Statement (Real Life)
• Determine Evidence to use
– 2 Detractors
– 3 Pro positio...
Systems Thinking
with ISEE STELLA
Fathom
Blogs
Passion and Metacognitive
Where to Document the Thinking
Toolkit
Conclusion
What is Feedback?
“Feedback is an objective description of a student’s
performance intended to guide future performance.
U...
What is Feedback?
 “Research has shown that
effective feedback is not a
discrete practice, but an
integral part of an
ins...
What is Feedback?
 “Feedback is not about praise or blame, approval or
disapproval. That’s what evaluation is – placing
v...
What is Feedback?
 “Effective feedback, however, shows where we are
in relationship to the objectives and what we need
to...
What is Feedback?
 “Effective feedback not only tells
students how they performed,
but how to improve the next
time they ...
Feedback Focus
 Academic
 Behavioral
Primary Purposes of
Feedback
 To keep students on course so they arrive
successfully at their predetermined destination.
...
What Does the Research Say?
 grade, socioeconomic status,
race, or school setting….When
feedback and corrective
procedure...
What Does the Research Say?
“Feedback seems to work well in so many situations
that it led researcher John Hattie (1992) t...
What Does the Research Say?
“In a major review of the research on assessment, Paul
Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998) noted
The...
Power of Accurate
Feedback
 Immediate impact on results
 Lower failures
 Better attendance
 Fewer suspensions
 Failur...
Characteristics of Feedback
 Timely
 “The more delay that occurs in giving feedback, the less improvement there is in ac...
Essential Elements of
Feedback
1. Recognition of the Desired Goal
2. Evidence about Present Position (current work)
3. Som...
1. Recognition of the
Desired Goal Includes:
 Clarity of the Learning Goal
 Clarity about Content Area
 Clarity of Curr...
Methods to Ensure Student
Understanding of Learning Goals
 Have students define what successful achievement of the goals
...
The Language of
Assessment
 “As a result of understanding the learning
destination and appreciating what quality work and...
2. Evidence About Present
Position
 What student work/assignments/projects look like –
“what is”
 Current work samples
3. Ways to Close the Gap
between Goals & Current State
 Provide guidance on how to improve (strategies,
tips, suggestions...
Sharing Feedback
 Oral, interactive (one-on-one) feedback is best whenever possible
 Use descriptive, not evaluative lan...
Feedback Timing
Good Timing
 Returning a test or
assignment the next day
 Giving immediate oral
responses to questions o...
Amount of Feedback
 For students to get enough feedback so that they
understand what to do but not so much that the
work ...
Amounts of Feedback
Good Amounts
 Selecting 2-3 main points
about a paper for comment
 Giving feedback on
important lear...
Strategies to Help Students
Learn to Use Feedback
 Model giving and using feedback yourself.
 Teach students self- and p...
Attaining Excellence
 “Students must have routine access to the criteria
and standards for the task they need to master; ...
Feedback Levels
 Feedback may be directed at one of four levels:
1. The task
“The best task-level feedback corrects flawe...
To reduce discrepancies
between current
understandings / performance
and a desired goal
The Discrepancy Can Be Reduced By
...
References
 Bellon, Jerry, Bellon, Elner, & Blank, Mary Ann. Teaching from a Research
Knowledge Base: A Development and R...
References, page 2
 Marzano(3), Robert. What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action.
ASCD, 2003.
 Miser, W. ...
Conclusion
Engagement
Equations for Learning
MOTIVATION ACTIVE LEARNING ENGAGEMENT
expectancy × value = motivation
Brophy (2004) and Cross (2001) observe that much of
what researchers have found can be org...
ATTENTION + MEMORY = LEARNING
ENGAGEMENT  ATTENTION
ENGAGEMENT + MEMORY = LEARNING
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
(They encourage Student-Centric practice,
Thinking, Closure)
Flash Cards
Formative
Quizzes
Focused Reading Notes
Classroom Salon
Flash Cards
Brainscape, Quizlet, StudyBlue
Standards-Based Formative Assessment
Naiku
Flash Cards
Formative
Quizzes
Academic Controversy
Classroom Collaborize
Flash Cards
Formative
Quizzes
Concept Maps
Mindomo/Spiderscribe/Bubbl.us
Flash Cards
Formative
Quizzes
Think Again – Blog or Docs Prompts
Insights, Resources, Applications –
Google Spreadsheets
Reading Assignment
Record on a shared google spreadsheet with
thre...
Circular Response/Fischbowl
TitanPad
Learning Logs
Portfolios
Formative Quizzes
Learning Catalytics, Socrative, InfuseLearning
Conclusion
SELF-REFLECTION
Learning Journals/Blogs
Shared Google Doc
Shared Spreadsheet – Key Idea/ What I learned/What I still
wonde...
Google Site Portfolios
Feedback and Peer Review
Teaching Skills (Common Core)
Corner Stone Assessments
• Enhanced with Technology
• Performance Based
Writing
• Nonfiction Blogging
• Peer Review
• Drafts in Progress
Writing
• Nonfiction Blogging
• Peer Review
• Drafts in Progress
Drafts in Progress
ReSEARCH
Research and Writing:
Noodle Tools and Google Docs
iCyte
Reading
iCyte
Insights, Resources, Applications –
Google Spreadsheets
Reading Assignment
Record on a shared google spreadsheet with
thre...
