THE IMPORTANCE OF “AND”. A PRIMER OF USEFUL TAXONOMIES:   THE CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS IN AN ORDERED SYSTEM THAT INDICA...
MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI <ul><li>“  A self that is only differentiated - not integrated - may attain great individual accom...
LANGUAGE AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL <ul><li>“… both hierarchies and markets have unique sets of linguistic tools and establ...
THE THESIS:  <ul><li>Writers have always said that satisfying the public mission of museums was complex because every oper...
<ul><li>The temptation is to find some median, some mid-ground when faced with variables in order to make an action plan. ...
THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION:  HOW WE ORGANIZE OUR DAY. <ul><li>&quot;Executive functioning involves activating, orchestrating, ...
WHY TAXONOMIES?   <ul><li>To make order out of chaos thinkers have created philosophic systems often containing lists of “...
WHAT IS A TAXONOMY? <ul><li>Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species and organizing them into systems of ...
  UNDERSTANDING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT:  Museums:  We will have many different  visitors  at various stages of life.  Their mot...
LIFE-STAGE VIRTUES: ERIK ERIKSON <ul><li>The Erikson life-stage virtues, in the order of the stages in which they may be a...
HIERARCHY OF  NEEDS: ABE MASLOW <ul><li>Self Actualization -Fulfillment Needs This is the rare level where people have nee...
THE MBTI TOOL WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1940S BY  ISABEL BRIGGS MYERS  AND THE  ORIGINAL RESEARCH  WAS DONE IN THE 1940S AND '5...
LEARNING THEORY:  HOW PEOPLE LEARN. Museums: Visitors come to our museums with different abilities, talents, experiences a...
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES:  HOWARD GARDNER <ul><li>The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard G...
FLOW:  MIHALYI CZIKSZENTMIHALI MIHÁLHÁLYI  BEYOND BOREDDOM AND ANXIETY <ul><li>Flow  is the mental state of operation in w...
PIAGET: <ul><li>Intelligence is not the same at different ages. It changes qualitatively, attaining increasingly broader, ...
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/SOCIAL_COGNITIVE_THEORY#CITE_NOTE-SANTROCK-1  <ul><li>People learn b...
  CONSTRUCTIVISM  IS A THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE WHICH ARGUES THAT HUMANS GENERATE KNOWLEDGE AND MEANING FROM THEIR EXPERIENCES....
LEARNING IN MUSEUMS AND OTHER INFORMAL SETTINGS Our visitors range in degree of museum usage, familiarity with the subject...
FAMILY LEARNING IN MUSEUMS:  D. D. HILKE <ul><li>&quot;Scholars agree that a major function of the family is to support le...
DAVID MORLEY’S STUDY OF THE  NATIONWIDE  AUDIENCE (1980) <ul><li>Professor David Morley is a sociologist who specializes i...
FRAMEWORK FOR ENGAGING THROUGH ART BONNIE PITMAN,  DALLAS MUSEUM OF ART HTTP://WWW.DM-ART.ORG/PRESSROOM/DMA_307841 <ul><li...
MODES OF ENGAGEMENT2 -- ARTS ACTIVITIES ARE GROUPED BY LEVEL OF CREATIVE CONTROL EXERCISED BY THE PARTICIPANT <ul><li>. </...
VECTORS OF ENGAGEMENT : DEFINED IN TERMS OF SETTING AND SOCIAL OR CULTURAL CONTEXT.* <ul><li>1. Family-Based Engagement pr...
AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION For Museums there are many variables.  What axis you use determines how to design.  What if you trie...
Levels of engagement Visitor structure: Volitional / Organized Groups Location: Drive time Reason for coming Lead person i...
EXAMPLES: AUDIENCE
LEVELS OF DESIGN ENGAGEMENT Museums can vary their relationship with members of the audience when designing their building...
EXHIBITION CONTINUUM: AXIS FOR CONSIDERATION <ul><li>Intellectual – Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific – Spiritual </l...
DOMESTICATION THEORY  IS AN APPROACH IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES AND MEDIA STUDIES THAT DESCRIBES THE PROCESSES BY W...
