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Toolbox of Strategies to Meet the Needs of Highly Able Learners Based on the research & teachings of  Carol Ann Tomlinson ...
What is…… <ul><li>A 3-step process that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses  what a student knows about material to be studied...
Curriculum Compacting OBJECTIVES to be MASTERED CONTENT to be COVERED How many apples would be left if you bought 12 and t...
Definition  <ul><li>Brief and to the point; concise  </li></ul><ul><li>To press or join firmly together:  a kitchen device...
Compacting  What do you think was the purpose behind the invention of the trash compactor??
Curricular Compacting
Curriculum Compacting is… <ul><li>A  procedure  used to streamline the grade level curriculum for high potential students ...
Goals that educators strive to achieve through compacting the curriculum: <ul><li>Create a  challenging learning environme...
Definition <ul><li>The process of: </li></ul><ul><li>identifying  learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>pre-testing  stude...
Description <ul><li>A 3-step process implemented by the teacher for one or more students who have mastered portions of the...
Recommended Use <ul><li>Curriculum Compacting should be used for students who have demonstrated  mastery  on pre-assessmen...
Teacher Implementation Guidelines <ul><li>Explain  the process & its benefits to students and parents </li></ul><ul><li>Do...
Learning Contracts <ul><li>Agreements between students & teachers that grant certain freedoms & choices about completing t...
To Make This Easier <ul><li>Renzulli suggests…..  </li></ul>Use  “The Compactor”
Oops!! Wrong Compactor
 
TWO VERSIONS OF CURRICULUM COMPACTING Allowing the core curriculum to be covered without unnecessary repetition and repeti...
Basic Skill Compacting  Spelling, Math, Grammar, Applied Academics <ul><li>Easy to implement because pre-testing is less d...
Content Compacting  Social Studies, Science, Literature, A.A. <ul><li>Students may already know the objectives or be able ...
STUDENT BEHAVIORS WHICH MAY SUGGEST THAT COMPACTING IS NECESSARY <ul><li>Consistently finishes tasks quickly </li></ul><ul...
Do you know THIS student???
 
X Highly Able
RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM COMPACTING  A checklist <ul><li>Students already know much of their text’s content before “learni...
(1)Whose support is needed to help you implement your compacting plan for the “underachieving” student(s) you have identif...
Simplified steps to follow when compacting the curriculum: <ul><li>Define goals and outcomes  </li></ul><ul><li>Identify c...
CURRICULUM COMPACTING <ul><li>A procedure used to streamline the regular curriculum for students who are capable of master...
Resources <ul><li>Farmer (1996). Meeting the needs of gifted students in the regular classroom: curriculum compacting.  ht...
C.A.Q. 11 of the most commonly asked questions on Curriculum Compacting
Q1. What is required before you start compacting?  
<ul><li>A1. To compact effectively, you must have:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clear understanding of your curricular objecti...
Q2. Can classroom teachers compact curriculum without the help of “the enrichment specialist”?  
<ul><li>A2. Yes! In fact,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom teachers bear the primary responsibility for implementing the c...
Q3. What should I tell my students about compacting?  
<ul><li>A3 .  Compacting should be explained in simple terms to all students.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the points you ...
Q4. What are the least difficult subject areas to compact?
<ul><li>A4. Usually, skill areas with highly sequential curricular organization, such as spelling, mathematics and grammar...
Q5. If I teach process writing or the &quot;whole language&quot; approach, is compacting is unnecessary?
<ul><li>A5. No! With process writing, youngsters who master the writing objectives for their grade level shouldn't just mo...
Q6. Is it better to compact by time period (every marking period, for instance) or by instructional unit?
<ul><li>A6. Compacting by instructional unit is best. A &quot;unit&quot; generally refers to an instructional period that ...
Q7. Do you recommend compacting an entire semester, leaving the last two months free for student self-selected projects, o...
<ul><li>A7. Most teachers prefer to compact two or three days a week, and set aside one or two days or short blocks of tim...
Q8. If I compact for my high ability students, and let them leave the class for alternative activities, won't the quality ...
<ul><li>A8. Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. However, we must also remember tha...
Q9. How do I grade when I compact curriculum?
<ul><li>A9. Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. You should grade on the regular cu...
Q10. Is there a way to physically reorganize my classroom space to make compacting easier?
<ul><li>A10.   Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. You should grade on the regular...
Q11. What advice do teachers who have successfully used compacting give to other teachers?