Creativity and Multimedia
http://goo.gl/Hu5Od
Three Acts and WCYDWT
Graphic Organizers/MindMaps
Dissecting Examples
• Fred Douglas
• Graphic Novel
• Video Essay _DBQ
• What can you do with that Math
Frederick Douglas Debates
Brainstorm – Mindiew Mind Map
Research – Noodle Tools
Write – Google Docs
Presentation - Creativ...
What If
Graphic Novels
Conclusion
http://www.topcoder.com/blog/21-amazing-stem-resources-you-can-use-right-now-to-
change-the-world/
POGIL- A Technique
POGIL – Student Centered Inquiry
http://ebookbrowse.com/football-problem-
pogil-ic-pdf-d93341912
https://www.youtube.com/w...
Group Dynamics
• http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2011/sites/iatefl/files/se
ssion/documents/better_group_dynamics.pdf
• h...
Differentiation with Technology
• Diigo Annotations
• LiveBinder
English Differentiated Assignment
Differentiation – Student Choice
VIsual Oral Research
Choose 1 per Category –
JunoEd
Teacher’s job is to make explicit
that which we had hoped would
be implicit to our students.
Carol Tomlinson
Teaching Thin...
Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts
THINKING SKILLS
HABITS OF MIND
METACOGNITION
And Struggles
of Mind
Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts
THINKING SKILLS
HABITS OF MIND
METACOGNITION
And Struggles
of Mind
Brown’s Model of Executive Function
Levels of Thinking
Complexity
not Difficulty
Complexity Bloom’s Taxonomy
Daggett’s
Rigor
Relevance
Framework
SKILLFULTHINKING
GAP
Frederick Douglas
Global Climate
Change
History Museum
PBL
SOLO Heirachy
Thinking Routines
Harvard Project Zero
http://goo.gl/HvYUv
Visible Thinking-
Use of the Senses
to “see” thinking
Thinking Routines (Teacher Directed)
Thinking Routines Matrix
Ritchhart, Ron; Church, Mark; Morrison, Karin (2011-03-25). Making Thinking Visible:
How to Promo...
Engagement
Equations for Learning
MOTIVATION ACTIVE LEARNING ENGAGEMENT
expectancy × value = motivation
Brophy (2004) and Cross (2001) observe that much of
what researchers have found can be org...
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
(They encourage Student-Centric practice)
Flash Cards
Formative
Quizzes
The Next Quest
Focused Reading Notes
Classroom Salon
Flash Cards
CoboCards, Quizlet, StudyBlue
Standards-Based Formative Assessment
Naiku
Concept Maps
Mindomo/Spiderscribe/Bubbl.us
Think Again – Blog or Docs Prompts
Academic Controversy
Classroom Collaborize
Insights, Resources, Applications –
Google Spreadsheets
Reading Assignment
Record on a shared google spreadsheet with
thre...
Circular Response/Fischbowl
TitanPad
Learning Logs
Portfolios
Formative Quizzes
Learning Catalytics, Socrative, InfuseLearning
Where to Document the Thinking
RAFTS Blog Prompts
Metacognition/Self-Reflection
http://www.justshuddup.com/tag/self-reflection/
Objectives
• Examine some research on learning
• Look at Frameworks for tech implementation
– TPACK and SAMR
• Explore cur...
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
Final examining research on learning and its implications for
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  • Story of our 1-to-1 and Rebecca as an average teen

    Colerdige quote – pose quesiton – how has trhe storytelling process been enhenced/changed by technology –
    Story elements expanded in digital medium – to augmented reality –
    What does this do to our brain -
  • How can Rebecca learn to use tech to be a better thinker-
    How can we as educators help her reach higher thinking levels?
  • ftp://download.intel.com/education/Common/in/Resources/DEP/skills/marzano.pdf
  • Global Achievement Gap
    Not in lieu of traditional
  • Know when to use images, when to use text when to use videos….
  • http://www.videonot.es/edit/0B8epKSr4e6Sad0JMQkE5dmNDajA
  • Fluencies are different because skills and tools are different-
    Advisory - digital citizenship
  • Add a question mark –
    What would innovation look like- a new level of performance-
    Student performance and school performance must be different – it must include changes to the learning process- improve the learning-

  • Hook kids with curiosity – provide an intersting prompt
  • Translates to importance of reflection and feedback
  • This is a really good activity-
    Sort in groups and decide order – groups put stickers on chart

    Moves us to talk about students centered and active learning
  • http://principalj.blogspot.com/2012/06/rigor-relevance-and-relationships.html
  • Mental management – get ready (visualize task, quiet time)
    Set goals
    Keep track of thinking – self monitoring
    after thinking reflect

    Strategic spirit
    State-Searcg_Evaluate_Elaborate

    Transfer- take knowledge and apply it- - this for me is the relevance and hook think- sense and meaning-
  • Skillfull thin
  • http://starttest.com/ITDVersions/5.3.0.0/ITDStart.aspx?SVC=7dfb5de6-5d6d-4b27-be86-e82688201ec5
    http://starttest.com/ITDVersions/5.3.0.0/ITDStart.aspx?SVC=7dfb5de6-5d6d-4b27-be86-e82688201ec5
  • Leitner Scale
    Spaced Repition
  • Hattie Activity
  • Skillfull thin
  • Leitner Scale
    Spaced Repition
  • Final examining research on learning and its implications for

    1. 1. Examining Research on Learning: Implications for the Classroom A Story
    2. 2. Elizabeth Helfant ehelfant Instructional Technology Coordinator of Pedagogical Innovation MICDS Educational Collaborators Introductions
    3. 3. Tell a Story – Power of Narrative Any story requires the “willing suspension of disbelief” Samuel Taylor Coleridge Story = Character +Predicament +Attempted Extrication Nature of Story Changes with new storytelling tools
    4. 4. How can I create a new learning story – one that embraces change?
