Recommendations of dietary guidelinesPresentation Transcript
Recommendationsof Dietary Guidelines By Dr. WAFAA FAHMI ASISSTANT PROFESSOR OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND NUTRITION NATIONAL NUTRITION INSTITUTE
The Dietary Guidelines describe a healthy diet What is a"Healthy Diet"?
My PyramidReleased by theUnited States Department of Agriculture (USDA)on April 19, 2005.The new icon stresses activity and moderationalong with a proper mix of food groups inones diet
My Pyramid Slogan My pyramid .govSteps to a Healthier You
Anatomy of my pyramid• Personalization, To find a personalized recommendation of the kinds and amounts of food to eat each day, individuals must visit MyPyramid.gov.• Gradual improvement, represented by the slogan Steps to a Healthier You. It suggests that individuals can benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.• Physical activity, represented by the steps and the person climbing them, as a reminder of the importance of daily physical activity.
Anatomy of my pyramid• Variety, symbolized by the six color bands .Suggests that foods from all groups are needed each day for good health.• Moderation, represented by the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats, added sugars, or caloric sweeteners.• Proportionality, shown by the different widths of the food group bands. The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group.
My PyramidMy Pyramid helps individuals use the DietaryGuidelines to:1-Make smart choices from every food group.2-Find balance between food and physicalactivity.3-Get the most nutrition out of calories.4-Stay within daily calorie needs.
My PyramidThe recommendations in the DietaryGuidelines and in My Pyramid are forthe general public over 2 years ofage.My Pyramid is not a therapeutic dietfor any specific health condition.
Physical activity• The key recommendations for 2005 are• Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight.At least 30 minutes on most, and if possible, every day for adults and at least 60 minutes each day for children and teenagers• Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercises.
The six divisions of the pyramid1. Grains, recommending that at least half of grains consumed be as whole grains2. Vegetables, emphasizing dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, and dry beans and peas3. Fruits, emphasizing variety and deemphasizing fruit juices4. Oils, recommending fish, nut, and vegetables sources5. Milk, a category that includes fluid milk and many other milk-based products6. Meat and beans, emphasizing low-fat and lean meats such as fish as well as more beans, peas, nuts, and seeds
What foods are in the grain group? Any food made from wheat, rice,oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is a grain product.Bread, pasta, oatmeal, breakfast cereals, tortillas, and grits are examples of grain products.
Grains are divided into 2 subgroups• Whole grains • Refined grains• the bran, germ, and • have been milled, a process endosperm. that removes the bran and• Examples include: germ. This is done to give• whole-wheat flour grains a finer texture and• bulgur (cracked wheat) improve their shelf life, but it also removes dietary• oatmeal fiber, iron, and many B• whole cornmeal vitamins. Some examples of• brown rice refined grain products are: • white flour • degermed cornmeal • white bread • white rice
Nutrients Grains are important sources ofmany nutrients, including dietary fiber, several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals(iron, magnesium, and selenium).
Dietary fiberDietary fiber from whole grains, as part of anoverall healthy diet, helps reduce bloodcholesterol levels and may lower risk of heartdisease. Fiber is important for proper bowelfunction. It helps reduce constipation anddiverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such aswhole grains help provide a feeling of fullnesswith fewer calories. Whole grains are goodsources of dietary fiber; most refined(processed) grains contain little fiber.
B vitamins B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin,niacin,)play a key role in metabolism – they help the body release energyfrom protein, fat, and carbohydrates. B vitamins are also essential for a healthy nervous system.
Folate (folic acid)Folate (folic acid), another B vitamin, helps thebody form red blood cells. Women ofchildbearing age who may become pregnantand those in the first trimester of pregnancyshould consume adequate folate, includingfolic acid from fortified foods or supplements.This reduces the risk of neural tubedefects, spina bifida, and anencephaly duringfetal development.
IronIron is used to carry oxygen in the blood. Manyteenage girls and women in their childbearingyears have iron-deficiency anemia. Theyshould eat foods high in heme-iron (meats) oreat other iron containing foods along withfoods rich in vitamin C, which can improveabsorption of non-heme iron.
Magnesium& SeleniumWhole grains are sources of magnesium andselenium. Magnesium is a mineral used inbuilding bones and releasing energy frommuscles. Selenium protects cells fromoxidation. It is also important for a healthyimmune system.
Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains?Health benefits• reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.• reduce constipation.• Eating at least 3 ounce equivalents a day of whole grains may help with weight management.• Eating grains fortified with folate before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects during fetal development.