NINA SIMON: ME TO WE  HTTP://IMG.SKITCH.COM/20100125-MDH2E9HU36FM1MEPDSEJKYF2EU.PNG WWW.MUSEUMTWO.COM
THE MEANING OF THINGS: THEORIST BELIEVE THAT HUMAN’S GO FROM CONCRETE TO ABSTRACT THINKING.  THUS AN OBJECT CAN BE BOTH IT...
OBJECTS: CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Authenticity – reproductions </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence – experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Ta...
MEANING OF THINGS: MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI  <ul><li>In his book, he postulated that human beings in collecting personal ob...
MUSEUM INTENTION AND THERE ARE SUBTLE AND NOT SO SUBTLE WAYS TO SIGNAL WELCOME The theory asserts that the director and st...
MUSEUM INTENTION:  ELAINE HEUMANN GURIAN  <ul><li>Five different categories of museums— </li></ul><ul><li>the object-cente...
THE PLACE:  INSIDE -- OUTSIDE Museums can evidence their intentions toward their visitors by how they use their space
THE TANGIBLE PLACE/ THE BUILDING CONSIDERATIONS: AXIS <ul><li>Virtual vs place </li></ul><ul><li>Homey – august </li></ul>...
THE THIRD SPACE <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Social space </li></ul><ul><li>The third place  is a...
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Taxonomies argentina 2010

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The powerpoint was used in a workshop hosted by TyPA in May 2010 about leadership. It focuses on complexity in museums

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Taxonomies argentina 2010

  1. 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF “AND”. A PRIMER OF USEFUL TAXONOMIES:   THE CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS IN AN ORDERED SYSTEM THAT INDICATES NATURAL RELATIONSHIPS.* Elaine Heumann Gurian 2010 *http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/taxonomy
  2. 2. MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI <ul><li>“ A self that is only differentiated - not integrated - may attain great individual accomplishments, but risks being mired in self-centered egotism. By the same token, a person who self is based exclusively on integration will be well connected and secure, but lack autonomous individuality. Only when a person invests equal amounts of psychic energy in these two processes and avoids both selfishness and conformity is the self likely to relect complexity. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.quotationspage.com/quotes/Mihaly_Csikszentmihalyi/ </li></ul>
  3. 3. LANGUAGE AS AN ORGANIZATIONAL TOOL <ul><li>“… both hierarchies and markets have unique sets of linguistic tools and established language games …. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows hierarchies to be compared to one another but also to be discussed in their own terms. </li></ul><ul><li>We can talk about the differences between hierarchies and markets, but we can also talk about either concept using its own terms – its own language game.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Wachhaus 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently what we cannot do is compare different taxonomies with each other using a common language. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining what to do next may rest with creating a common language tool for complex human variables. </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE THESIS: <ul><li>Writers have always said that satisfying the public mission of museums was complex because every operational element had so many variables, many conflicting with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>There are variables in each of the following museum categories : audience, learning, space use, content, collections care and community – just to name a few. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The temptation is to find some median, some mid-ground when faced with variables in order to make an action plan. </li></ul><ul><li>The alternative seems to be chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting with an assumption that “both/and” might work better, I am interested in creating support systems that allows for multiple solutions to be in effect simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>With so many axis of possibilities, and so many possible points on each axis, finding the ones to pay attention to requires executive decisions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTION: HOW WE ORGANIZE OUR DAY. <ul><li>&quot;Executive functioning involves activating, orchestrating, monitoring, evaluating, and adapting different strategies to accomplish different tasks.... It requires the ability to analyze situations, plan and take action, focus and maintain attention, and adjust actions as needed to get the job done.“ </li></ul><ul><li>Sheldon H. Horowitz, Ed.D , director of professional services at the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD), </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHY TAXONOMIES? <ul><li>To make order out of chaos thinkers have created philosophic systems often containing lists of “short cuts” to aid understanding. These I will call taxonomies. </li></ul><ul><li>I have chosen a group of “taxonomies” just to show how prevalent and perhaps confusing they might be. </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that each one contains nuanced thinking that we should study. Each system is partially right and helps give us a clue to the universe. But each is also partially wrong in that they never cover all contingencies. </li></ul><ul><li>I am hoping that these can help us better understand complexity and that in turn might indicate a productive way forward to action. </li></ul><ul><li>I have only a vague idea about how to choose among competing systems and satisfy multiple needs while still making the space and the activity understandable and satisfactory. </li></ul>
  8. 8. WHAT IS A TAXONOMY? <ul><li>Taxonomy is the science of identifying and naming species and organizing them into systems of classification. </li></ul><ul><li>Who is involved? </li></ul><ul><li>The scientists that do taxonomy are called taxonomists. Their work is crucial for all our efforts to conserve biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>What's in a name? </li></ul><ul><li>The names taxonomists give to species don't just tell us what they are called, but also tell us about how they are related to one another. This can help us to identify patterns in nature, and decide how best to protect the individual species that are part of the world's biodiversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Why use it in museums? </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe by locating many different taxonomies we will understand the complexity of our work and be able to pick multiple solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>By creating common language we might be able to propose common solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/science-of-natural-history/taxonomy-systematics/what-is-taxonomy/index.html The Natural History Museum website UK </li></ul>
  9. 9. UNDERSTANDING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: Museums: We will have many different visitors at various stages of life. Their motivations for being there and there needs will be different one from another. Further our managers are different one from another and need to understand that as well.
