The roles of stakeholders in curriculum implementation presentation transcript
The roles of stakeholders in curriculum implementationPresentation Transcript
1. The roles of stakeholders incurriculum implementation
2. Stakeholders are individuals or institutions that are interested in the school curriculum. Their
interests vary in degree and complexity. They get involved in many ways in the
implementation, because the curriculum affects them directly or indirectly. These
stakeholders shape the school curriculum implementation.
3. Learners at the Center of the curriculumFor a particular curriculum design mentioned earlier,
the learner is placed at the center. The learners are the very reason a curriculum is
developed. They are the ones who are directly influenced by it. Learners in all levels make or
unmake the curriculum by their active and direct involvement. How each individual learner
contributes to the realization of a planned curriculum would depend on the interactions and
internalization of the different learning experiences provided. After all, in curriculum
implementation, the concluding question will always be: has the learner learned?
4. Teachers as curriculum developers and implementersIn the teaching and learning process,
the other side of the coin is the teacher. Most curricula start to gain life from the time it is
conceived and written. Planning and writing the curriculum are the primary roles of the
teacher. A teacher is a curriculum maker. He/ she writes a curriculum daily through a lesson
plan, a unit plan or a yearly plan. The teacher designs, enriches, and modifies the curriculum
to suit the learner’s characteristics. Teachers are empowered to develop their own curricula
taking into consideration their own expertise, the context of the school and the abilities of
the learners. By so doing, teachers become architects of school curriculum.
5. Curriculum managers and administratorsIn school organization, there is always a curriculum
manager or school administrator. In fact, for school principals, one of their functions is being
a curriculum manager. They supervise curriculum implementation, select and recruit new
teachers, admit students, procure equipment and materials needed for effective learning.
They also plan for the improvement of school facilities and physical plants.The role of the
administrators can never be ignored. The principle of command responsibility and
institutional leadership rests on the shoulders of the school administrators. The final decision
making in terms of the school’s purpose rests on the shoulders of school administrators. In
the academic institution, school administrators have a great stake or concern about what
kind of curriculum their schools offer and how these are implemented.
6. Parents as supporters to the curriculum“my child and my money go to this school”. Reads a
car sticker. What is the implication of this statement to the school curriculum? It simply
means that the parents are the best supporters of the school, especially because they are the
ones paying for the child’s education. Parent’s voices are very loud and clear. In our country,
it is a general fact that even in college the parents are responsible for their child’s education.
The power of parent’s to influence curricula to include instructional materials and school
activities is great, such that success of curricula would somehow depend on their
support.How do parents shape the curriculum and why are they considered as stakeholders?
7. • Here are some observations:i. Effective parental involvement in school affairs may be
linked to parent educational programs which is central to high quality educational
experiences of the children.ii. The parent’s involvement extends from the confine of the
school to the homes.iii.In most schools the Parents Association is organized
8. Community Members as curriculum resources • The success in the implementation of the
curriculum requires resources. However, most often teachers complain that resources are
very scarce. There are no books, materials nor facilities available. These are usual complaints
of teachers. The community members and materials in the existing local community can very
well substitute for what are needed to implement the curriculum. Respected community
members may be included in school boards as in some schools.
9. Other stakeholders in curriculum implementationThere are other important stakeholders in
curriculum implementation. Professional organizations have shown great influence in school
curriculum. They are being asked by curriculum specialists to contribute in curriculum review
because they have a voice in licensure examinations, curriculum enhancement and many
more. Often, professional organizations are those of each profession, like teachers’
organization, lawyers’ organizations, medical doctors’ association, engineers’ organizations
and many others.
10. • On the other hand, since all schools in the country, are under the regulation of the national
government as provided for in the Phil. Constitution, then the government has a great stake
in curriculum implementation. The government is represented by the DepEd for basic
education curricula and the CHED for the tertiary and graduate education curricula. These
two government agencies have mandatory and regulatory powers over the implementation
of any curricula. The third government agency that has high stake in the schools’ curricula is
the professional regulation commission (PRC).
11. The role of technology in delivering the curriculumThe role of technology finds its place at
the onset of curriculum implementation, namely at the stage of instructional planning. In a
teaching-learning situation, there is the critical need to provide the learners information that
forms a coherent whole. Otherwise, learning may end up haphazard and in the end
ineffective. A systematic approach to instructional planning is, therefore, necessary. And in
instructional planning, each lesson should have an idea of general specific goals, instructional
objectives, content, activities, media, materials, assess ment and evaluation on how
objectives have been achieved.In the choice of instructional media, technology comes into
12. Figure 4- A systematic planning process Identifyinstructional goals Plan Identify and Choose
an instructional assess instruction activities instructional al media media maintains
technology Revise instruction Assess Implement Analyze learners instruction instruction
13. Instructional media may also be referred to as media technology or learning in technology, or
simply technology. Technology plays a crucial role in delivering instruction to
learners.Technology offers various tools of learning and these range from non-projected and
projected media from which the teacher can choose, depending on what he sees fit with the
intended instructional setting.
