Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. CarbohydrateCARBOHYDRATES Simple monosaccharides consist of a linear chain of three or morecarbon atoms, one of which forms a carbonyl group through a doublebond with oxygen (Fig. 1.1). The other carbons of an unmodifiedmonosaccharide contain hydroxyl groups, resulting in the general formulafor an unmodified sugar of CnH2nOn. The suffix “ose” is used for thenames of sugars. If the carbonyl group is an aldehyde, the sugar is analdose; if the carbonyl group is a ketone, the sugar is a ketose.Monosaccharides are also classified according to their number ofcarbons: Sugars containing 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 carbons are called trioses,tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses, respectively. Fructose istherefore a ketohexose (see Fig. 1.1), and glucose is an aldohexose Dr. Ehab Aboueladab, Associate Prof.Dr. Of Biochemistry and Nutrition, email:ehab10f@gmail.com
  2. 2. CarbohydrateFigure 1.1. Pyranose and furanose rings formed from glucose and fructose. Theanomeric carbons are highlighted.Figure 1.2. D-Glyceraldehyde and D-glucose. These sugars have the sameconfiguration at the asymmetric carbon atom farthest from the carbonyl group. Bothbelong to the D series.Figure 1.3. Examples of stereoisomers. These compounds have the same chemicalformula (C6H12O6) but differ in the positions of the hydroxyl groups on theirasymmetric carbons. Dr. Ehab Aboueladab, Associate Prof.Dr. Of Biochemistry and Nutrition, email:ehab10f@gmail.com
  3. 3. CarbohydrateFigure 1.4. Mutarotation of glucose in solution, with percentages of each form atequilibrium. Dr. Ehab Aboueladab, Associate Prof.Dr. Of Biochemistry and Nutrition, email:ehab10f@gmail.com
  4. 4. CarbohydrateFigure 1.5. N- and O-glycosidic bonds. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contains a ,N-glycosidic bond. Lactose contains an O-glycosidic(1→4) bond. Glycogencontains -1,4 and -1,6 O-glycosidic bonds. Dr. Ehab Aboueladab, Associate Prof.Dr. Of Biochemistry and Nutrition, email:ehab10f@gmail.com

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