<ul><li>A11.  Answer   </li></ul>
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Curricular Compacting

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Transcript of "Curricular Compacting"

  1. 1. Toolbox of Strategies to Meet the Needs of Highly Able Learners Based on the research & teachings of Carol Ann Tomlinson and Joseph S. Renzulli
  2. 2. What is…… <ul><li>A 3-step process that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assesses what a student knows about material to be studied and what the student still needs to master ( Pre-assessment ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for learning what is not known and excuses students from what is known ( That’s you ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plans for “freed-up” time to be spent in enriched or accelerated study???? ( This is Us ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And the answer is…. </li></ul>Curricular Compacting
  3. 3. Curriculum Compacting OBJECTIVES to be MASTERED CONTENT to be COVERED How many apples would be left if you bought 12 and then ate 2 of them? I wonder if the Mars spacecraft crashed because the engineers forgot to convert acceleration data from pounds of force into Newton’s?
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>Brief and to the point; concise </li></ul><ul><li>To press or join firmly together: a kitchen device that compacted the trash. </li></ul><ul><li>To make by pressing or joining together; compose. </li></ul><ul><li>To consolidate; combine </li></ul><ul><li>Dense </li></ul><ul><li>Solid </li></ul><ul><li>Packed in </li></ul><ul><li>Packed together </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed </li></ul><ul><li>Condensed </li></ul><ul><li>Squashed </li></ul><ul><li>Squeezed together </li></ul>Synonyms Compacting
  5. 5. Compacting What do you think was the purpose behind the invention of the trash compactor??
  6. 6. Curricular Compacting
  7. 7. Curriculum Compacting is… <ul><li>A procedure used to streamline the grade level curriculum for high potential students to provide time for more challenging and interesting work. </li></ul><ul><li>An instructional technique that is specifically designed to make appropriate curricular adjustments for students in any curricular area and at any grade level. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Goals that educators strive to achieve through compacting the curriculum: <ul><li>Create a challenging learning environment , guarantee proficiency in basic curriculum, and buy time for enrichment and acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wasting time and risking loss of motivation in teaching material that the students have already mastered </li></ul><ul><li>Provide curriculum that is adapted to the learning needs, rates, and interests of students </li></ul><ul><li>“ Streamline &quot; and modify the grade level curriculum by eliminating material that students have previously learned </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition <ul><li>The process of: </li></ul><ul><li>identifying learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>pre-testing students for prior mastery of these objectives </li></ul><ul><li>eliminating needless teaching practice if mastery can be documented. </li></ul>Dr. Sally Reis
  10. 10. Description <ul><li>A 3-step process implemented by the teacher for one or more students who have mastered portions of the essential curriculum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-assess what a student knows about content/skills to be studied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify learning activities so that the student only receives direct instruction about what he/she does not already know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide alternate learning activities that offer acceleration or meaningful & challenging enrichment </li></ul></ul>Adapted from Tomlinson & Renzulli
  11. 11. Recommended Use <ul><li>Curriculum Compacting should be used for students who have demonstrated mastery on pre-assessment(s) prior to whole group instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Compacting should be used to allow the student choice in use of time “bought” through previous mastery of content skills </li></ul>Adapted from Tomlinson & Renzulli
  12. 12. Teacher Implementation Guidelines <ul><li>Explain the process & its benefits to students and parents </li></ul><ul><li>Document pre-assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Compact for part or all of a unit of study </li></ul><ul><li>Provide written plans and timelines for study (see Learning Contracts slide) </li></ul>Adapted from Tomlinson & Renzulli
  13. 13. Learning Contracts <ul><li>Agreements between students & teachers that grant certain freedoms & choices about completing tasks yet require the students to meet certain specifications </li></ul>Used to manage flexible groups based on the results of pre-assessment(s). Enable the teacher to provide direct instruction to one group while individuals in small groups work independently Match skill & content to readiness, interest, and learning profile of student Allow student choice in portions of contract related to process or product Establish clear & challenging criteria for success Provide clear directions & behavioral expectations in writing!! Adapted from Tomlinson & Renzulli
  14. 14. To Make This Easier <ul><li>Renzulli suggests….. </li></ul>Use “The Compactor”
  15. 15. Oops!! Wrong Compactor
  16. 17. TWO VERSIONS OF CURRICULUM COMPACTING Allowing the core curriculum to be covered without unnecessary repetition and repetitive drilling.
