Nutrition is the study or science of how
food nourishes the body.
It is the study of the foods we eat and
how they affect our body.
It includes the physical components of
digestion, emotional issues with eating
and health issues in general. It also
includes a little biochemistry and food
The Importance of Nutrition
Good nutrition enhances quality of life and helps to
These could bee maintained by the following
substances in foods that your body needs
to grow, to repair, and to provide energy.
units of heat that measure the energy used
by the body and energy supplied to the body
Nutrition provides us with the calories and
nutrients our bodies need for maximum
energy and wellness.
Factors Influence Food Choices?
1. Hunger and Appetite:
Hunger: Natural need to eat and not starve.
Appetite: A desire to eat..
Stress, Anger, Happy, Sad, etc,
3. Environment: Family and Friends
4. Cultural and Ethnic Background:
Race, Religion, Heritage.
5. Convenience and Cost:
Where you live, On the go lifestyle, Family income
Health messages, Influence your looks.
Participates in initiatives focused on
prevention of health problems
Educates clients about the benefits of
Advocates for the nutritional needs of
Develops nutritionally balanced diet plans
Types of Nutrients
Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are called
macronutrients, because they're large, and
energy nutrients because they provide the
fuel your body needs to do things.
These include Vitamins and minerals.
They are called micronutrients because
they're much smaller in comparison. That
doesn't mean they're less important;
they're still essential nutrients, but we only
need small amounts.
Carbohydrates: are the starches and sugars
present in food.
Polysaccharide are obtained in:-
They are classified as either simple or complex.
•Glucose , fructose and glactose.
Composed of two monosaccharides
Broken down into the two monosaccharides
before being absorbed by the body
Three Most Common Disaccharides
The storage form of energy in plants
Found in two forms:
Form in which starch is stored in the liver and
Accessed when glucose levels fall too low
is an indigestible complex carbohydrate that helps
move waste through the digestive system.
• Body converts all carbohydrates to glucose (simple
Preferred fuel source for:
red blood cells
the central nervous system
Two categories of fiber:
insoluble and soluble
includes cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins
gives plant food texture
adds bulk to stool and promotes laxation
the most abundant polysaccharide in nature
contains the monosaccharide glucose
a rigid fiber that provides structure to plants
Includes gums, pectins, some
hemicelluloses, and mucilages
Slows digestion, diminishing how
quickly sugar is absorbed in the intestine
Binds fatty acids in the intestine,
resulting in lower blood cholesterol
Proteins are nutrients that help build and
maintain body cells and tissues.
•Proteins have many functions:
- Help make new cells.
-Help make and repair tissues.
- Help make enzymes, hormones, and
- Provide energy.
Proteins are classified into two groups:
complete and incomplete.
Complete proteins :-
contain amounts of all nine essential amino
Fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, yogurt,
and many soybean products.
Incomplete proteins :-
lack one or more essential amino acids.
Beans, peas, nuts, and whole grains.
Foods high in protein use the most energy
to digest the protein, synthesize amino
acids, and metabolize protein into urea
and glucose. Alcohol uses the next most
amount of energy, followed by the
carbohydrates, such as in fruits and
vegetables.The overall contribution of
these differences to total energy
expenditure is minimal.
A compound that is insoluble in water, but
soluble in an organic solvent (e.g., ether,
benzene, acetone, chloroform)
• “lipid” is synonymous with “fat”, but
also includes phospholipids, sterols, etc.
• Chemical structure: glycerol + fatty
•The building blocks of fats are called fatty
•Animal fats and tropical oils
•High intake is associated with an increased
risk of heart disease
•Associated with a reduced risk of heart
•Fatty acids that the body needs, but is unable
to make are called essential fatty acids
•Fatty Acids are classified as two types
•Saturated and unsaturated
The polyunsaturated fats (omega-6 fatty acids and
omega-3 fatty acids) are essential because the
human body doesn't have enzymes to produce
Omega-6 fatty acids are found in vegetable oils
and are rarely deficient (and more commonly
people consume too much).
Omega-3 fatty acids are not as common and are
more likely to be deficient, but we can find
omega-3's in foods like fish and seafood, soy,
walnuts and foods fortified with omega-3 fats.
Functions of Fats
•Transport vitamins A, D, E, and K.
•Sources of linoleic acid- essential fatty acid
that is needed for growth and healthy skin.
•High intake of saturated fats is linked to
increased cholesterol production.
•Excess cholesterol can lead to an increased risk
of heart disease.
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins are compounds that help regulate
many vital body processes that include:
1.Digestion 2. Absorption 3. Metabolism
Vitamins are classified into two groups:
a- Water-soluble Vitamins
b- Fat-soluble Vitamins
b- Fat-soluble vitamins
Are absorbed, stored, and transported in fat.