    5. 5. Culture that is Contemporary Childhood Our Protagonist
    6. 6. Informal Learner Multi-Tasker Can Focus when Motivated Need to Learn Balance
    7. 7. Technology as Cognitive toolkit How can Rebecca learn to use tech to be a better thinker? How can we as educators help her reach higher thinking levels?
    8. 8. Thinking Frameworks Bloom’s Taxonomy
    9. 9. Bloom’s According to Seinfiled • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NsBna5IV BYg
    10. 10. SOLO Taxonomy Structure of Observed Learning Outcome
    11. 11. Marzano’s Framework Research on metacognition, particularly in literacy and mathematics, makes a convincing case that instruction and support in the control and regulation of thinking processes can have a strong impact on achievement (Paris, Wasik, Turner, 1991; Schoenfeld, 1992).
    12. 12. The Institution’s Story
    13. 13. The Journey of 1:1 AND Faculty Learning
    14. 14. The Setting
    15. 15. Started with Toolkit But….. It is NOT about Technology
    16. 16. Content includes Skills
    17. 17. Skills • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving • Collaboration Across Networks and Leading by Influence • Agility and Adaptability • Initiative and Entrepreneurship • Effective Oral and Written Communication • Accessing and Analyzing Information • Curiosity and Imagination
    18. 18. New OR Evolved/More Sophisticated SKILLS?
    19. 19. Effective Oral and Written Communication Consume and Create
    20. 20. Writing Foundation for Expression
    21. 21. Hypertext Image-Supported Image as Necessary Video Multimodal/Multimedia Audience Writing
    22. 22. ResearchInformation Literacy
    23. 23. iCyte
    24. 24. Media Literacy
    25. 25. Partnership for 21st century learning
    26. 26. What Skills do you now teach that you didn’t teach before? Which skill(s) do you need to start teaching more deliberately?
    27. 27. Innovation “Change that creates a new dimension of performance.” management guru Peter Drucker
    28. 28. • Still focusing on Product • Need to focus on Student Learning – on Process…
    29. 29. “What all young innovators have in common is the importance of play, passion and purpose in their lives.” p. 139 “The value of explicit information is rapidly dropping. Today the real added value is what you can do with what you know. And it is in the doing and the probing of the universe, the pursuit of a query that real learning takes place.” Paul Bottino – Technology and Entrepreneurship Center at Harvard
    30. 30. Skillful Thinking Needs to be taught intentionally! Choice 1
    31. 31. Where to Document the Thinking
    32. 32. Student Centric, Collaborative, Differentiated
    33. 33. PBL
    34. 34. JunoEd Differentiation
    35. 35. Flipped Classroom
    36. 36. Flipped Tools
    37. 37. What Does the Research Say? • grade, socioeconomic status, race, or school setting….When feedback and corrective procedures are used, most students can attain the same level of achievement as the top 20% of students.” • ~ Bellon, Bellon & Blank “Academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior….This relationship is consistent regardless of Choice 2
    38. 38. How Big is Your Bubble? Where do you need to set learning goals? Which bubble(s) need to grow?
    39. 39. Story’s Structural Elements and Conventions
    40. 40. The CABAL A grassroots group – Caring About the Brain and Learning “A cabal is a group of people united in some close design together, usually to promote their private views or interests in a church, state, or other community, often by intrigue. “ Image: http://bodyresolution.com/uncategorized/exercise-your-brain/
    41. 41. Brain Research •Importance of metacognition/reflection •Cultural changes impact how brain gets wired via activities/uses culture demands/encourages (Rosen) •We know very little (Judy Willis- Tokuhama-Espinosa) •Stress can be good and bad (ZPD/Flow) •Brain is a Garden- Control what you introduce into it (Willis) •Brains are unique and plastic •Exercise for your brain and your body is good (Ratey) http://www.flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/3203524576/sizes/m/in/photostream
    42. 42. • Intelligence is not fixed (Dweck) • Effort /Motivation is as important as ability • Deep learning is an active process • Importance of “chunking” • Teaching Focus • Learning is Social Photo Credit: Stockphoto/Vasiliy Yakobchuk )
    43. 43. Brain Timing • Use Maximum Learning Times in Class • Flash cards vs MC practice • Closure • Spaced Repetition
    44. 44. Key Ideas For Learning • Need to develop metacognitive ability in kids • Exercise is good • Distinquish and address Types of Thinking • Stress – manage it • Focus – allow for it • Differentiate • Provide Feedback • Change the way we Assess • Time the Lesson for the Brain • Increase Engagement and Motivation using Active Learning and Student Centered Strategies
    45. 45. Brain Checklist- CeNTeReD C Brain Checklist Is this appropriately chunked? Brain can manage 4 items in working memory- Use graphic organizer to facilitate chunking by helping establish patterns Is there something Novel? Is this on brain Time – (20 minute increment, spaced repetition) Is there something Relevant- a hook? Is there Differentiation? Is there an opportunity for Closure? (reflective journal, exit cards, think-pair- share)
    46. 46. What does the Research Say?