  10. 10. LIFE-STAGE VIRTUES: ERIK ERIKSON <ul><li>The Erikson life-stage virtues, in the order of the stages in which they may be acquired, are: </li></ul><ul><li>hope - Basic Trust vs. Mistrust - Infant stage. Does the child believe its caregivers to be reliable? </li></ul><ul><li>will - Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Toddler stage. Child needs to learn to explore the world. Bad if the parent is too smothering or completely neglectful. </li></ul><ul><li>purpose - Initiative vs. Guilt - Kindergarten - Can the child plan or do things on his own, such as dress him or herself. If &quot;guilty&quot; about making his or her own choices, the child will not function well. Erikson has a positive outlook on this stage, saying that most guilt is quickly compensated by a sense of accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>competence - Industry vs. Inferiority - Around age 6 to puberty. Child comparing self worth to others (such as in a classroom environment). Child can recognize major disparities in personal abilities relative to other children. Erikson places some emphasis on the teacher, who should ensure that children do not feel inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>fidelity - Identity vs. Role Confusion - Teenager. Questioning of self. Who am I, how do I fit in? Where am I going in life? Erikson believes that if the parents allow the child to explore, they will conclude their own identity. However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>love (in intimate relationships, work and family) - Intimacy vs. Isolation - Young adult. Who do I want to be with or date, what am I going to do with my life? Will I settle down? This stage has begun to last longer as young adults choose to stay in school and not settle. </li></ul><ul><li>caring - Generativity vs. Stagnation - the Mid-life crisis. Measure accomplishments/failures. Am I satisfied or not? The need to assist the younger generation. Stagnation is the feeling of not having done anything to help the next generation. </li></ul><ul><li>wisdom - Ego Integrity vs. Despair - old age. Some handle death well. Some can be bitter, unhappy, and/or dissatisfied with what they have accomplished or failed to accomplish within their life time. They reflect on the past, and either conclude at satisfaction or despair. </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson , Childhood and Society (1950) </li></ul>
  11. 11. HIERARCHY OF NEEDS: ABE MASLOW <ul><li>Self Actualization -Fulfillment Needs This is the rare level where people have need of purpose, personal growth and realization of their potentials. This is the point where people start to become fully functional, acting purely on their own volition and having a healthy personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego -Self Esteem Needs  We need to believe in ourselves and have healthy pride.  At this level we need self-respect, and respect from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Social - Love and Belongingness Needs  At this level the needs of love from family and friends are important. </li></ul><ul><li>Security - Safety Needs Here we might include living in a safe area away from threats. This level is more likely to be found in children as they have a greater need to feel safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Body -Physiological Needs On this level are the very basic needs for air, warmth, food, sleep, stimulation and activity. People can die due to lack of biological needs and equilibrium (homeostasis).  </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul><ul><li>http://wwwdeepermind.com/20maslow.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Maslow.  Ref:  A Theory of Human Motivation (1943). </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE MBTI TOOL WAS DEVELOPED IN THE 1940S BY ISABEL BRIGGS MYERS AND THE ORIGINAL RESEARCH WAS DONE IN THE 1940S AND '50S. <ul><li>The theory of psychological type was introduced in the 1920s by Carl G. Jung.  The essence of the theory is that much seemingly random variation in the behavior is actually quite orderly and consistent, being due to basic differences in the ways individuals prefer to use their perception and judgment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favorite world: Do you prefer to focus on the outer world or on your own inner world? This is called Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information: Do you prefer to focus on the basic information you take in or do you prefer to interpret and add meaning? This is called Sensing (S) or Intuition (N). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions: When making decisions, do you prefer to first look at logic and consistency or first look at the people and special circumstances? This is called Thinking (T) or Feeling (F). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure : In dealing with the outside world, do you prefer to get things decided or do you prefer to stay open to new information and options? This is called Judging (J) or Perceiving (P). </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. LEARNING THEORY: HOW PEOPLE LEARN. Museums: Visitors come to our museums with different abilities, talents, experiences and personal profiles. They learn in different ways. Our exhibits have to accommodate different styles and needs .