Your body stores these vitamins in your fatty
tissue, liver, and kidneys. Excess buildup can
be toxic. These include vitamins A, D, E, and
a- Water-soluble vitamins:
Dissolve in water and pass easily into the blood
during digestion. The body does not store these
so they need to be replenished regularly.
Includes vitamins C, B1 ,B2, Niacin, B6, Folic
acid, and B12.
Minerals are substances that the body cannot
manufacture but are needed for forming
healthy bones and teeth and regulating many
vital body processes.
Important minerals include:
Calcium -Phosphorus –Magnesium -Iron
can combine with other compounds or elements
not a source of energy
maintaining fluid balance
serving as cofactors and coenzymes
role in nerve transmission and muscle
acting as reserves
Poor mineral status causes:
1/ Insufficient intake
2/ Mineral interactions
3/ Lowered mineral absorption
4/ Increased mineral excretion
Body adjustment of absorption and excretion
result of excess mineral content:
1/ Increased intake
2/ Altered metabolism
3/ Environmental exposure
1/ Naturally occurring substances
2/ Interactions among minerals
Health and disease prevention:
strong bones and teeth
effect on biological reactions
potential to lower risk of chronic disease
Low levels of calcium:
altered calcium balance
diminished bone mass
varies based on age
nurse should stress adequate
medical conditions may affect
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
pancreatitis, certain cancers, and severe
vitamin D deficiency
may affect muscle contraction and nerve
Poor mineral bone density:
adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D
Majority exists in bone:
reservoir for maintenance
Body seeks to maintain steady state
RDA is 700 mg/day for adults
Role in wellness:
affects bone health
can lead to anorexia, muscle
weakness, confusion, alteration in
blood clotting, and immune
severe cases can lead to respiration
and cardiac function problems
Bone and soft tissue
Kidney responsible for homeostasis
Role of magnesium:
metabolic enzyme reactions
maintenance of heart rhythm
regulation of sodium, potassium,
and calcium homeostasis
DRI varies based on age
risk for patients with poor kidney
positive effects of a diet with
low intake brings risk of metabolic
can lead to cardiac arrhythmias and
Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and
increased intracellular calcium
Magnesium not generally assessed in
Cardiac patients on diuretic therapy are at
sodium for adults age 19 to 50 years is 1.5
gm per day
chloride for adults age 19 to 50 years is 2.3
gm per day
Sodium’s relationship to blood pressure
Found within cells and in extracellular
maintenance of fluid balance
for all adults, the AI is 4.7 gm /day
Present in the body in amounts less
than 5 grams
Daily requirement is less than 100 mg
Some necessary, others not
Essential for oxygen transport
Body conserves iron stores
Iron needs change over lifespan
Iron consumption concerns:
iron deficiency anemia
not absorbed as well
primary dietary source of iron
cofactor or coenzyme for catalytic
enzyme structure and regulation
involved in DNA expression, cell growth,
adult females 8 mg daily
adult males 11 mg daily
fortified breakfast cereals
RDA: 55 mcg
Constituent of enzymes
RDA: 900 mcg daily
plants grown in soil with high
beef, poultry, seafood, and nuts
organ meats, seafood, and
Mineralization of bone and teeth
2 mg per day for adult females
3 mg for adult males
Present in drinking water
Present in Soil and Seafood
Hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine
RDA: 150 mcg for adults
Water helps to maintain many bodily functions.
•Lubricates your joints and mucous
•Enables you to swallow and digest foods.
•Absorb other nutrients, and eliminate wastes.
•Perspiration helps maintain normal body
•Water makes up around 65% of the body.
•It’s important to drink at least 2 liters (8 cups)
of water a day to maintain health.
Nutrition and Product Labeling
Product labeling advertise a food’s nutritious
*Some common used terms are light, less, free,
more, rich, rich in, lean, or excellent source of.
*Many food products have open dates on their
*Pack date and
Food Sensitivity and Foodborne Illness
1. Food Allergy:-
A condition in which the body’s immune system
reacts to substances in some foods.
•Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, eggs,
wheat, soy, fish, and shellfish.
•A simple blood test can indicate whether
a person is allergic to a specific food.
•These reactions may include rash, hives, or
itchiness of the skin; vomiting, diarrhea or
abdominal pain; or itchy eyes and sneezing.
2. Food Intolerance:
A negative reaction to a food or part of a food
caused by a metabolic problem.
•The inability to digest parts of certain foods
or food components.
•May be associated with certain foods such
as milk or wheat, or even with some food
•Common symptoms include nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea, and fever.
3. Foodborne Illness:
A term that means a person has food
•To prevent foodborne illness you should
clean, separate, cook and chill food when
•A foodborne illness can result from eating
foods contaminated with pathogens or
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