    47. 47. Rank factors in order of importance to learning- Self-Reporting Grades Feedback Microteaching Formative Assessment Class Size Piagetian Programs Teacher Credibility Metacognitive Strategies Concept Mapping Cooperative vs Individualized Learning Homework Interactive Video Methods Classroom Discussions
    48. 48. Rank factors in order of importance to learning- Self-Reporting Grades 1.44 1 Feedback 0.72 10 Microteaching 0.82 6 Formative Assessment 0.9 4 Class Size 0.22 113 Piagetian Programs 1.28 2 Teacher Credibility 0.9 5 Metacognitive Strategies 0.69 14 Concept Mapping 0.6 27 Cooperative vs Individualized Learning 0.59 28 Homework 0.29 94 Interactive Video Methods 0.52 46 Classroom Discussions 0.82 7
    49. 49. SAMR in Practice: Digital Storytelling PSA Three Acts and What Can You Do with That?
    50. 50. Creating a Digital World History Course
    51. 51. Shift to Thematic Approach
    52. 52. Organizing Concepts • Geographic Location • Chronological Sequencing • Knowledge Connections • Skills – backed by Standards Need these to get to Application/Analysis, Synthesis, Creation
    53. 53. Skills Packet
    54. 54. BOOM 2012
    55. 55. Knowledge Connections: Use of Mind Maps Collaborative Mind Maps – Matchware Mindview+Shared Workspaces Need to Export and Import to Excel
    56. 56. Motivation = Value X Expectancy
    57. 57. Connections • Connect to current events • Connect to STEM • Connect to Art • Connect to Math Choice 3 – Engagement and Motivation
    58. 58. DyKnow Lectures OneNote Student Notes
    59. 59. Teaching Reading Annotation
    60. 60. Teaching Writing with Google Docs (Canvas Collaborations)
    61. 61. Teaching Research with NoodleTools
    62. 62. Teaching Intellectual Property: TurnItIn
    63. 63. Creating Products • Piktochart Infographics – Show data • Livestream – Presentations with Prezi • Adobe Premiere Documentary • Glogster • Photoshop and Comic Life
    64. 64. Assessment Canvas Quizzes Canvas Graded Discussions
    65. 65. Student Portfolio and Mapping in Chalk and Wire
    66. 66. Standards-Based Gradebook
    67. 67. The Last Piece: TimeMap Requirements • Tag events with type, location, time period • Color code • Add information • Show on Map • Show on Timeline • Sort by tag, time period, location • Student generated
    68. 68. BOOM Brain Owner’s Operating Manual
    69. 69. m.socrative.com/student Choice 1 – Teaching Thinking Choice 2- Power of Feedback Choice 3- Engagement and Motivation Strategies Choice 4 – More examples of TPACK certified curriculum Time Ran Out
    70. 70. Beyond Choose Your Adventure
    71. 71. Perkin’s Thinking Classroom Dimensions of Culture of Thinking –Language – Thinking dispositions –Mental management –Strategic spirit –Higher order thinking – Transfer (sense and meaning-Sousa)
    72. 72. Consider Dispositions and Habits Perkins Learning Dispositions for Good Thinking • The Disposition to be curious and questioning • The Disposition to think broadly and adventurously • The Disposition to reason clearly and carefully • The Disposition to organize one’s thinking • The Disposition to give time to thinking – From The Thinking Classroom-Learning and Teaching in a Culture of Thinking, Perkins, Tishman, Jay
    73. 73. Thinking Language • Terms to share with kids about thinking and thinking processes • Typically more specific than what is often used in classrooms
    74. 74. Teacher’s job is to make explicit that which we had hoped would be implicit to our students. Carol Tomlinson
    75. 75. “Skillful thinking is the proficient and strategic application of appropriate thinking skills and productive habits of mind, as needed, to develop thoughtful products, such as decisions, arguments, and other analytical, creative, or critical products.” P1 What is Skillful Thinking? Also includes the ability to consume, collaborate and create in a digital world.
    76. 76. Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts THINKING SKILLS HABITS OF MIND METACOGNITION And Struggles of Mind
    77. 77. Habits of Mind
    78. 78. Grading 3P – Product, Progress, Process Standards Based Grades– • ActiveGrade • Blue Harvest • Jupiter Grades • Canvas
    79. 79. Habits of Mind
    80. 80. Brown’s Model of Executive Function And Struggles of Mind
    81. 81. Types of “ Skillful” Thinking in a Culture of Thinking • Creative (Design) • Critical • Systems • Strategic/Logical (Problem Solving) • Empathetic • Disciplinary • Reflective • Ethical
    82. 82. Levels of Thinking Complexity not Difficulty
    83. 83. Complexity Bloom’s Taxonomy
    84. 84. Daggett’s Rigor Relevance Framework SKILLFULTHINKING GAP Frederick Douglas Global Climate Change History Museum PBL
    85. 85. Where are your Questions? SKILLFULTHINKING
    86. 86. SOLO Thinking Framework
    87. 87. SOLO Heirachy
    88. 88. How do I teach thinking? How do I teach student’s to take responsibility for their learning?