  14. 14. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES: HOWARD GARDNER <ul><li>The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. </li></ul><ul><li>These intelligences are: </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic intelligence (&quot;word smart&quot;): </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical intelligence (&quot;number/reasoning smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial intelligence (&quot;picture smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (&quot;body smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Musical intelligence (&quot;music smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal intelligence (&quot;people smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal intelligence (&quot;self smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist intelligence (&quot;nature smart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thomasarmstrong.com/multiple_intelligences.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences . New York: Basic,1983 </li></ul>
  15. 15. FLOW: MIHALYI CZIKSZENTMIHALI MIHÁLHÁLYI BEYOND BOREDDOM AND ANXIETY <ul><li>Flow is the mental state of operation in which the person is fully immersed in what he or she is doing by a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and success in the process of the activity. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>To be caught in the ennui of depression or the agitation of anxiety is to be barred from flow. </li></ul><ul><li>The space between boredom and anxiety is where learning is most rewarding and self-fulfilling </li></ul><ul><li>People choose to enter that space without external prompts. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond boredom and anxiety; M Csíkszentmihályi - 2000 - Jossey-Bass </li></ul>
  16. 16. PIAGET: <ul><li>Intelligence is not the same at different ages. It changes qualitatively, attaining increasingly broader, more abstract, and more equlibrated structures thereby allowing access to different levels of organization of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is the basic mechanism of ensuring equilibrium in the relations between the person and the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>the development of intelligence is a continuous process of assimilations and accommodations that lead to increasing expansion of the field of application of schemes, increasing coordination between them, increasing interiorization, and increasing abstraction. </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanism is reflecting abstraction. to the rejection of the external action components of sensorimotor operations on objects and to the preservation of the mental, planning or anticipatory, components of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_cognitive_development </li></ul>
  17. 17. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: HTTP://EN.WIKIPEDIA.ORG/WIKI/SOCIAL_COGNITIVE_THEORY#CITE_NOTE-SANTROCK-1 <ul><li>People learn by observing others, with the environment, behavior, and cognition all as the chief factors in influencing development. </li></ul><ul><li>These three factors are not static or independent; rather, they are all reciprocal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, each behavior witnessed can change a person's way of thinking (cognition). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, the environment one is raised in may influence later behaviors, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>just as a father's mindset (also cognition) will determine the environment in which his children are raised [2] . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Museum implication: Watching as teaching, family and social groups influences each other. </li></ul>
  18. 18. CONSTRUCTIVISM IS A THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE WHICH ARGUES THAT HUMANS GENERATE KNOWLEDGE AND MEANING FROM THEIR EXPERIENCES.* <ul><li>2 Constructivist theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Constructivist learning intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1 The nature of the learner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1.1 The learner as a unique individual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1.2 The importance of the background and culture of the learner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1.3 The responsibility for learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.1.4 The motivation for learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.2 The role of the instructor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.2.1 Instructors as facilitators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.3 The nature of the learning process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.3.1 Learning is an active, social process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.3.2 Dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.4 Collaboration among learners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.4.1 Learning by teaching (LdL) as constructivist method </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.4.2 The importance of context </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.4.3 Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.5 The selection, scope and sequencing of the subject matter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.5.1 Knowledge should be discovered as an integrated whole </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.5.2 Engaging and challenging the learner </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.5.3 The structuredness of the learning process </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.5.4 Final remarks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory) </li></ul>
  19. 19. LEARNING IN MUSEUMS AND OTHER INFORMAL SETTINGS Our visitors range in degree of museum usage, familiarity with the subject, intention for visit, size and composition of the social group, interrelationship of members of group, etc.
