Tutorial 4 john r. savageau


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Tutorial 4 john r. savageau

  1. 1. 29.09.2011 Data Center Consolidation and Cloud Computing in Government ICT It is a Matter of TimeJohn R. SavageauLos Angeles, Californiasavageau@pacific-tier.com Topics • Data center consolidation • Disaster recovery and business continuity • Introduction to cloud computing • Moldova case study • Government roles in cloud computing 1
  2. 2. 29.09.2011 Every Day DynamicsUrgency Business Data Center Continuity/ Consolidation Disaster Recovery Meeting Point For Cloud Computing Discussion Planning Technology Changing/Enabling Refresh Cycles ApplicationsGovernmentData CenterConsolidation Not just an issue for US – it is a common issue for nearly all governments 2
  3. 3. 29.09.2011Data Center Consolidation VISION: Create a whole-of-government approach to data centers, disaster recovery, and business continuity. Provides standards and integration of the government’s ICT infrastructure matching a wide range of government information needs in an optimal manner with regard to interoperability, development agility, cost, energy use, and operations. • Adopt modern technologies and practices that will improve the effectiveness and efficiency of data center use • Consolidate data centers in a model that will reduce duplication and un-necessary costs for base ICT infrastructure • Match national objectives and business needs to ICT utility and protection of national data Australia Traditional vs. Cloud in Data Center Traditional Data Center Cloud Processing Center• One user, one cabinet or suite • One infrastructure, many in data center users• One application per server or • One application per virtual cluster server• Dedicated storage for a single application • Shared processing resource• Average utilization <20% • Shared storage resource• Separate switching and • Average utilization >75% telecom • Shared switching and telecom• Separate/individual licenses • Volume licensing NASCIO 3
  4. 4. 29.09.2011 Surveys – National ICT Infrastructure • Obsolete or unsupported h/w, s/w • Incompatible systems • Old or non-existent documentation • Loss of skilled or experienced staff • Inability to meet business requirements • Data security shortfalls – Disaster recovery – Standard access controls Data Center Reviews Suitability Offsite Expansion Location to Task Size Air Conditioning Power UPS OSS/BSS Telecom DR Security Plans CommentsJakarta Kominfo 6th Floor Small Spot NMS 1 no Medium YesJakarta Kominfo 2nd Floor Small Spot NMS 1 no Medium Yes Single use facility Batam Medium Central/Dry NMS 1 no Medium Yes Low power Samarinda Small Spot NO 1 no Medium Yes Cyber Center Large Chilled Water OSS/BMS >20 no High Yes Best observed - Carrier hotel/IXP/Colo Ministry of Agriculture Small Spot NMS 1 no Low Yes No power available for expeansion PLN Jakarta Medium Central/Dry NMS 3 no Medium Yes Moving facility IDC Batam Medium Central/Dry OSS 5 no Medium Yes Small colo, adequate Ministry of Public Works Small Spot NO 2 no Low Yes Small , low power, not all on UPS Bureau of Statistics Medium Central/Dry NMS 1 no Medium Yes Good facility, requires DR Ministry of Finance Medium Central/Dry NMS 2 no Medium Yes Good facility, moving Unsatisfactory 1 Marginal 2 Adequate 3 Good 4 Exceptional 5 4
  5. 5. 29.09.2011Why Some Resist Consolidation Overall, resistance to data center consolidation is not a technical issue, it is based on personal reasons. NASCIO – National Association of State CIOs Disaster Management 5
  6. 6. 29.09.2011 Disasters do Happen…• How well will you be prepared when it happens to your data center?• Is your critical national data protected? Disaster Recovery Planning • International DR/DRC/BCP standards – NFPA 1600 (Process and Planning) – ISO 24762 – BS 25999 (UK) There are good international – COBIT/ITIL standards for disaster recovery and business continuity, as well as mature application support. The • Main objectives problem is getting plans off – Safeguard data PowerPoint slides and into implementation. – Respond quickly – Restore operations 6
  7. 7. 29.09.2011 Intro to Cloud Computing It is Just a Matter of TimeA Matter of Time • We need to start the discussion someplace, and defining cloud computing is that place • Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its definition, use cases, underlying technologies, issues, risks, and benefits will be refined and better understood with a spirited debate by the public and private sectors. • This definition, its attributes, characteristics, and underlying rationale will evolve over time. (NIST) 7
  8. 8. 29.09.2011NIST - The Most Common Cloud Frameworks "Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction”ICT Operational Costs 11% New Applications Development Existing Applications 53% Maintenance 36% Infrastructure (IT Equipment/Facility) A major objective of cloud computing is to return as much budget/funding to new ICT Spending inapplications development and innovation as Traditional Largepossible by relieving individual organizationsof infrastructure cost and operations burden Organizations Various Sources 8