14. Table1. Types of instructional selectionNon-projected media Projected mediaReal objects
Overhead transparenciesModels Opaque projectionField trips SlidesKits FilmstripsPrinted
materials(books, Filmsworksheets) Video,VCD,DVDVisuals( drawing,
Computer/multimediaphotographs, graphs, charts, presentationspostersVisual boards
(chalkboard,whiteboard, flannel board.Etc.)Audio materials
15. • Factors for technology selection1.Practicality2.Appropriateness in relation to the
16. The role of technology in curriculum delivery• It can easily observed that technological
innovation in the multifarious fields of commerce, science and education, is fast developing
such that it is difficult to foresee the technological revolution in the millennium ,inclusive of
17. Presently we can identify three current trends that could carry on the nature of education in
the future. The first trend is the paradigm shift from teacher-centered to student-centered
approach to learning. The second is the broadening realization that education is not simply a
delivery of facts and information, nut an educative process of cultivating cognitive , affective,
psychomotor and much more the contemplative intelligence of the learners of a new age.nut
the third and possibly the more explosive trend is the increase in the use of new information
and communication technology or ICT.
18. For now, the primary roles of educational technology in delivering the school curriculum’s
instructional program have been identified:• Upgrading the quality of teaching-and-learning
in schools.• Increasing the capability of the teacher to effectively inculcate learning, and for
students to gain mastery of lessons and courses.• Broadening the delivery of education
outside school through non-n traditional approaches to formal and informal learning, such as
Open Universities and lifelong learning to adult courses• Revolutionizing the use of
technology to boost educational paradigm shifts that give importance to student-centered
and holistic learning.
19. Pilot testing, monitoring and evaluating the implementation of curriculumPilot testing or
field try-outWhenever a curriculum is written as in books, course manuals, modules or the
whole curricular program, there is a need to have a try-out or field testing. This process will
gather empirical data to support whether the material or curriculum is useful, relevant,
reliable and valid.
20. Most of the field testing or try-out follows some form of researched designs. Usually it
follows an experimental method, however an initial process can be done without any
comparison group. In this case only one group of students will be used as a try out for the
curriculum.Using the principles of curriculum writing and backed up by the content
specialization of the writers and the consultants, the modules were written. The printed
modules were reviewed by the consultants and peers, however, there was a need to try out
or pilot test the activities and the field practicals by the users who are the students
21. The try-out or pilot testing assures the teachers and the schools that indeed the curriculum
materials are ready for use.Modification and revisions are inherent characteristics of a
curriculum. The pilot test or try-out is a developmental process that gives the signal as to
whether the particular curriculum can already be implemented with confidence.
22. • However, as the curriculum is beingimplemented, there is a need to continuouslymonitor
the process. Curriculum monitoring Curriculum evaluation1. School-based evaluation is an
approach to curriculum evaluation which places the content, design, operation, and
maintenance of evaluation procedure in the hands of the school personnel.
23. • Some of the disadvantages of the school based-evaluation include the following:i.
Accountability is shared by all; hence bias and conflict are minimized.ii. School personnel
develop evaluation skills.iii.The real concerns of the school and community are addressed by
the evaluationiv.Broad participation of school personnel provide opportunities for building
school cohesiveness.v. Provides reliable and valid information on curriculum, resources , and
general school functioning.
24. 1.Accreditation- this is a voluntary process of submitting a curricular program to an external
accrediting body for review in any level of education: tertiary or graduate school to assure
standard. Accreditation studies the statement of the educational intentions of the school and
affirms a standard of excellence. • What are the areas for accreditation under Curriculum
25. 1. Curriculum and program of studies • Program of studies includes the clusters of
knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and experiences that will provide the students at any level
with necessary competencies for effective learning. A List of subjects or courses to be taken
and arranged in a logical order compose the program of studies.1. Classroom management •
The teacher who implements the curriculum sees to it that management of teaching and
learning in the classroom follows procedure and guidelines to enhance and create an
environment conducive to learning considers the physical factors such as classroom physical
arrangements, ventilation, lighting, cleanliness while the human factors include the teachers’
attitude, students’ responses, teacher- students relationships, student-student relationships
26. 1. Instructional processes or methodologies How to translate action into the written and
planned curriculum is a concern of instruction. The decision of choosing and using the
method of teaching is a crucial factor in curriculum and instruction. There are varied teaching
methodologies that are compatible with the different learning styles of the students. These
emerging strategies of teaching follow principles and theories that enhance learning
outcomes. As teachers, there is a need to know not only the steps or strategies of teaching
but understand the pedagogical content knowledge of each strategy.
27. 1. Graduation requirements Graduation means successful accomplishment of the curricular
program of studies. A student has to accomplish its academic program as prescribed in the
program of studies mentioned earlier. Aside from the academic subjects required, some
curricula provide activities that are necessary and should be accomplished as a graduation
requirement. Some call these comprehensive examinations, or exit examinations.
28. 1. Administrative support for effective instruction • The required physical facilities like good
classrooms, libraries, playground, laboratory, study areas are the primary responsibilities of
the school administrators. A school administrator which can provide high and quality support
to instruction assures effective curricular outcomes.1. Evaluation of academic performance
of students • The evaluation of students’ performance should make use of valid and reliable
tools which are periodically reviewed and revised. Students should receive information about
their school performance promptly and regularly. Likewise recognition like scholarships,
certificates and merits should be given. • Success of the school curriculum is shown in the
results of the evaluation of the students’ performance.