    89. 89. BOOM 2012
    90. 90. Lumosity
    91. 91. Brainology
    92. 92. Thinking Routines Harvard Project Zero http://goo.gl/HvYUv Visible Thinking- Use of the Senses to “see” thinking
    93. 93. Thinking Routines (Teacher Directed)
    94. 94. Thinking Routines Matrix Ritchhart, Ron; Church, Mark; Morrison, Karin (2011-03-25). Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners (p. 50). John Wiley and Sons. Kindle Edition.
    95. 95. Rethinking the Toolkit
    96. 96. Toolkit
    97. 97. Teaching Types of Thinking http://bigthink.com/inside-singularity-university/exponential-thinking
    98. 98. Creative
    99. 99. Creativity / Design
    100. 100. Empathy Map
    101. 101. Jot Not Keeping it ELECTRONIC but not underestimating the power of f2f and traditional methods!
    102. 102. Critical Thinking Performance Task CWRA/CLA  Assessing Critical Thinking http://goo.gl/mA6VO http://goo.gl/WK2Py
    103. 103. STEPS • IDENTIFY SCENARIO • Write Problem Statement (Real Life) • Determine Evidence to use – 2 Detractors – 3 Pro position – 3 Con Position – 1 tipping the scale – Student Job is to take evidence and identify a solution
    104. 104. Systems Thinking with ISEE STELLA
    105. 105. Fathom
    106. 106. Blogs Passion and Metacognitive
    107. 107. Where to Document the Thinking
    108. 108. Toolkit
    109. 109. Conclusion
    110. 110. What is Feedback? “Feedback is an objective description of a student’s performance intended to guide future performance. Unlike evaluation, which judges performance, feedback is the process of helping our students assess their performance, identify areas where they are right on target and provide them tips on what they can do in the future to improve in areas that need correcting.” ~ W. Fred Miser
    111. 111. What is Feedback?  “Research has shown that effective feedback is not a discrete practice, but an integral part of an instructional dialogue between teacher and student, (or between students, or between the student and him/herself).” From “Providing Students with Effective Feedback”
    112. 112. What is Feedback?  “Feedback is not about praise or blame, approval or disapproval. That’s what evaluation is – placing value. Feedback is value-neutral. It describes what you did and did not do.” ~ Grant Wiggins
    113. 113. What is Feedback?  “Effective feedback, however, shows where we are in relationship to the objectives and what we need to do to get there.  “It helps our students see the assignments and tasks we give them as opportunities to learn and grow rather than as assaults on their self-concept.  “And, effective feedback allows us to tap into a powerful means of not only helping students learn, but helping them get better at learning.” ~ Robyn R. Jackson
    114. 114. What is Feedback?  “Effective feedback not only tells students how they performed, but how to improve the next time they engage the task. Effective feedback is provided in such a timely manner that the next opportunity to perform the task is measured in seconds, not weeks or months.” ~ Douglas Reeves, p. 227
    115. 115. Feedback Focus  Academic  Behavioral
    116. 116. Primary Purposes of Feedback  To keep students on course so they arrive successfully at their predetermined destination. ~ W. Fred Miser “It is one thing to collect feedback about students’ progress, but if you simply collect this feedback and never use it to adjust your instruction, then you are collecting it in vain. The data you receive from grading your assignments and assessments will give you feedback about the effectiveness of your own instruction.” ~ Robyn R. Jackson
    117. 117. What Does the Research Say?  grade, socioeconomic status, race, or school setting….When feedback and corrective procedures are used, most students can attain the same level of achievement as the top 20% of students.”  ~ Bellon, Bellon & Blank “Academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior….This relationship is consistent regardless of
    118. 118. What Does the Research Say? “Feedback seems to work well in so many situations that it led researcher John Hattie (1992) to make the following comment after analyzing almost 8,000 studies: ‘The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback.’” ~ Robert Marzano
    119. 119. What Does the Research Say? “In a major review of the research on assessment, Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam (1998) noted The research reported here shows conclusively that formative assessment does improve learning. The gains in achievement appear to be quite considerable, and as noted earlier, amongst the largest ever reported for educational interventions. As an illustration of just how big these gain are, an effect size of 0.7, if it could be achieved on a nationwide scale, would be equivalent to raising the mathematics achievement score of an ‘average’ country like England, New Zealand or the United States into the ‘top five’ after thee Pacific rim countries of Singapore, Korea, Japan and Hong Kong.” ~ What Works in Schools, p. 38
    120. 120. Power of Accurate Feedback  Immediate impact on results  Lower failures  Better attendance  Fewer suspensions  Failure here undermines EVERY OTHER EFFORT in curriculum, assessment, and teaching ~ Douglas Reeves, Asilomar Conference 2009 Powerpoint
    121. 121. Characteristics of Feedback  Timely  “The more delay that occurs in giving feedback, the less improvement there is in achievement.” (Marzano(1), p. 97)  As often as possible, for all major assignments  Constructive/Corrective  What students are doing that is correct  What students are doing that is not correct  Choose areas of feedback based on those that relate to major learning goals and essential elements of the assignment  Should be encouraging and help students realize that effort on their part results in more learning (Marzano(2), p. 105)  Specific to a Criterion  Precise language on what to do to improve  Reference where a student stands in relation to a specific learning target/goal  Also specific to the learning at hand  Based on personal observations  Focused on the product/behavior – not on the student  Verified  Did the student understand the feedback?  Opportunities are provided to modify assignments, products, etc. based on the feedback  What is my follow up plan to monitor and assist the student in these areas?)