How many grain foods are needed daily?The amount of grains you need to eat dependson your age, sex, and level of physicalactivity. At least ½ of all the grains eatenshould be whole grains.
Tips to help you eat whole grainsAt Meals:1-substitute a whole-grain product for a refined product2- eat whole-wheat bread instead of white bread,brown rice instead of white rice, whole-wheat pasta3-Experiment by substituting whole wheat or oat flour for up to half of the flour in pancake, waffle, muffin or other flour-based recipes.
Tips to help you eat whole grainsAs Snacks:1. Popcorn, a whole grain, can be a healthy snack with little or no added salt and butter.2. Snack on ready-to-eat, whole grain cereals such as toasted oat cereal.3. Add whole-grain flour or oatmeal when making cookies or other baked treats..
Amounts and Servingrecommended by the USDA My pyramid Grains:3-10 oz.per day
What foods are in the vegetable group?Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts asa member of the vegetable group. Vegetablesmay be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned,or dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed.Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups,based on their nutrient content. Somecommonly eaten vegetables in each subgroupare:
Vegetables subgroupsDark green vegetables Orange vegetable Starchy vegetab Other vegetables Dry beans and peas
How many vegetables are needed daily or weekly?Vegetable choices should be selected fromamong the vegetable subgroups. It is notnecessary to eat vegetables from eachsubgroup daily. However, over a week, try toconsume the amounts listed from eachsubgroup as a way to reach your daily intakerecommendation
Why is it important to eat vegetables?• Health benefits• reduce risk for stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases.• reduce risk for type 2 diabetes.• may protect against certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach, and colon-rectum cancer.• may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.• Eating fruits and vegetables rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and may help to decrease bone loss.• Eating foods such as vegetables that are low in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.
NutrientsVegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C.Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Vegetable sources of potassium include sweetpotatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet greens, soybeans, lima beans, winter squash, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, and split peas.
NutrientsVitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections.Vitamin E helps protect vitamin A and essential fatty acids from cell oxidation.Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption.
Tips to help you eat vegetables• In general:• Buy fresh vegetables in season. They cost less and are likely to be at their peak flavor.• Stock up on frozen vegetables for quick and easy cooking in the microwave.• Buy vegetables that are easy to prepare.• Use a microwave to quickly “zap” vegetables. White or sweet potatoes can be baked quickly this way.• Vary your veggie choices to keep meals interesting.
Tips to help you eat vegetablesFor the best nutritional value:Select vegetables with more potassium often, such as sweetpotatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet lima beans, winter squash, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, and peas.Prepare more foods from fresh ingredients to lower sodium intake. Most sodium in the food supply comes from packaged or processed foods.
Tips to help you eat vegetablesAt meals:Plan some meals around a vegetable main dish, Then add other foods to complement it.Try a main dish salad for lunch. Go light on the salad dressing.Include a green salad with your dinner every night.Use pureed, cooked vegetables such as potatoes to thicken, soups. These add flavor, nutrients, and texture.Grill vegetable kabobs as part of a barbecue meal. Try tomatoes, mushrooms, green peppers, and onions.
Make vegetables more appealing• Many vegetables taste great with a dip or dressing. Try a low-fat salad dressing with raw broccoli, red and green peppers, celery sticks or cauliflower.• Add color to salads by adding baby carrots, shredded red cabbage, or spinach leaves. Include in-season vegetables for variety through the year.• Include cooked dry beans or peas in flavorful mixed dishes, such as chili or minestrone soup.• Decorate plates or serving dishes with vegetable slices.• Keep a bowl of cut-up vegetables in a see-through container in the refrigerator. Carrot and celery sticks are traditional, but consider broccoli ,cucumber slices, or red or green pepper strips.
Vegetable tips for childrenSet a good example for children by eating vegetables with meals and as snacks.Let children decide on the dinner vegetables or what goes into salads.Depending on their age, children can help shop for, clean, peel, or cut up vegetables.Allow children to pick a new vegetable to try while shopping.Use cut-up vegetables as part of afternoon snacks.Children often prefer foods served separately. So, rather than mixed vegetables try serving two vegetables separately.
Amounts and Servingrecommended by the USDA My pyramidVegatables:1-4 cups per day
What foods are in the fruit group? Any fruit or 100% fruit juice • counts as part of the fruit group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, ordried, and may be whole, cut- up, or pureed.
Why is it important to eat fruit?Eating fruit provides health benefits — people who eat more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet are likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Fruits provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body.
