Tutorial 2 jeremy millard


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Tutorial 2 jeremy millard

  1. 1. ICEGOV 2011 ConferenceTallinn, Estonia26-28 September 2011 Management and coordination Making it smart 26 September 2011Jeremy Millard 1 Evolving roles of (e)government Governance • Search for good governance • User as citizen and voter • Dilemma: how to balance openness and transparency, and the interests of different stakeholders Alan Mather (UK eEnvoy, 2002): Effectiveness “eGovernment isn’t any different • Search for quality services from government. It just might • User as consumer make it better, sooner, cheaper.” • Dilemma: governments cannot choose their ’customers’ Efficiency • Search for savings • User as tax-payer • Dilemma: how to provide ’more for less’ 1
  2. 2. Agenda1. The vision, strategy and the plan2. Management, leadership, human resources3. Public sector change, coordination and capacity redeployment4. Integration, standards, sharing & analytics5. Performance management6. UK as an example of current management and coordination issues Understanding, vision and strategy It is not a matter of technology, but about strong management, leadership and human capital -- ICT is a tool (an enabler) not a problem solver or panacea. But do need people who understand the technology and how it is changing (fast!). Formulate and agree a clear and long term vision, which is ambitious but achievable and practical, and market it! Need commonly-defined objectives and willingness to achieve them. Take a phased approach, design in an evaluation and monitoring system, review, learn, revise Set and use targets, but realise their limitations – be flexible and adaptive. 2
  3. 3. Commitment Top and medium level political commitment and top civil servant champions are necessary. Regulation and the legal basis may need changing. It is useful to see the eGovernment initiative within the big picture, to see where its outcomes will fit in the wider strategy and wider society – be strategic but know also your limitations. Assess and manage risks (and take some sensible risks!) Understand your strengths and weaknesses. Identify and anticipate opportunities as well as threats and barriers, all of which can be legal, technological, managerial, cultural … Quick wins and enablers• Introduce ‘quick wins’ where feasible and not counter-productive in the longer term, as this creates (political and other) understanding and commitment both internally and externally -- at present at European level the ‘quick win’ is eProcurement, but it could be as simple as downloadable forms on a web-site• Identify ‘key enablers’, i.e. those policies, services or other initiatives which in themselves may not be of high interest but which unlock / trigger larger impacts -- at present at European level the ‘key enablers’ are eID (electronic identity management) user skills and awareness, interoperability 3
  4. 4. Management, organisation, staff & business plan Strong, but flexible and sensitive, project management is important, with collective decisions where necessary. Never loose sight of your internal organisation and inform your internal staff in time Commitment of the staff and support for the staff is essential. Ensure that responsibilities and allocation of tasks are known by all inside and outside the organisation. A sound, feasible and political supported financial plan is necessary, based on an agreed business plan which provides for technical, financial, organisational, human resource and take-up sustainability, and balances between economic ROI (Return of Investments) and public value (both effectiveness and good governance).Leadership, human resources, organisational learning Leadership – the vital energy driving change Human resources (your greatest asset) • flexible working and new types of work: o routinised work (explicit knowledge): can be automated, and easily moved around (decentralised) o specialist work (implicit knowledge): cannot be automated (though ICT can support), difficult to move • flexible skills and competencies (not just ICT, also people skills, self management skills, etc.) • mindsets and public service ethic Organisational learning • grow and nurture • knowledge management, talent crunch • there’s more relevant talent outside any organisation (including government) than inside 4
  5. 5. Public sector innovation and transformation a) Process b) Product/ c) innovation service Organisational innovation innovation Doing existing1) Early stage things faster, COST-driven cheaper, better Doing new2) Middle stage things, but in --- ditto --- same organisa- USER-driven tional settings Doing new 3) Late stage things, and in --- ditto --- --- ditto ---VALUE-driven new organisa- tional settings Centralisation / de-centralisation in governance and public services balance ‘Goods’ ‘Bads’ Centralised / large • Ensure • Bureaucratic scale minimum • Remote standards • One size command analogy / fits all top-down / order • Simplicity • Efficiencybalance De-centralised / • Responsiveness • Local fiefdoms distributed / • Subsidiarity • Post code lottery small scale • Diversity • Externalities market analogy / • Accountability • Complex bottom-up / chaos 5
  6. 6. Change management & capacity redeployment (R)e-balancing government Supply – ‘back’ office Demand -- ’front’ office administration citizen interface and services ’content’ (the outcome) – ‘coordination’ (enabler) -- should be decentralised should be centralised • within and across governments -- • eServices -- on-line services resource / data sharing & process based on citizen & business life re-engineering events (do-it-yourself) or via human amplifiers • between governments and other actors -- resource / data sharing & • traditional services supported by process re-engineering ICT – human (‘warm’), organisational & and physical • ‘re-engineering’ of legacy technology, organisations, • eEngagement– greater processes, skills, mindsets, etc. accountability, openness, transparency, accessibility, • management, HR, etc. participation, etc. Must get smaller & smarter Must get bigger & better• Adaptive capacity & re-deploying resources• Agile & flexible government BUT remember need for continuity & stability Interoperability and integration Interoperability – technical, semantic, organisational and governance (political, legal, managerial and economic) – design platform- and vendor-independent functionality – it may not always be necessary to start from scratch if you have legacy technology systems -- it may be better to link to converters, clearing houses, etc. Integration: strive for both horizontal and vertical integration, and as much joined-up government as possible -- avoid islands of automation and fragmentation of effort In order to face the unavoidable resistance to change from civil servants and internal executives when seriously redefining business processes, the common ownership and adoption of a sound change management approach is necessary. 6