  17. 18. Basic Skill Compacting Spelling, Math, Grammar, Applied Academics <ul><li>Easy to implement because pre-testing is less difficult and mastery can be efficiently documented. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the student already know the skills being covered in the classroom? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can proficiency be documented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can certain skills be eliminated? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will the students be allowed (and encouraged) to master basic skills at his/her own pace)? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If skills can be mastered at a pace commensurate with a student’s ability, will the students be able to help determine what he/she will do in the time earned by displaying mastery? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Content Compacting Social Studies, Science, Literature, A.A. <ul><li>Students may already know the objectives or be able to read the material and master the objectives in a fraction of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the student already knows the content, will he/she have an opportunity to display competency of the subject or topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If students do not already know the content but have the ability to master the materials at their own pace, will they be given the opportunity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If content mastery can be demonstrated, will the student have the opportunity to select the work that will be substituted? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. STUDENT BEHAVIORS WHICH MAY SUGGEST THAT COMPACTING IS NECESSARY <ul><li>Consistently finishes tasks quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Finishes reading assignments first </li></ul><ul><li>Appears bored during instruction time </li></ul><ul><li>Consistently daydreams </li></ul><ul><li>Creates own puzzles, games, or diversions in class </li></ul><ul><li>Brings in outside reading material </li></ul><ul><li>Has consistently high performance in one or more academic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Asks questions which indicate advanced familiarity with material </li></ul><ul><li>Uses vocabulary and verbal expression in advance of grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Expresses interest in pursuing alternative or advanced topics </li></ul>Adapted from: It’s About Time by Alane Starko, Creative Learning Press
  20. 21. Do you know THIS student???
  21. 23. X Highly Able
  22. 24. RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM COMPACTING A checklist <ul><li>Students already know much of their text’s content before “learning it”. </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks have been “dumbed down” </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of textbooks has failed to improve </li></ul><ul><li>The needs of high-ability students often are not met in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting provides time for more challenging learning experiences </li></ul><ul><li>The pace of instruction and practice time can be modified </li></ul><ul><li>Compacting guarantees educational accountability </li></ul>Adapted from Reis, S.M., Burns, D.E., & Renzulli, J.S. (1992) Curricular Compacting: The complete guide to modifying the regular curriculum for high ability students . Creative Learning Press
  23. 25. (1)Whose support is needed to help you implement your compacting plan for the “underachieving” student(s) you have identified? (2) What type of assessment tools will you need to identify the students for whom you will compact curriculum? (3) How will you gather resources for enrichment? (4)What options do you have to supply these resources? (5)What problems might you anticipate while implementing your plan to compact curriculum? How will you deal with them? So…where & how do I begin??
  24. 26. Simplified steps to follow when compacting the curriculum: <ul><li>Define goals and outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify candidates for compacting </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accelerated and enrichment options </li></ul>
  25. 27. CURRICULUM COMPACTING <ul><li>A procedure used to streamline the regular curriculum for students who are capable of mastering it at a faster pace in order to: </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate the practice of asking academically able students to repeatedly study previously mastered material in order to </li></ul><ul><li>Better challenge these learners and provide them with time for appropriate enrichment and/or acceleration activities while </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring mastery of the basic skills/common core curriculum </li></ul>
  26. 28. Resources <ul><li>Farmer (1996). Meeting the needs of gifted students in the regular classroom: curriculum compacting. http:// ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/farmer/gitsccmp.html </li></ul><ul><li>Metagifted Education Resource Organization (1996). Curriculum compacting: what is it, how do you do it, and does it work? http:// www.metagifted.org /topics/curriculum/compacting/ </li></ul><ul><li>Reis, S. National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented (Javits Center) Curriculum compacting study. http://www.ed.gov/offices/OERI/At-Risk/javs2.html </li></ul><ul><li>Reis, Westberg, Kulikowich & Purcell . Curriculum compacting and achievement test scores: what does the research say? http:// www.nagc.org/Publications/GiftedChild/compact.html </li></ul>
  27. 29. C.A.Q. 11 of the most commonly asked questions on Curriculum Compacting
  28. 30. Q1. What is required before you start compacting?  
  29. 31. <ul><li>A1. To compact effectively, you must have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A clear understanding of your curricular objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of which students have already mastered those objectives, or are capable of mastering them in less time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some background information on the compacting process, and an idea of the pretest devices and alternative activities that you plan to use. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Q2. Can classroom teachers compact curriculum without the help of “the enrichment specialist”?  