Nutrients• Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. None have cholesterol.• Fruits are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate (folic acid).• Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure• Vitamin C is important for growth and repair of all body tissues, helps heal cuts and wounds, and keeps teeth and gums healthy.
Health benefits• reduce risk for stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases.• reduce risk for type 2 diabetes.• protect against certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach, and colon-rectum cancer.• reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.• Eating fruits and vegetables rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and may help to decrease bone loss.• Eating foods such as fruits that are low in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.
Tips to help you eat fruits In generalKeep a bowl of whole fruit on the table, counter, or in the refrigerator.Refrigerate cut-up fruit to store for later.Buy fresh fruits in season when they may be less expensive and at their peak flavor.Buy fruits that are dried, frozen, and canned (in water or juice) as well as fresh, so that you always have a supply on hand.Consider convenience when shopping. Buy pre-cut packages of fruit (such as melon or pineapple chunks) for a healthy snack in seconds. Choose packaged fruits that do not have added sugars.
For the best nutritional value• Make most of your choices whole or cut-up fruit rather than juice, for the benefits dietary fiber provides.• Select fruits with more potassium often, such as bananas, prunes and prune juice, dried peaches and apricots, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, and orange juice.• When choosing canned fruits, select fruit canned in 100% fruit juice or water rather than syrup.• Vary your fruit choices. Fruits differ in nutrient content.
Tips to help you eat fruits At mealsAt breakfast, top your cereal with bananas or peaches ; drink 100% orange or grapefruit juice. Or, try a fruit mixed with low-fat or fat-free yogurt.At lunch, pack a tangerine, banana, or grapes to eat, or choose fruits from a salad bar. Individual containers of fruits like peaches or applesauce are easy and convenient.At dinner, add crushed pineapple to coleslaw, or include mandarin oranges or grapes in a tossed salad.
Amounts and Servingrecommended by the USDA My pyramid Fruits:1-2½cups per day
What are “oils”?• Oils are fats that are liquid at room temperature, like the vegetable oils used in cooking. Oils come from many different plants and from fish. Some common oils are:• corn oil• cottonseed oil• olive oil• soybean oil• sunflower oil
What are “oils”?• Some oils are used mainly as flavorings, such as walnut oil and sesame oil. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, like:• nuts• olives• some fish• avocados
oilsMost oils are high in monounsaturated orpolyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats.Oils from plant sources (vegetable and nut oils)do not contain any cholesterol. In fact, no foodsfrom plants sources contain cholesterol.A few plant oils, however, including coconut oiland palm oil, are high in saturated fats and fornutritional purposes should be considered to besolid fats.
Solid fats• Solid fats are fats that are solid at room temperature, like butter. Solid fats come from many animal foods and can be made from vegetable oils through a process called hydrogenation. Some common solid fats are:• butter• beef fat• chicken fat• pork fat (lard)• stick margarine• shortening
How are oils different from solid fats? All fats and oils are a mixture ofsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Solid fats contain moresaturated fats and/or trans fats than oils. Oils contain more monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fats.
Why is it important to consume oils? Most of the fats you eat should be polyunsaturated (PUFA) or monounsaturated (MUFA) fats. Oils are the major source of MUFAs andPUFAs in the diet. PUFAs contain some fattyacids that are necessary for health—called “essential fatty acids.”
Amounts and Servingrecommended by the USDA My pyramid Oils:3-11tsp.per day
What foods are included in the milk, yogurt, and cheese (milk) groupAll fluid milk products and many foods made frommilk are considered part of this food group. Foods made from milk that retain their calciumcontent are part of the group, foods made from milk that have little to nocalcium, such as cream cheese, cream, andbutter, are not.Most milk group choices should be fat-free or low-fat.
What foods are included in the milk, yogurt, and cheese (milk) group • Milk • Milk-based desserts • Yogurt • Cheese
Health benefits and nutrientsConsuming milk and milk products provideshealthreduce the risk of low bone mass throughoutthe life cycle. Foods in the milk group providenutrients that are vital for health andmaintenance of your body. These nutrientsinclude calcium, potassium, vitamin D, andprotein.
Health benefits• Diets rich in milk and milk products help build and maintain bone mass throughout the lifecycle. This may reduce the risk of osteoporosis.• The intake of milk products is especially important to bone health during childhood and adolescence, when bone mass is being built.• Diets that include milk products tend to have a higher overall nutritional quality.
