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egh-nsg.forumpalestine.com  YOUSEF Fathi  Fahajan
Systole = depolarizationDiastole = repolarization
What is an ECG?The electrocardiogram (ECG) is arepresentation of the electrical events ofthe cardiac cycle.Each event has ...
ECG LeadsLeads are electrodes which measure thedifference in electrical potential betweeneither:1. Two different points on...
EKG Leads  The standard EKG has 12 leads: 3 Standard Limb Leads                               3 Augmented Limb Leads      ...
Standard Limb Leads
Precordial Leads                   Adapted from: www.numed.co.uk/electrodepl.html
Precordial Leads
Summary of Leads              Limb Leads            Precordial LeadsBipolar           I, II, III               -          ...
Arrangement of Leads on the EKG
Anatomic Groups(Septum)
Anatomic Groups(Anterior Wall)
Anatomic Groups(Lateral Wall)
Anatomic Groups(Inferior Wall)
Anatomic Groups(Summary)
Determining the AxisPredominantly   Predominantly   Equiphasic   Positive        Negative
Summary of Leads
Waveforms and Intervals
Elements of the ECG: P wave: Depolarization of both atria; Relationship between P and QRS helps distinguishvarious cardiac...
QRS complex: Ventricular depolarization Larger than P wave because of greater muscle mass ofventricles Normal duration = 0...
ST segment:Connects the QRS complex and T waveDuration of 0.08-0.12 sec.T wave:Represents repolarization or recovery of ve...
Determining the Heart RateRule of 300 6Second Rule 
Rule of 300Take the number of “big boxes” between neighboringQRS complexes, and divide this into 300. The result willbe ap...
What is the heart rate?                                www.uptodate.com           (300 / 6) = 50 bpm
What is the heart rate?                                  www.uptodate.com         (300 / ~ 4) = ~ 75 bpm
What is the heart rate?          (300 / 1.5) = 200 bpm
Themay be easiest300  It     Rule of to memorize the following table:              # of big    Rate               boxes   ...
6 Second RuleAs most EKGs record 10 seconds of rhythm perpage, one can simply count the number of beatspresent on the EKG ...
What is the heart rate?     The Alan E. Lindsay ECG Learning Center ; http://medstat.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com
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Transcript of "Ecg interpretation egh nsg.forumpalestine.com"

  1. 1. egh-nsg.forumpalestine.com YOUSEF Fathi Fahajan
  2. 2. Systole = depolarizationDiastole = repolarization
  3. 3. What is an ECG?The electrocardiogram (ECG) is arepresentation of the electrical events ofthe cardiac cycle.Each event has a distinctivewaveform, the study of which can lead togreater insight into a patient’s cardiacpathophysiology.
  4. 4. ECG LeadsLeads are electrodes which measure thedifference in electrical potential betweeneither:1. Two different points on the body (bipolarleads)2. One point on the body and a virtual referencepoint with zero electrical potential, located inthe center of the heart (unipolar leads)
  5. 5. EKG Leads The standard EKG has 12 leads: 3 Standard Limb Leads 3 Augmented Limb Leads 6 Precordial LeadsThe axis of a particular lead represents theviewpoint from which it looks at the heart.
  6. 6. Standard Limb Leads
  7. 7. Precordial Leads Adapted from: www.numed.co.uk/electrodepl.html
  8. 8. Precordial Leads
  9. 9. Summary of Leads Limb Leads Precordial LeadsBipolar I, II, III - (standard limb leads)Unipolar aVR, aVL, aVF V1-V6 (augmented limb leads)
  10. 10. Arrangement of Leads on the EKG
  11. 11. Anatomic Groups(Septum)
  12. 12. Anatomic Groups(Anterior Wall)
  13. 13. Anatomic Groups(Lateral Wall)
  14. 14. Anatomic Groups(Inferior Wall)
  15. 15. Anatomic Groups(Summary)
  16. 16. Determining the AxisPredominantly Predominantly Equiphasic Positive Negative
  17. 17. Summary of Leads
  18. 18. Waveforms and Intervals
  19. 19. Elements of the ECG: P wave: Depolarization of both atria; Relationship between P and QRS helps distinguishvarious cardiac arrhythmias Shape and duration of P may indicate atrialenlargement PR interval: from onset of P wave to onset of QRS Normal duration = 0.12-2.0 sec (120-200 ms) (3-4horizontal boxes) Represents atria to ventricular conduction time(through His bundle) Prolonged PR interval may indicate a 1st degree heartbloc
  20. 20. QRS complex: Ventricular depolarization Larger than P wave because of greater muscle mass ofventricles Normal duration = 0.08-0.12 seconds Its duration, amplitude, and morphology are useful indiagnosing cardiac arrhythmias, ventricularhypertrophy, MI, electrolyte derangement, etc. Q wave greater than 1/3 the height of the Rwave, greater than 0.04 sec are abnormal and mayrepresent MI
  21. 21. ST segment:Connects the QRS complex and T waveDuration of 0.08-0.12 sec.T wave:Represents repolarization or recovery of ventriclesInterval from beginning of QRS to apex of T is referred to as theabsolute refractory periodQT IntervalMeasured from beginning of QRS to the end of the T waveNormal QT is usually about 0.40 secQT interval varies based on heart rate
  22. 22. Determining the Heart RateRule of 300 6Second Rule 
  23. 23. Rule of 300Take the number of “big boxes” between neighboringQRS complexes, and divide this into 300. The result willbe approximately equal to the rateAlthough fast, this method only works for regularrhythms.
  24. 24. What is the heart rate? www.uptodate.com (300 / 6) = 50 bpm
  25. 25. What is the heart rate? www.uptodate.com (300 / ~ 4) = ~ 75 bpm
  26. 26. What is the heart rate? (300 / 1.5) = 200 bpm
  27. 27. Themay be easiest300 It Rule of to memorize the following table: # of big Rate boxes 1 300 2 150 3 100 4 75 5 60 6 50
  28. 28. 6 Second RuleAs most EKGs record 10 seconds of rhythm perpage, one can simply count the number of beatspresent on the EKG and multiply by 10 to get thenumber of beats per 60 seconds.This method works well for irregular rhythms.
  29. 29. What is the heart rate? The Alan E. Lindsay ECG Learning Center ; http://medstat.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/
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