  9. 9. 29.09.2011Economics of Virtualization • We plan for peak use • Most resource remains unused From Berkeley “Above the Clouds”Traditional IT Equipment Use • Normally less than 20% • Consolidation increases performance • Virtualization reduces cost Overall Compute Unused or Wasted Resources and Storage Resource Capacity Turn Off Until Needed Move to Virtualization 9
  10. 10. 29.09.2011Cloud Service Essential Characteristics• On-demand Self-service. Users provision computing and storage capabilities.• Broad Network Access. Compute, software, and storage resources are available through a network connection.• Resource Pooling. Compute resources are pooled to provide a single resource to be assigned and reassigned according to user demand.• Rapid Elasticity. Compute and storage capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out, and rapidly released to quickly scale in.• Measured Service. Cloud management systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service used.Cloud Service Models• Infrastructure as a Service/IaaS. The capability provided to the consumer/user to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer/user is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications.• Platform as a Service/PaaS. The capability provided to the consumer/user to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages and tools supported by the provider.• Software as a Service/SaaS. The capability provided to the consumer/user to use a software provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. SaaS PaaS Each layer builds on the previous layer IaaS Wikipedia 10
  11. 11. 29.09.2011Cloud Deployment Models NIST Deployment Models Cloud Model Cloud Description The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may Private Cloud be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a Public Cloud large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are Hybrid Cloud bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load- balancing between clouds). The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and Community supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may Cloud be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. An interconnection by several cloud service providers allowing crossPlus -> InterCloud provisioning, resource allocation, and cloud exchange marketplace. NIST Cloud Combined Framework Hybrid Clouds Deployment Models Private Community Public Cloud Cloud Cloud Service IaaS PaaS SaaS Models On Demand Self-Service Essential Broad Network Access Rapid Elasticity Characteristics Resource Pooling Measured Service Massive Scale Resilient Computing Common Homogenity Geographic Distribution Characteristics Virtualization Service Orientation Low Cost Software Advanced Security Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor - http://ornot.wordpress.com 11
  12. 12. 29.09.2011Elements of the Cloud Users Users Users Users Users Users Users Application User Interface Layer (SaaS) API Layer (PaaS) Resource Management Layer (IaaS) Storage SystemsProvisioning Engine for the Virtual Data CenterCreates virtual data centers and IT infrastructurewithin a compute and storage resource 12
  13. 13. 29.09.2011 The Virtual Data Center• To the user, it is no different than a traditional data center• Greater efficiency• Faster provisioning• Ease of management IaaS PaaS Cloud (PaaS) User Views and Control• Allows individual agency or ministry IT managers to control own virtual data center resources• Easy to visualize and understand• Simplifies resource planning and management• Overall resource management at the national operations center level 13
  14. 14. 29.09.2011 SaaS – I Don’t Care Where the Applications are Hosted • Single application • Many users • Content is secure • Simple Virtual Desktop Support/ SaaS • Full desktop utility • Security – Physical media protection – Virus/Malware – Hacking • Rapid provisioning • Volume licensingNot hardware or OS dependent 14
  15. 15. 29.09.2011 NIST Cloud Computing Priorities • Interoperability – clouds need to work together • Portability – workloads and data should be able to move as needed • Security – customer data and workloads are protectedAll require development of open and usable standards“Quick Win” - Disaster Recovery• Requirement to backup government data into a central (offsite) location – Server-based – Workstation-based – “Cloud Storage” model• Long term disaster recovery designed into Cloud as a distributed/mirrored architecture allowing immediate fail-over 15
  16. 16. 29.09.2011Issues and Concerns w/Clouds • Security of government information • Personal Privacy of citizens • Availability and performance • Management and control • Migration planning “Cloud computing is not a silver bullet, but offers a transformational opportunity to fundamentally reshape the operations of government and close the IT gap” (Kundra)Security is Main Issue with CloudsQ: Rate the challenges/issues ascribed to the “cloud on demand model”1= Not Significant 5= Very SignificantVendor Availability/Experience 44,3% Regulatory Requirements 49,2% Portability 50,0% Cost of Implementing 50,4% Ability to Customize 55,8% Integration with Existing IT 61,1% Systems Availability 63,1% Performance 63,1% Security 74,6% 0,0% 10,0% 20,0% 30,0% 40,0% 50,0% 60,0% 70,0% 80,0% Source: IDC Enterprise Panel N=244 16