    122. 122. Essential Elements of Feedback 1. Recognition of the Desired Goal 2. Evidence about Present Position (current work) 3. Some Understanding of a Way to Close the Gap Between the Two ~ Black & William
    123. 123. 1. Recognition of the Desired Goal Includes:  Clarity of the Learning Goal  Clarity about Content Area  Clarity of Curricular Indicators  Clarity of Mastery Objectives  Clearly communicating the desired learning goal to students through instruction.  A “Vision of Excellence”
    124. 124. Methods to Ensure Student Understanding of Learning Goals  Have students define what successful achievement of the goals looks or sounds like. (Developing a “criteria for success”)  Provide several samples, models, exemplars, etc. of products that achieve the learning goal in exemplary fashion.  Lead students through an analysis of the criteria of successful achievement in terms of the samples provided. Could be through the use of rubrics or descriptions of the practice/product.  Compare students’ product to the criteria for success (highlight/use “+” through criteria that were met by the product)  Have students continue working on a task until they succeed.
    125. 125. The Language of Assessment  “As a result of understanding the learning destination and appreciating what quality work and success look like, students:  Begin to learn the language of assessment. This means students learn to talk about and reflect on their own work using the language of criteria and learning destinations.  Gain the knowledge they need to make decisions that help close the gap between where they are in their learning and where they need to be.” ~ Anne Davies, p. 38
    126. 126. 2. Evidence About Present Position  What student work/assignments/projects look like – “what is”  Current work samples
    127. 127. 3. Ways to Close the Gap between Goals & Current State  Provide guidance on how to improve (strategies, tips, suggestions, reflective questioning, etc.)  Provide student-friendly version of learning targets along with actual samples of student work  Provide help to improve  Provide time to work on the improvement, apply the feedback
    128. 128. Sharing Feedback  Oral, interactive (one-on-one) feedback is best whenever possible  Use descriptive, not evaluative language  Focus on what went well and what can be improved in language students understand  Seek consensus with the student(s) – do you agree on the assessment of this product?  Focus on the performance and/or behavior – not the student  Focus on those behaviors that the student can do something about.  Provide a demonstration if “how to do something” is an issue or if the student needs an example.  Group/class feedback works when most students missed the same concept, providing an opportunity for reteaching.
    129. 129. Feedback Timing Good Timing  Returning a test or assignment the next day  Giving immediate oral responses to questions of fact  Giving immediate oral responses to student misconceptions  Providing flash cards (which give immediate right/wrong feedback) for studying facts Bad Timing  Returning a test or assignment two weeks after it is completed  Ignoring errors or misconceptions (thereby implying acceptance)  Going over a test or assignment when the unit is over and there is no opportunity to show improvement ~ Susan Brookhart
    130. 130. Amount of Feedback  For students to get enough feedback so that they understand what to do but not so much that the work has been done for them (differs case by case)  For students to get feedback on “teachable moment” points but not an overwhelming number ~ Susan Brookhart
    131. 131. Amounts of Feedback Good Amounts  Selecting 2-3 main points about a paper for comment  Giving feedback on important learning targets  Commenting on at least as many strengths as weaknesses Bad Amounts  Returning a student’s paper with every error in mechanics edited  Writing comments on a paper that are more voluminous that the paper itself  Writing voluminous comments on poor-quality papers and almost nothing on good-quality papers ~ Susan Brookhart
    132. 132. Strategies to Help Students Learn to Use Feedback  Model giving and using feedback yourself.  Teach students self- and peer assessment skills to:  Teach students where feedback comes from.  Increase students’ interest in feedback because it’s “theirs”.  Answer students’ own questions.  Develop self-regulation skills, necessary for using any feedback.  Be clear about the learning target and the criteria for good work.  Use assignments with obvious value and interest.  Explain to the student why an assignment is given – what the work is for.  Make directions clear.  Use clear rubrics.  Have students develop their own rubrics or translate yours into “kid-friendly” language.  Design lessons that incorporate using the rubrics as students work.  Design lessons in which students use feedback on previous work to produce better work.  Provide opportunities to redo assignments. (Comparing a rough draft to the rubric/criteria/exemplar.)  Give new but similar assignments for the same learning targets.  Give opportunities for students to make the connection between the feedback they received and the improvement in their work. ~ Susan Brookhart
    133. 133. Attaining Excellence  “Students must have routine access to the criteria and standards for the task they need to master; they must have feedback in their attempts to master those tasks; and they must have opportunities to use the feedback to revise work and resubmit it for evaluation against the standard. Excellence is attained by such cycles of model-practice-perform- feedback-perform.” ~ Grant Wiggins
    134. 134. Feedback Levels  Feedback may be directed at one of four levels: 1. The task “The best task-level feedback corrects flawed interpretations rather than a lack of knowledge and helps students focus on using strategies to achieve their learning goals.” ~ Center on Instruction 2. The processing of the task ~ facilitating depth in learning (encouraging students’ use of strategies to check their work, recognize errors, and self-correct) 3. Self-regulation ~ helping students internalize the practice of self-monitoring their learning and work. 4. The student as an individual ~ least effective feedback
    135. 135. To reduce discrepancies between current understandings / performance and a desired goal The Discrepancy Can Be Reduced By Teachers Providing appropriate challenging and specific goals OR Assisting students to reach them through affective strategies Students Increased effort and employment of more effective strategies OR Abandoning, blurring or lowering the goals EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK ANSWERS THREE QUESTIONS Feed Up Where am I going? (The Goals) Feed Back How am I going? Feed Forward Where to next? PURPOSE HATTIE&TIMPERLEY’SFEEDBACKMODEL
    136. 136. References  Bellon, Jerry, Bellon, Elner, & Blank, Mary Ann. Teaching from a Research Knowledge Base: A Development and Renewal Process, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.  Black & William, “Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment” Phi Delta Kappan, October 1998.  Brookhart, Susan M. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. ASCD, 2008.  Davies, Anne. “Involving Students in the Classroom Assessment Process” Ahead of the Curve: The Power of Assessment to Transform Teaching and Learning. Douglas Reeves, Editor. Solution Tree, 2007.  Jackson, Robyn R. Never Work Harder Than Your Students & Other Principles of Great Teaching. ASCD, 2009.  Marzano(1), Robert. Classroom Instruction that Works. ASCD, 2001.  Marzano(2), Robert. “Designing a Comprehensive Approach to Classroom Assessment.” Ahead of the Curve: The Power of Assessment to Transform Teaching and Learning. Douglas Reeves, Editor. Solution Tree, 2007.
