Dr.ehab the lipids triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols

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Dr.ehab the lipids triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols

  1. 1. The Lipids: Triglycerides,Phospholipids, and Sterols
  2. 2.  carbohydrates, fatty acids and triglycerides are composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). Because these lipids have many more carbons and hydrogens in proportion to their oxygens, however, they can supply more energy per gram than carbohydrates
  3. 3.  Triglyceride contains one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated Fatty acids may be 4 to 24 (even numbers of) carbons long, the 18-carbon ones being the most common in foods
  4. 4. The 18-carbon fatty acids thatfit this description are linolenicacid (omega-3) and linoleicacid (omega-6).Stearic acid, an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid Stearic acid
  5. 5. Oleic acid, an 18-carbon monounsaturated fatty acidLinoleic acid, an 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid
  6. 6. Condensation of Glycerol and Fatty Acids to Form a Triglyceride
  7. 7. Comparison of Dietary FatsMost fats are a mixture of saturated,monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fattyacids.
  8. 8. phospholipid is lecithin
  9. 9. cell membrane is made of phospholipids
  10. 10. A Bile Acidbile acids the liver makes from cholesterol. Itis then bound to an amino acid to improve itsability to form micelles, spherical complexesof emulsified fat. Most bile acids occur as bilesalts, usually in association with sodium, butsometimes with potassium or calcium
  11. 11. Emulsification of Fat by Bile
  12. 12. Digestion (Hydrolysis) of a Triglyceride
  13. 13. ChylomicronsVLDL (Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins)LDL (Low-Density Lipoproteins)HDL (High-Density Lipoproteins)
  14. 14. Absorption of FatThe end products of fat digestionare mostly monoglycerides, somefatty acids, and very little glycerol.Their absorption differs dependingon their size. (In reality, moleculesof fatty acid are too small to seewithout a powerful microscope
  15. 15. Sizes and Compositions of the Lipoproteins
  16. 16. Cholesterol in Selected Foods
  17. 17. Sources of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids
  18. 18. The USDA Food Guide amounts of fats thatcan be included as discretionary kcalorieswhen most food choices are nutrient denseand fat 30% total kcal:• 11 g for 1600 kcal diet• 15 g for 1800 kcal diet• 18 g for 2000 kcal diet• 19 g for 2200 kcal diet• 22 g for 2400 kcal dietFor perspective, 1 tsp oil = 5 g fat andprovides about 45 kcal

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