  17. 17. 29.09.2011Cloud Security Challenges• Data dispersal and international privacy laws – EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor program – Exposure of data to foreign government and data subpoenas – Data retention issues• Need for isolation management• Multi-tenancy• Logging challenges• Data ownership issues• Quality of service guarantees NISTGovernment Roles in Cloud Computing Thought Leadership Standards Policy 17
  18. 18. 29.09.2011Government Roles in Cloud• Create national policies and standards – Data security – Data formats – Data and IT Governance• Produce cloud computing solutions in support of government operations• Provide guidance for both government and commercial initiatives – Strategic roadmaps – Best practices – PPPs Government Plays An Additional Role As National ICT “Thought Leader”US Federal Cloud Computing Vision and MissionVision StatementEstablish secure, easy to use, rapidlyprovisioned IT services for the FederalGovernment, including: • Agile and simple acquisition and certification processes Mission Statement • Elastic, usage-based delivery of Drive the government-wide adoption of pooled computing resources cost effective, green, and sustainable • Portable, reusable and interoperable Federal cloud computing solutions business-driven tools • Browser-based ubiquitous internet access to services • Always on and available, utility-like solutions 36 GSA Cloud Computing Initiative Vision and Strategy Document 36 18
  19. 19. 29.09.2011Cloud Readiness Assessment• Profiles – all levels of government management and users• Awareness and Knowledge• Existing Technical Architecture• IT Organizations and Training Plans• Security and Risk Assessment• Cloud Computing Strategy• IT Governance and Management Strategy Cloud Development Case Study Moldova M-Cloud 19
  20. 20. 29.09.2011M-Cloud IntroductionThe Requirement – Establish a government-wide shared compute infrastructure – Use international best-practices – Develop M-Cloud public services focusing on: • Meet specific performance objectives • Availability • Security • Data location • Data recovery • Regulatory • and other legal requirements.Moldova• Develop approach, including: – Surveys of existing data centers – Cloud Readiness Assessment – Review of BCDR environment – Interview govt agencies and private companies – Intensive thought leadership campaign – Feasibility study• Prepare cloud vendor procurement bid and implementation roadmap 20
  21. 21. 29.09.2011M-Cloud Leadership • Move to a “cloud first” national ICT policy • Identify opportunities through data center consolidation • Centralize certification of cloud solutions • Establish standards for security, interoperability & data portabilityThere was a time when every household, town, farm or village had its own water well. Today, shared public utilities give us access to clean water by simply turning on the tap; cloud computing works in a similar fashion. Just like water from the tap in your kitchen, cloud computing services can be turned on or off quickly as needed. Like at the water utility, there is a team of dedicated professionals making sure the service provided is safe, secure andavailable on a 24/7 basis. When the tap isn’t on, not only are you saving water, but you aren’t paying for resources you don’t currently need. (Kundra) Utilities: 1) Roads 2) Water 3) Electricity 4) Broadband and ComputeM-Cloud Government Structure High Level View of M-Cloud 21
  22. 22. 29.09.2011Governments Should Consider CloudComputing at Any Stage of Development• Cloud computing solves immediate problems – BCDR – More responsive to urgent government agency requirements – Data center consolidation & operations efficiency – Improved flexibility/productivity in application development• Knowledge creationCloud Standards A B Proprietary Value-Added Standard 22
  23. 23. 29.09.2011Cloud Standards Mission Provide guidance to industry and government for the creation and management of relevant cloud computing standards allowing all parties to gain the maximum value from cloud computing 45StandardizationAllowing Value-Added and Proprietary Implementation • Advanced or Value- Proprietary Value Added features and Additional Functionality • Standard or Core features Standardized Core Cloud Capabilities GSA 23
  24. 24. 29.09.2011Standards Framework• Cloud computing reference architecture• Cloud service level agreements There are many existing and emerging standards• Systems interoperability • • OASIS OCCI • DMTF• Data portability • OVF • CDMI• Security and privacy • • IEEE And more…• Recommendations – Contribute government or agency requirements – Participate in standards development – Encourage agency compliance testing and development – Encourage all agencies to adopt standards – Provide training to all agencies and usersCloud ComputingReference Architecture 48 48 24
  25. 25. 29.09.2011Cloud Computing Journey Inter-Cloud We Are Here Open Standards APIs and Virtual Private Protocols Cloud Hybrid Cloud Private Cloud Public Cloud 25