  20. 20. FAMILY LEARNING IN MUSEUMS: D. D. HILKE <ul><li>&quot;Scholars agree that a major function of the family is to support learning among its members. Whether called childrearing, socialization, acculturation, or education, the process of raising and nurturing children involves the transfer of information between all family members&quot; (1989, p.103). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.archimuse.com/mw99/papers/chadwick/chadwick.html </li></ul><ul><li>Hilke, D.D. (1989). The Family as a Learning System: An Observational Study of Families in Museums. Marriage and Family Review, 13, 101-129. </li></ul>
  21. 21. DAVID MORLEY’S STUDY OF THE NATIONWIDE AUDIENCE (1980) <ul><li>Professor David Morley is a sociologist who specializes in the sociology of the television audience. Nationwide was a popular news/current affairs magazine programme which had a regular early evening slot on weekdays from 6.00 to 7.00 pm on BBC1. It followed the main national news from London and included human interest stories from 'the regions' as well as a 'down-to-earth' look at the major events of the day. It was broadcast throughout the UK (including Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), </li></ul><ul><li>In the NWA study his major concern was 'with the extent to which individual interpretation of programmes could be shown to vary systematically in relation to... socio-cultural background' (1981b, p 56). He was investigating 'the degree of complementarity between the codes of the programme and the interpretive codes of various sociocultural groups... [and] the extent to which decodings take place within the limits of the preferred (or dominant) manner in which the message has been initially encoded' (1983, p. 106). </li></ul><ul><li>Morley outlined three hypothetical positions (adapted from Frank Parkin) which the reader of a programme might occupy (1983, pp. 109-10; see also 1981b, p. 51 and 1992, p. 89): </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant (or 'hegemonic') reading : The reader shares the programme's 'code' (its meaning system of values, attitudes, beliefs and assumptions) and fully accepts the programme's 'preferred reading' (a reading which may not have been the result of any conscious intention on the part of the programme makers). </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated reading : The reader partly shares the programme's code and broadly accepts the preferred reading, but modifies it in a way which reflects their position and interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Oppositional ('counter-hegemonic') reading : The reader does not share the programme's code and rejects the preferred reading, bringing to bear an alternative frame of interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Morley argues that 'members of a given sub-culture will tend to share a cultural orientation towards decoding messages in particular ways. Their individual &quot;readings&quot; of messages will be framed by shared cultural formations and practices' (1981b, p. 51). </li></ul><ul><li>Morley, David (1992): Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies . London: Routledge (Chapters 3 & 4). </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aber.ac.uk/favicon.ico </li></ul>
  22. 22. FRAMEWORK FOR ENGAGING THROUGH ART BONNIE PITMAN, DALLAS MUSEUM OF ART HTTP://WWW.DM-ART.ORG/PRESSROOM/DMA_307841 <ul><li>Observers </li></ul><ul><li>Of the four clusters, these visitors are only somewhat comfortable looking at art, as they have the most limited backgrounds in art and art history, and are least comfortable talking about art. They tend to prefer a guided experience at the museum—seeking straightforward explanations to help them understand what the work of art means—rather than viewing works independently. They may be new to art viewing and just beginning to experience it. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in this cluster have stronger knowledge of and interest in art. They enjoy learning and the social aspects of their experiences. Participants have the strongest interest in connecting with works of art in a variety of ways, including through music, dance, dramatic performances, and readings. Participants enjoy the social experience of being in the galleries.  </li></ul><ul><li>Independents </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals in this group like to view a work of art independently, without explanations or interpretation. These visitors are confident about their knowledge and seek intense interactions with art. Independents are often practicing artists. The group is comfortable with art terminology and with both looking at and talking about art, and is less likely to use interpretative resources during their visit. </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasts </li></ul><ul><li>This cluster is comprised of individuals who are confident, enthusiastic, knowledgeable and comfortable looking at all types of art. These visitors actively participate in a wide variety of museum programming, including discussions about art, and enjoy interpretive resources in the galleries. Of the four visitor clusters, members of this group are most emotionally affected by art, and are most interested in the artist materials and techniques, and in explaining the meaning of a work to a friend. Enthusiasts frequently use the museum and are the most likely to be members. </li></ul>
  23. 23. MODES OF ENGAGEMENT2 -- ARTS ACTIVITIES ARE GROUPED BY LEVEL OF CREATIVE CONTROL EXERCISED BY THE PARTICIPANT <ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Inventive Participation engages the mind, body and spirit in an act of artistic creation that is unique and idiosyncratic, regardless of skill level (e.g., composing music, writing original poetry, painting). </li></ul><ul><li>2. Interpretive Participation is a creative act of self-expression that brings alive and adds value to pre-existing works of art, either individually or collaboratively, or engages one in arts learning (e.g., playing in a band, learning to dance). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Curatorial Participation is the creative act of purposefully selecting, organizing and collecting </li></ul><ul><li>art to the satisfaction of one’s own artistic sensibility (e.g., collecting art, downloading music and burning CDs). </li></ul><ul><li>4. Observational Participation encompasses arts experiences that the participant selects or consents to have, which involve viewing or watching art created or performed by others (e.g., attending live performances, visiting art museums). </li></ul><ul><li>5. Ambient Participation (not investigated in this study) includes encounters with art that the participant does not select (e.g., seeing architecture, hearing music in an elevator). </li></ul>The study identifies specific types of activities which, if supported at higher levels, http://www.irvine.org/assets/pdf/pubs/arts/CulturalEngagement_ExecutiveBriefing.pdf : Cultural Engagement in California Irvine Foundation 2008
  24. 24. VECTORS OF ENGAGEMENT : DEFINED IN TERMS OF SETTING AND SOCIAL OR CULTURAL CONTEXT.* <ul><li>1. Family-Based Engagement provides a measure of arts activity occurring in a family social context. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Faith-Based Engagement provides a measure of arts activity that occurs on the context of faith or in a place of worship. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Heritage-Based Engagement provides a measure of arts activity that serves to celebrate or sustain a cultural heritage or ethnic identity. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Engagement in Arts Learning captures the level at which a respondent is actively acquiring skills, either formally or informally. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Engagement at Arts Venues serves as an aggregate measure of use of purpose-built arts venues for activities in all disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Engagement at Community Venues serves as an aggregate measure of use of parks and outdoor settings, restaurants, bars and coffee shops, and community centers as venues for activities in each discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Vectors 5 and 6 permit comparison of users of conventional versus unconventional venues for arts activities. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.irvine.org/assets/pdf/pubs/arts/CulturalEngagement_ExecutiveBriefing.pdf : Cultural Engagement in California Irvine Foundation 2008 </li></ul>
  25. 25. AUDIENCE SEGMENTATION For Museums there are many variables. What axis you use determines how to design. What if you tried to satisfy many variables simultaneously?
