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- 1. PROJECTIONS OF POINTS & LINES Part I Prof.T.JEYAPOOVAN Department of Mechanical Engineering Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science Chennai-603103, India www.EGlive.in
- 2. Principle of Projection • Image(picture) of an object is projected onto a plane of projection as shown in Fig. www.EGlive.in
- 3. Projection Planes (VP & HP) • Image of an object observed in front view (Elevation) is projected onto Vertical Plane (VP) • Image of an object observed in top view (Plan) is projected onto Horizontal Plane (HP) • Intersection line of VP & HP is the XY line www.EGlive.in
- 4. Understanding Projections • Consider an object placed in first quadrant, its top & front view images are projected onto HP & VP as shown. • HP is rotated clockwise for 90º, the top view goes below XY line but front view remain above XY. • In your drawing sheet, draw XY line, then draw the front view above XY line and the top view below XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 5. Drawing Projections of a Point • Similar to the previous object, now a point is placed and its top & front view images are projected onto HP & VP. • HP is rotated clockwise for 90º to get it below XY line. • In your drawing sheet, draw XY line, then mark a point in front view, above XY line and top view, below XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 6. Example: A point A is 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. Draw its projections. • Follow the same procedure discussed earlier, project the top & front view images onto HP & VP. • Rotate the HP in clockwise for 90º to get it below XY line. • In your drawing sheet, draw XY line, mark a point in the front view, above XY line and the top view, below XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 7. Note: • As per BIS code IS: SP 46-1988, first angle projection method is to be followed in engineering drawing practices. • So the discussions on other quadrants are intentionally left. www.EGlive.in
- 8. A Straight Line • A straight line is the shortest route to join any two given points. • Actual length of the line is called True Length (TL). • A straight line can be placed in first quadrant with reference to VP and HP in six different positions and are discussed below www.EGlive.in
- 9. Projections of a Line kept perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP • Similar to a point, now a straight LINE is placed as shown and its top & front view images are projected onto HP & VP. • Front view is a vertical line having true length (TL). • Top view is a point. • Draw XY line, then draw a vertical line in front view above XY line and top view, a point, below XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 10. Projections of a Line kept perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP • The LINE is placed as shown and its top and front view images are projected onto HP and VP. • Top view is a line having true length (TL). • Front view is a point. • Draw XY line, then draw a line perpendicular to XY in top view, below XY line and front view, a point, above XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 11. Projections of a Line kept parallel to both HP and VP • The LINE is placed as shown, its top and front view images are projected onto HP and VP. • Front view is a horizontal line having true length (TL). • Top view is also a horizontal line having true length (TL). • Draw XY line, then draw a line parallel to XY in top view, below XY line and the front view, parallel to and above XY line. www.EGlive.in
- 12. Projections of a Line kept inclined to HP and parallel to VP • The LINE is placed as shown, its top and front view images are projected onto HP&VP. • Front view is an inclined line at θ, having true length (TL). • Top view is a horizontal line but smaller in size. • Draw XY line, then draw an inclined line at given angle θ to XY in front view. Project the top view from the front view, parallel to and below XY line but its size is smaller than TL. www.EGlive.in
- 13. Projections of a Line kept inclined to VP and parallel to HP • The LINE is placed as shown, its top and front view images are projected onto HP&VP. • Top view is an inclined line at Φ, having true length (TL). • Front view is a horizontal line but smaller in size. • Draw XY line, then draw an inclined line at given angle Φ to XY in top view. Project the front view from top view, parallel to and above XY line but its size is smaller than TL. www.EGlive.in
- 14. Traces of a Straight Line • The point of intersection of the line with the reference plane is called as trace of the line. • Horizontal Trace or HT is the point of intersection of the line with HP. • Vertical Trace or VT is the point of intersection of the line with VP. • Note: Traces are marked in the following examples. www.EGlive.in
- 15. Example 1: A line AB 60mm long has its end A 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. The line is kept perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP. Draw its projections. Also mark the traces. • Draw the XY line and mark the projections of the end A of the line. • Draw the front view as a vertical line of 60mm long. • Draw and complete the top view as a point. • Since the line is kept parallel to VP, no VT and the HT coincides with top view of the line. www.EGlive.in
- 16. Example 2: A line AB 60mm long has its end A 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. The line is kept perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP. Draw its projections. Also mark the traces. • Draw the XY line and mark the projections of the end A of the line. • Draw the top view as a line perpendicular to XY of 60mm long. • Draw and complete the front view as a point. • Since the line is kept parallel to HP, no HT and the VT coincides with front view of the line. www.EGlive.in
- 17. Example 3: A line AB 60mm long has its end A 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. The line is kept parallel to both HP and VP. Draw its projections. Also mark the traces. • Draw the XY line and mark the projections of the end A of the line. • Draw the top view as a line parallel to XY of 60mm long. • Draw and complete the front view also a line of 60mm long. • Since the line parallel to HP and VP, no HT and VT. www.EGlive.in
- 18. Example 4: A line AB 60mm long has its end A 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. The line is kept incline at 40º to HP and parallel VP. Draw its projections. Also mark the traces. • Draw the XY line and mark the projections of the end A of the line. • Draw the front view as an inclined line at 40º to XY of 60mm long. • Draw the top view as a line parallel to XY line by drawing the projector (vertical line) from b’. • Since the line parallel to VP, no VT and HT is marked as shown in fig. www.EGlive.in
- 19. Example 5: A line AB 60mm long has its end A 20mm above HP and 30mm in front of VP. The line is kept incline at 40º to VP and parallel HP. Draw its projections. Also mark the traces. • Draw the XY line and mark the projections of the end A of the line. • Draw the top view as an inclined line at 40º to XY of 60mm long. • Draw the front view as a line parallel to XY by drawing the projector (vertical line) from b. • Since the line parallel to HP, no HT and VT is marked as shown in fig. www.EGlive.in
- 20. Tips to solve problems • When a LINE is kept in one of the first three positions, either the front view or top view is drawn first and the other view is projected. • When the line is kept inclined to HP and parallel to VP, two of the three variable (TL, θ or TV) will be given. Draw either the top view or front view, then complete the other view. • When the line is kept inclined to VP and parallel to HP, two of the three variable (TL, Φ or FV) will be given. Draw either the top view or front view, then complete the other view. www.EGlive.in
- 21. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. Jeyapoovan T, “Lesson Plans for Engineering Graphics”, 2010, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. 2. Jeyapoovan T, “Engineering Drawing and Graphics”, 2011, Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, New Delhi. www.EGlive.in
- 22. End of Lesson 1 Thank You www.EGlive.in

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