    137. 137. References, page 2  Marzano(3), Robert. What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. ASCD, 2003.  Miser, W. Fred. “Giving Effective Feedback”  “Providing Students with Effective Feedback” Academic Leadership LIVE: The Online Journal; Volume 4, Issue 4, February 12, 2007.  Reeves, Douglas. “Challenges and Choices: The Role of Educational Leaders in Effective Assessment.” Ahead of the Curve: The Power of Assessment to Transform Teaching and Learning. Douglas Reeves, Editor. Solution Tree, 2007.  Stiggins, Rick. “Assessment for Learning: An Essential Foundation of Productive Instruction.” Ahead of the Curve: The Power of Assessment to Transform Teaching and Learning. Douglas Reeves, Editor. Solution Tree, 2007.  “Synopsis of ‘The Power of Feedback’” by Center on Instruction, 2008. [Hattie & Timperley’s research]  Wiggins, Grant. Educative Assessment: Designing Assessments to Inform and Improve Student Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1998.
    138. 138. Conclusion
    139. 139. Engagement
    140. 140. Equations for Learning
    141. 141. MOTIVATION ACTIVE LEARNING ENGAGEMENT
    142. 142. expectancy × value = motivation Brophy (2004) and Cross (2001) observe that much of what researchers have found can be organized within an expectancy × value model. This model holds that the effort that people are willing to expend on a task is the product of the degree to which they expect to be able to perform the task successfully (expectancy) and the degree to which they value the rewards as well as the opportunity to engage in performing the task itself (value). Barkley, Elizabeth F. (2009-10-06). Student Engagement Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty (Higher and Adult Education Series) (Kindle Locations 475-478). John Wiley and Sons. Kindle Edition.
    143. 143. ATTENTION + MEMORY = LEARNING ENGAGEMENT  ATTENTION ENGAGEMENT + MEMORY = LEARNING
    144. 144. STUDENT ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES (They encourage Student-Centric practice, Thinking, Closure)
    145. 145. Flash Cards Formative Quizzes
    146. 146. Focused Reading Notes Classroom Salon
    147. 147. Flash Cards Brainscape, Quizlet, StudyBlue
    148. 148. Standards-Based Formative Assessment Naiku
    149. 149. Flash Cards Formative Quizzes
    150. 150. Academic Controversy Classroom Collaborize
    151. 151. Flash Cards Formative Quizzes
    152. 152. Concept Maps Mindomo/Spiderscribe/Bubbl.us
    153. 153. Flash Cards Formative Quizzes
    154. 154. Think Again – Blog or Docs Prompts
    155. 155. Insights, Resources, Applications – Google Spreadsheets Reading Assignment Record on a shared google spreadsheet with three columns- Insights, Resources, Application • new perceptions or understandings (Insights) • a resource they have found that amplifies the reading’s themes or information (Resources) • an example from the student’s personal experience that relates to the reading (Application). RESOURCES
    156. 156. Circular Response/Fischbowl TitanPad
    157. 157. Learning Logs Portfolios
    158. 158. Formative Quizzes Learning Catalytics, Socrative, InfuseLearning
    159. 159. Conclusion
    160. 160. SELF-REFLECTION Learning Journals/Blogs Shared Google Doc Shared Spreadsheet – Key Idea/ What I learned/What I still wonder Frederick Douglas Speaker Series – Ustream Presentations WHY? Brain Closure – move to long term memory
    161. 161. Google Site Portfolios
    162. 162. Feedback and Peer Review
    163. 163. Teaching Skills (Common Core)
    164. 164. Corner Stone Assessments • Enhanced with Technology • Performance Based
    165. 165. Writing • Nonfiction Blogging • Peer Review • Drafts in Progress
    166. 166. Writing • Nonfiction Blogging • Peer Review • Drafts in Progress
    167. 167. Drafts in Progress
    168. 168. ReSEARCH
    169. 169. Research and Writing: Noodle Tools and Google Docs
    170. 170. iCyte
    171. 171. Reading iCyte
    172. 172. Insights, Resources, Applications – Google Spreadsheets Reading Assignment Record on a shared google spreadsheet with three columns- Insights, Resources, Application • new perceptions or understandings (Insights) • a resource they have found that amplifies the reading’s themes or information (Resources) • an example from the student’s personal experience that relates to the reading (Application).