  26. 26. Levels of engagement Visitor structure: Volitional / Organized Groups Location: Drive time Reason for coming Lead person in a social group Economic level Cultural/ethnic background Education level Seasonality: Age: Immigrant/citizen
  27. 27. EXAMPLES: AUDIENCE
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  31. 31. LEVELS OF DESIGN ENGAGEMENT Museums can vary their relationship with members of the audience when designing their building, programs, amenities and exhibitions to reflect the multiple needs of their audience
  32. 32. EXHIBITION CONTINUUM: AXIS FOR CONSIDERATION <ul><li>Intellectual – Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific – Spiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Novice – Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Individual – Family, Social Group </li></ul><ul><li>One time visit – Multiple visits </li></ul><ul><li>Long visit – dropping in </li></ul><ul><li>Come for exhibitions – come for other activity </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent exhibition – Temporary exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Volitional visitor – organized group </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritative – Personal Quest </li></ul><ul><li>Cluttered – Spare </li></ul><ul><li>Community – Club </li></ul><ul><li>Content focused – visitor focused </li></ul><ul><li>Survey – specific </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplinary – disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-voice – single voiced </li></ul>
  33. 33. DOMESTICATION THEORY IS AN APPROACH IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY STUDIES AND MEDIA STUDIES THAT DESCRIBES THE PROCESSES BY WHICH INNOVATIONS, ESPECIALLY NEW TECHNOLOGY IS 'TAMED' OR APPROPRIATED BY ITS USERS. * <ul><li>First, technologies are integrated into everyday life and adapted to daily practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, the user and its environment change and adapt accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirdly, these adaptations feedback into innovation processes in industry, shaping the next generation of technologies and services. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory was initially developed to help understand the adoption and use of new media technologies by households (Silverstone et al.), but has since been expanded in the innovation literature as a tool to understand technologies and innovations entering any consuming unit (workplace, country etc that can be analysed economically, culturally and sociologically. </li></ul><ul><li>The domestication approach shows how these two elements- the meanings of things, and their materiality , are equally important understanding how technologies become part of everyday life. </li></ul><ul><li>* http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestication_theory </li></ul>
  34. 34. NINA SIMON: ME TO WE HTTP://IMG.SKITCH.COM/20100125-MDH2E9HU36FM1MEPDSEJKYF2EU.PNG WWW.MUSEUMTWO.COM
  35. 35. THE MEANING OF THINGS: THEORIST BELIEVE THAT HUMAN’S GO FROM CONCRETE TO ABSTRACT THINKING. THUS AN OBJECT CAN BE BOTH ITSELF AND A STAND-IN FOR MEMORIES, ASSOCIATIONS, AND OTHER LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES. Museums must remember that objects are both themselves and a gateway to other meaning within the individual. These are often unexpressed.
  36. 36. OBJECTS: CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>Authenticity – reproductions </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence – experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Tactility – synthetic </li></ul><ul><li>The object alone – context </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation – information </li></ul><ul><li>Stories – dispassionate </li></ul>
  37. 37. MEANING OF THINGS: MIHALY CSIKSZENTMIHALYI <ul><li>In his book, he postulated that human beings in collecting personal objects attach meaning, stories, and recollections to the object. The object becomes a stand-in for all the complex memories and narratives attached to it. </li></ul><ul><li>In museums then, we must be aware that individuals are associating personal memories to our objects as well. </li></ul>
  38. 38. MUSEUM INTENTION AND THERE ARE SUBTLE AND NOT SO SUBTLE WAYS TO SIGNAL WELCOME The theory asserts that the director and staff can determine the philosophic / political / policy direction a museum will take regardless of its subject matter.
  39. 39. MUSEUM INTENTION: ELAINE HEUMANN GURIAN <ul><li>Five different categories of museums— </li></ul><ul><li>the object-centered museum, </li></ul><ul><li>the narrative museum, </li></ul><ul><li>the client-centered museum, </li></ul><ul><li>the community-focused museum, </li></ul><ul><li>and the national museum. </li></ul><ul><li>While some museums really do wish and succeed in being all five types at the same time—most do not. </li></ul><ul><li>Gurian, EH, 'Choosing among the Options: An Opinion about Museum Definitions', Curator v.45 (2), April 2002, pp.75-88.[NMA S 069 CUR]. </li></ul>
  40. 40. THE PLACE: INSIDE -- OUTSIDE Museums can evidence their intentions toward their visitors by how they use their space
  41. 41. THE TANGIBLE PLACE/ THE BUILDING CONSIDERATIONS: AXIS <ul><li>Virtual vs place </li></ul><ul><li>Homey – august </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple activities – destination </li></ul><ul><li>The building wow – the content wow </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral space – location </li></ul><ul><li>Actual history – created as museum </li></ul><ul><li>Inside only – inside outside – outside only </li></ul>
  42. 42. THE THIRD SPACE <ul><li>Home </li></ul><ul><li>Work </li></ul><ul><li>Social space </li></ul><ul><li>The third place is a term used in the concept of community building to refer to social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home and the workplace. In his influential book The Great Good Place , Ray Oldenburg (1989, 1991) argues that third places are important for civil society, democracy, civic engagement, and establishing feelings of a sense of place. </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_place </li></ul>
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