CalciumCalcium is used for building bones and teethand in maintaining bone mass. Milk productsare the primary source of calcium in Americandiets. Diets that provide 3 cups or theequivalent of milk products per day canimprove bone mass.
potassiumDiets rich in potassium may help to maintainhealthy blood pressure. Milk products,especially yogurt and fluid milk, providepotassium
Vitamin DVitamin D functions in the body to maintainproper levels of calcium and phosphorous,thereby helping to build and maintain bones.Milk that is fortified with vitamin D is a goodsource of this nutrient. Other sources includevitamin D-fortified yogurt and vitamin D-fortified ready-to-eat breakfast cereals
Why is it important to make fat-free or low-fat choices from the milk group Choosing foods from the milk group that are high in saturated fats and cholesterol can have health implications. Diets high in saturated fats raise “bad” cholesterol levels in the blood. The “bad” cholesterol is called LDL (low- density lipoprotein) cholesterol. High LDL cholesterol, in turn, increases the risk for coronary heart disease.
Tips for making wise choices• Include milk as a beverage at meals. Choose fat-free or low-fat milk.• If you usually drink whole milk, switch gradually to fat- free milk, to lower saturated fat and calories. Try reduced fat (2%), then low-fat (1%), and finally fat-free (skim).• Have fat-free or low-fat yogurt as a snack.• Make a dip for fruits or vegetables from yogurt.• Top soups, or vegetables with shredded low-fat cheese.• Top a baked potato with fat-free or low-fat yogurt.
For those who choose not to consume milk productsIf you avoid milk because of lactose intolerance, the most reliable way to get the health benefits of milk is to choose lactose- free alternatives within the milk group, such as cheese, yogurt, or lactose-free milk, or to consume the enzyme lactase before consuming milk products.
For those who choose not to consume milk productsCalcium choices for those who do not consume milk products include Calcium fortified juices, cereals, breads, soy beverages. Canned fish (sardines, salmon with bones) soybeans and other soy products (soy-based beverages, soy yogurt,
Amounts and Serving recommended by the USDA My pyramidDairy products :2-3 cups per day
What foods are included in the meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts (meat & beans) group?All foods made from meat, poultry, fish, dry beans or peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds are consideredpart of this group. Dry beans andpeas are part of this group as well as the vegetable group.
Considerations Most meat and poultry choicesshould be lean or low-fat. Fish,nuts, and seeds contain healthy oils, so choose these foods frequently instead of meat or poultry.
Why is it important to make lean or low-fat choices from the Meat and BeansFoods in the meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, and seed group provide nutrients that are vital for health and maintenance of your body. However, choosing foods from this group that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol may have health implications.
Nutrients• Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans and peas, eggs, nuts, and seeds supply many nutrients. These include protein, B vitamins (niacin, thiamin, riboflavin, and B6), vitamin E, iron, zinc, and magnesium.• Proteins function as building blocks for bones, muscles, cartilage, skin, and blood. They are also building blocks for enzymes, hormones, and vitamins.
Nutrients• Vitamin E is an anti-oxidant that helps protect vitamin A and essential fatty acids from cell oxidation.• Zinc is necessary for biochemical reactions and helps the immune system function properly.
Why is it important to include fish, nuts, and seeds?• Many people do not make varied choices from this food group, selecting meat or poultry everyday as their main dishes. Varying choices and including fish, nuts, and seeds in meals can boost intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Most fat in the diet should come from MUFAs and PUFAs. Some of the PUFAs are essential for health—the body cannot create them from other fats.
Why is it important to include fish, nuts, and seeds?• Some fish (such as salmon, and herring) are high in a type of PUFA called “omega-3 fatty acids.” The omega-3 fatty acids in fish are commonly called “EPA” and “DHA.”• Some nuts and seeds (flax, walnuts) are excellent sources of essential fatty
Keep it lean– Trim away all of the visible fat from meats and poultry before cooking.– Broil, grill, roast, poach, or boil meat, poultry, or fish instead of frying.– Drain off any fat that appears during cooking.– Skip or limit the breading on meat, poultry, or fish. Breading adds fat and calories. It will also cause the food to soak up more fat during frying.
Vary your protein choices• Choose fish more often for lunch or dinner. Look for fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as salmon, trout, and herring. Choose dry beans or peas as a main dish or part of a meal often.• Choose nuts as a snack, on salads, or in main dishes. Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition
Amounts and Serving recommended by the USDA My pyramidMeats ,poultry,egg,fish,nuts,and dry beans : 2-7 oz.per day(or equavalent)
The Dietary GuidelinesThe Dietary Guidelines describe a healthy dietas one thatEmphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, andfat-free or low-fat milk and milk products;Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs,and nuts; and Is low in saturated fats, transfats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and addedsugars.