  31. 33. <ul><li>A2. Yes! In fact, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom teachers bear the primary responsibility for implementing the compacting process. But, if enrichment specialists are available, they can ease the job by procuring enrichment resources or upgrading the challenge level of the regular curricular materials. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Q3. What should I tell my students about compacting?  
  33. 35. <ul><li>A3 . Compacting should be explained in simple terms to all students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among the points you should touch upon are pretests, the fact that some students may already know the material being tested, and that exciting learning activities exist for students who have already mastered the material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You should also spell out, in advance, the rules regarding behavior while students are doing alternative work. Two such rules may include working as quietly as possible, and not interrupting the teacher while he or she instructs the rest of the class. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Q4. What are the least difficult subject areas to compact?
  35. 37. <ul><li>A4. Usually, skill areas with highly sequential curricular organization, such as spelling, mathematics and grammar, are the least difficult to compact. Once you're familiar with the process, you may compact any subject area. Teachers have even reported wonderful results in art and music . </li></ul>
  36. 38. Q5. If I teach process writing or the &quot;whole language&quot; approach, is compacting is unnecessary?
  37. 39. <ul><li>A5. No! With process writing, youngsters who master the writing objectives for their grade level shouldn't just move up another difficulty notch, as is often the case. Instead, they should be allowed to pursue enrichment assignments or projects of their choice. </li></ul><ul><li>The same holds true for the whole language approach. If students show mastery of the learning objectives, simply replacing time with grade level trade books, for example, may not be the best option. The alternatives presented must be challenging, and keyed to students' interests. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Q6. Is it better to compact by time period (every marking period, for instance) or by instructional unit?
  39. 41. <ul><li>A6. Compacting by instructional unit is best. A &quot;unit&quot; generally refers to an instructional period that revolves around a theme, chronological time period, or a set of academic objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, to compact a sixth grade unit on Johnny Tremaine, the teacher would modify the curriculum for students who have either read the novel, or who could read and master the learning objectives more quickly than their classmates. </li></ul><ul><li>At the elementary level, teachers frequently compact a basic skills unit of instruction, such as the teaching of long division. </li></ul>
  40. 42. Q7. Do you recommend compacting an entire semester, leaving the last two months free for student self-selected projects, or compacting 2 1/2 days a week, leaving the rest of the time for alternative work?
  41. 43. <ul><li>A7. Most teachers prefer to compact two or three days a week, and set aside one or two days or short blocks of time for enrichment assignments. When you compact a semester, it demands tremendous time and energy to plan a full two months of enrichment options. </li></ul>
  42. 44. Q8. If I compact for my high ability students, and let them leave the class for alternative activities, won't the quality of my classroom discussions suffer?
  43. 45. <ul><li>A8. Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. However, we must also remember that less able students are sometimes intimidated by the presence of brighter students, and, consequently, don't contribute to the discussions. </li></ul><ul><li>To resolve the problem, teachers might try some classroom discussion sessions with the gifted students, and some without them; if the discussions succeed better with the advanced students, then it makes sense to include them. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Q9. How do I grade when I compact curriculum?
  45. 47. <ul><li>A9. Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. You should grade on the regular curriculum which has been compacted. In our opinion, grades should reflect mastery of content and not time spent in a subject area. </li></ul><ul><li>When you do substitute independent study, it should not be graded. Some qualitative, holistic evaluation of the work done would be preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: If you find that students are not using their time for alternative study wisely, you should talk over the problem with them. You might reiterate the concept of compacting, and explain what the next step would be if behavior doesn't change (such as a parent meeting). Compacting represents a radical educational departure for most students, and it takes time for them to adjust </li></ul>
  46. 48. Q10. Is there a way to physically reorganize my classroom space to make compacting easier?
  47. 49. <ul><li>A10. Many teachers have expressed this concern, which is merited to some degree. You should grade on the regular curriculum which has been compacted. In our opinion, grades should reflect mastery of content and not time spent in a subject area. </li></ul><ul><li>When you do substitute independent study, it should not be graded. Some qualitative, holistic evaluation of the work done would be preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: If you find that students are not using their time for alternative study wisely, you should talk over the problem with them. You might reiterate the concept of compacting, and explain what the next step would be if behavior doesn't change (such as a parent meeting). Compacting represents a radical educational departure for most students, and it takes time for them to adjust </li></ul>
  48. 50. Q11. What advice do teachers who have successfully used compacting give to other teachers?
  49. 51. <ul><li>A11. Answer </li></ul>
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