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- 1. PROJECTIONS OF PLANES Prof.T.JEYAPOOVAN Department of Mechanical Engineering Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science Chennai-603103, India www.EGlive.in
- 2. Plane/ Plate/ Lamina • A plane is a 2 dimensional object having length and breadth. Various shapes of plane figures are shown below. www.EGlive.in
- 3. Understanding Projections of a Plane and its Traces • Any one of the planes given above is kept in first quadrant with reference to VP and HP. • Trace of a plane is a line of intersection or meeting of the plane surface with the reference plane. • There are six different positions in which a plane can be placed with reference to its surface and reference planes (VP & HP) and are discussed below. www.EGlive.in
- 4. Projections of a Plane kept perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP • Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP. • Front view is a square having true shape and size. • Top view is a line. • Since the plane is parallel to VP, no VT and the HT coincides with top view of the plane. www.EGlive.in
- 5. Projections of a Plane kept perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP • Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP. • Top view is a square having true shape and size. • Front view is a line. • Since the plane is parallel to HP, no HT and the VT coincides with front view of the plane. www.EGlive.in
- 6. Projections of a Plane kept perpendicular to both HP and VP • Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP. • Side view of the plane is a square having true shape and size. • Top and Front views are lines. • Since the plane is perpendicular to both HP and VP, both HT and VT are obtained perpendicular to XY line and are coinciding with TV and FV of the plane. www.EGlive.in
- 7. Projections of a Plane kept inclined to HP and perpendicular to VP • Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to VP and inclined to HP. • Front view is an inclined line at θ. • Top view is smaller in size. • Note: The projections are obtained in two steps and will be discussed later. www.EGlive.in
- 8. Projections of a Plane kept inclined to VP and perpendicular to HP • Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to VP and inclined to HP. • Top view is an inclined line at Φ. • Front view is smaller in size. • Note: The projections are obtained in two steps and will be discussed later. www.EGlive.in
- 9. Example 1: A pentagonal plate of side 35mm is placed with its surface vertical and parallel to VP. Draw its projections when one of the sides is perpendicular to HP. • Step: when the plane surface is perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP, Draw the FV and project the TV. • Draw the FV which is pentagon with a side vertical. • Project and get the TV as a Line parallel to XY. www.EGlive.in
- 10. Example 2: An equilateral triangular plate of side 50mm is kept with its surface parallel to HP and one of the sides of the plate inclined at 45º to VP. Draw its projections. • Step: when the plane surface is perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP, Draw the TV and project the FV. • Draw the TV which is triangle with a side inclined at 45º to XY. • Project and get the FV as a Line parallel to XY. www.EGlive.in
- 11. Example 3: A regular hexagonal plate of side 30mm has its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP. Draw its projections when two of its sides are parallel to HP. • Step: when the plane surface is perpendicular to both HP and VP, Draw the Side view on Auxiliary Vertical Plane (AVP) and project TV & FV. • Draw the left side view (LSV) which is a hexagon with a side parallel to XY. • Project the TV which is a line perpendicular to XY. • Project the FV which is also a line perpendicular to XY.www.EGlive.in
- 12. Example 4: A pentagonal plate of side 30 mm is placed with one side on HP and the surface inclined at 50° to HP and perpendicular to VP. Draw its projections. • When the plane surface is inclined to HP and perpendicular to VP, two steps are used – Step 1: Assume the plane is parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP. Draw the TV, project the FV, which is a line drawn as discussed earlier. – Step 2: Tilt and reproduce the FV and project the TV. • Note that horizontal and vertical lines are drawn from TV & FV of respective corner of the plane to complete the TV in Step 2. www.EGlive.in
- 13. Example 5: A hexagonal plate of size 30 mm is placed with a side on VP and surface inclined at 45° to VP and perpendicular to HP. Draw the projections. • When the plane surface is inclined to VP and perpendicular to HP, two steps are used – Step 1: Assume the plane is parallel to VP and perpendicular to HP. Draw the FV, project the TV, which is a line drawn as discussed earlier. – Step 2: Tilt and reproduce the TV and project the FV. • Note that horizontal and vertical lines are drawn from FV & TV of respective corner of the plane to complete the FV in Step 2. www.EGlive.in
- 14. Example 6: A regular hexagon of side 35 mm has a corner in the HP. Its surface is inclined at 45º to HP. The top view of the diagonal through the corner in HP makes an angle of 60º with VP. Draw its projections. • When the plane surface is inclined to HP and VP, three steps are used (Case I) – Step 1: Assume the plane is parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP. Draw TV, project FV. – Step 2: Tilt and reproduce the FV and project the TV. – Step 3: Reproduce the TV such that the diagonal makes an angle of 60º to XY, project FV. • Note: In the problem, one of the inclinations will be given indirectly by referring to a side or diagonal of www.EGlive.in the plane.
- 15. Example 7: Draw the projections of a regular pentagon of side 40 mm which has its surface inclined at 30º to VP and a side parallel to VP and inclined at 60º to HP. • When the plane surface is inclined to HP and VP, three steps are used (Case II) – Step 1: Assume the plane is parallel to VP and perpendicular to HP. Draw FV, project TV. – Step 2: Tilt and reproduce the TV and project the FV. – Step 3: Reproduce the FV such that the side makes an angle of 60º to XY, project TV. • Note: One of the inclinations will be given indirectly by referring to a side or diagonal of the plane. www.EGlive.in
- 16. Tips to solve problems • Read the given problem carefully and understand the FV and TV in that position. Follow the steps as given against each position. • Sometimes the inclinations of the plane surface will be given indirectly. • When the plane surface is inclined to both HP and VP , read and understand the problem, either to be solved like CASE I or CASE II. www.EGlive.in
- 17. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Jeyapoovan T, “Lesson Plans for Engineering Graphics”, 2010, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 2. Jeyapoovan T, “Engineering Drawing and Graphics”, 2011, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. www.EGlive.in
- 18. End of Lesson 3 Thank You www.EGlive.in

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