    173. 173. Creativity and Multimedia http://goo.gl/Hu5Od
    174. 174. Three Acts and WCYDWT
    175. 175. Graphic Organizers/MindMaps
    176. 176. Dissecting Examples • Fred Douglas • Graphic Novel • Video Essay _DBQ • What can you do with that Math
    177. 177. Frederick Douglas Debates Brainstorm – Mindiew Mind Map Research – Noodle Tools Write – Google Docs Presentation - Creative Commons/Visual Literacy Reflection – Ustream archive and blog (Learning Journal)
    178. 178. What If
    179. 179. Graphic Novels
    180. 180. Conclusion
    181. 181. http://www.topcoder.com/blog/21-amazing-stem-resources-you-can-use-right-now-to- change-the-world/
    182. 182. POGIL- A Technique
    183. 183. POGIL – Student Centered Inquiry http://ebookbrowse.com/football-problem- pogil-ic-pdf-d93341912 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d- XbjFn3aqE https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0A5 590CEE7F2EC3B https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogdeHzBi 4YM
    184. 184. Group Dynamics • http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2011/sites/iatefl/files/se ssion/documents/better_group_dynamics.pdf • http://cte.uwaterloo.ca/teaching_resources/tips/group _work_types_of_small_groups.html • http://cte.uwaterloo.ca/teaching_resources/tips/group _work_in_the_classroom_small_group_tasks.html • Jigsaw • Mixed ability • Flexible • Random generators
    185. 185. Differentiation with Technology • Diigo Annotations • LiveBinder
    186. 186. English Differentiated Assignment
    187. 187. Differentiation – Student Choice VIsual Oral Research Choose 1 per Category –
    188. 188. JunoEd
    189. 189. Teacher’s job is to make explicit that which we had hoped would be implicit to our students. Carol Tomlinson Teaching Thinking To Frameworks
    190. 190. Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts THINKING SKILLS HABITS OF MIND METACOGNITION And Struggles of Mind
    191. 191. Skillful Thinking- 3 Parts THINKING SKILLS HABITS OF MIND METACOGNITION And Struggles of Mind
    192. 192. Brown’s Model of Executive Function
    193. 193. Levels of Thinking Complexity not Difficulty
    194. 194. Complexity Bloom’s Taxonomy
    195. 195. Daggett’s Rigor Relevance Framework SKILLFULTHINKING GAP Frederick Douglas Global Climate Change History Museum PBL
    196. 196. SOLO Heirachy
    197. 197. Thinking Routines Harvard Project Zero http://goo.gl/HvYUv Visible Thinking- Use of the Senses to “see” thinking
    198. 198. Thinking Routines (Teacher Directed)
    199. 199. Thinking Routines Matrix Ritchhart, Ron; Church, Mark; Morrison, Karin (2011-03-25). Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners (p. 50). John Wiley and Sons. Kindle Edition.
    200. 200. Engagement
    201. 201. Equations for Learning
    202. 202. MOTIVATION ACTIVE LEARNING ENGAGEMENT
    203. 203. expectancy × value = motivation Brophy (2004) and Cross (2001) observe that much of what researchers have found can be organized within an expectancy × value model. This model holds that the effort that people are willing to expend on a task is the product of the degree to which they expect to be able to perform the task successfully (expectancy) and the degree to which they value the rewards as well as the opportunity to engage in performing the task itself (value). Barkley, Elizabeth F. (2009-10-06). Student Engagement Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty (Higher and Adult Education Series) (Kindle Locations 475-478). John Wiley and Sons. Kindle Edition.
    204. 204. STUDENT ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES (They encourage Student-Centric practice)
    205. 205. Flash Cards Formative Quizzes
    206. 206. The Next Quest
    207. 207. Focused Reading Notes Classroom Salon
    208. 208. Flash Cards CoboCards, Quizlet, StudyBlue
    209. 209. Standards-Based Formative Assessment Naiku
    210. 210. Concept Maps Mindomo/Spiderscribe/Bubbl.us
    211. 211. Think Again – Blog or Docs Prompts
    212. 212. Academic Controversy Classroom Collaborize
    213. 213. Insights, Resources, Applications – Google Spreadsheets Reading Assignment Record on a shared google spreadsheet with three columns- Insights, Resources, Application • new perceptions or understandings (Insights) • a resource they have found that amplifies the reading’s themes or information (Resources) • an example from the student’s personal experience that relates to the reading (Application).
    214. 214. Circular Response/Fischbowl TitanPad
    215. 215. Learning Logs Portfolios
    216. 216. Formative Quizzes Learning Catalytics, Socrative, InfuseLearning
    217. 217. Where to Document the Thinking
    218. 218. RAFTS Blog Prompts
    219. 219. Metacognition/Self-Reflection http://www.justshuddup.com/tag/self-reflection/
    220. 220. Objectives • Examine some research on learning • Look at Frameworks for tech implementation – TPACK and SAMR • Explore curriculum that heeds what research says • Consider ways in which technology can be leveraged to implement research-aligned practices

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