Dr.ehab carbohydrate metabolism

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Dr.ehab carbohydrate metabolism

  1. 1. Carbohydrate Metabolism
  2. 2. Glucose is phosphorylated twice and cleaved to form two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G-3-P). The two ATP molecules consumed during this stage are like an investment, because this stage creates the actual substrates for oxidation in a form that is trapped inside the cell. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted to pyruvate. Four ATP and two NADH molecules are produced. Because two ATP were consumed in stage 1, the net production of ATP per glucose molecule is 2.The glycolytic pathway can be summed up in the following equation: D-Glucose + 2 ADP + 2 Pi 2 NAD+ 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2 NADH + 2H+ + 2H2O
  3. 3. The 10 reactions of the glycolytic pathway1. Synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate
  4. 4. 2. Conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate
  5. 5. 3. The phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate. Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
  6. 6. 4. Cleavage of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
  7. 7. 5. The interconversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetonephosphate
  8. 8. 6. Oxidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.
  9. 9. 7. Phosphoryl group transfer
  10. 10. 8. The interconversion of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate
  11. 11. 9. Dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate
  12. 12. 10. Synthesis of pyruvate

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