  7. 7. Standards, building blocks & new servicesUse open standards and open software wherepossible.Use standardised building blocks (software,applications, processes) to build bespoke solutions --look for transferability, scalability and contribution tostandardsShare things which all parts of public sector need to do in the sameway: infrastructures, resources, data, content, services, widgets, apps,etc., etc.For example, PAs make their data available to each other enablingthem to compare and identify e.g. similar locations, user groupsand/or services through analysing socio-demographics, service use,etc.Consider new types of products and services, e.g. exploiting the vastand potentially highly valuable public sector information resourcesOpen data – but make sure serves public interest – may be need fortrusted third parties Analytics as a management tool Information explosion information overload ? Real problem is filter failure Analytics as core management activity Analytics should move data use from 1 to 3: 1. Descriptive techniques 2. Predictive techniques 3. Prescriptive techniques 7
  8. 8. Performance management Key Performance Indicators, ROI, etc. In Europe eGovernment roll out (supply side) measured since 2001 After piloting in 2008, demand side and user focused indicators launched in 2009: • qualitative supply indicators focusing on user-centricity • take-up (use) indicators • impact indicators in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and governance • 2011: piloting of open & transparent government What is the purpose of eGovernment measurement ?Prospective direction andpriorities setting (e.g. ex-anteevaluation)Monitoring and policy correctionas you go alongRetrospective achievement (e.g.ex-post impact assessment)Accountability (e.g. to citizens,businesses, tax payers, society) 8
  9. 9. Linking eGovernment measurement to the policy life-cyclePolicy awareness stage: help inunderstanding what eGovernment isPolicy agenda setting stage: encouragingadoption of eGovernmentPolicy preparation stage: understandalternatives and priorities in eGovernmentPolicy implementation stage: monitoring and keeping policy oncourse for eGovernment, and/or evidence that a change isneeded, or how to change if policy changesPolicy evaluation stage: comparative performance data, reasonsbehind these, learning and change in eGovernment Today and future: two main political measurement trends1. Up the policy value chain – inputs and outputs outcomes and impacts2. Down the hierarchy – (centralised) back-office (de-centralised) front-office 9
  10. 10. UK 2010-2013 – integrated strategyUK: March 2011: Government ICT has a really bad name. Muchof this is unjustified. BUT there are problems:• Projects too big and costly – Presumption against lifetime costs > £100m; spending controls; create competitive market place also for SMEs• Too little attention at top on big projects – Senior Responsible Owners stay in post until appropriate break; boards to hold ministers and owners to regular account; performance measurement• Procurement takes far too long – Greatly streamline procurement specifying outcomes rather than inputs• Systems rarely re-used or adapted for re-use – Prioritise sharing; level playing field for open-source; cross agency apps store; comprehensive asset register• Systems rarely interoperable & infrastructure insufficiently integrated – Common ICT infrastructure; G-cloud; open standards starting with interoperability and security 10
  11. 11. UK latest developments and plans (1)1. Go digital only – shift to digital-only (self) service wherever possible2. Democratic power shift – use social media and mobile to engage with citizens and businesses, inputting into policy- and decision-making3. Expand the brand – realign all Government digital delivery under a single web domain name (except NHS)4. Build the service around peoples’ needs – learn from what has been proven to work well elsewhere on the web, become relentlessly user- driven and transparent, with a ‘kill or cure’ policy to reduce poorly performing content and remove the long tail of content no-one uses.5. Create a distribution network beyond government — using Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to allow third parties to present content and transactions on behalf of the government; shift from ‘public services all in one place’ (closed & unfocused) to ‘government services wherever you are’ (open & distributed)6. Be agile – radically reduce the size of the central organisation; establish digital SWAT team; establish a government ‘Skunkworks’ to develop low-cost, fast and agile ICT solutions, and provide a new channel to involve SMEs and entrepreneurs UK latest developments and plans (2)Open Public Services White Paper (July 2011, for consultation)• High-quality public services are the right of everyone. The Open Public Services White Paper sets out how the Government will improve public services.• E-government is seen in this context – not separately• Five key principles: – Choice – wherever possible we will increase choice – Decentralisation – Power should be decentralised to the lowest appropriate level – Diversity – Public services should be open to a range of providers – Fairness – We will ensure fair access to public services – Accountability – Public services should be accountable to users and taxpayers. 11
  12. 12. Future mandate of public sectorOpen government is porous:– turning government inside-out: • exposure of inside of government (transparency, openness, accountability) • civil servants and politicians out on the streets but still connected– turning government outside-in: • letting in private & civil sectors (PPPs, PCPs) • letting in users (e.g. to design policy, make decisions, as ‘co-creators’ of services)Future mandate of public sector – loss of competence?– loss of knowledge, competence and control through commoditisation and outsourcing– increasing amount of content, services, apps, etc., in the cloud – users pick and choose their own needs– government shrinks to a rump -- just one player amongst many?– BUT shouldn’t government be the promoter of the public interest based on democratic accountability 12