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This presentation was prepared specifically for my students at V.T.H.S. The contents however is made available to ALL interested students who are doing Social Studies. The emphasis is on ...

This presentation was prepared specifically for my students at V.T.H.S. The contents however is made available to ALL interested students who are doing Social Studies. The emphasis is on GROUPS...hope it will be beneficial to you.

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    Groups Groups Presentation Transcript

    • Vere Technical High School Grade 10 SOCIAL STUDIESMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • SOURCE MATERIALS: Social Studies Modules Essentials in Social Studies Social Studies Core Units Presented by: Mr. D. Gooden & Ms. Brown GROUPS AND ORGANIZATIONSMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Introduction – 10 Engin. 1 • Why don’t you leave me alone? Can’t you see that I am a loner? I do not like to mingle with people. George was fuming when his friend, Jentu, suggested that he needed to make friends and leave the dark, dusty room. Jentu was surprised at his friend’s response. He remembered the days when both of them would play marbles in the backyard or run down to the dried out pond to play dirt cricket. He also remembered the occasions when he and his family would visit Salt River. On these occasions, Jentu would invite George. And to top it all off, he remembered how both of them got into some serious trouble while in Cadet at school. This friendship, Jentu thought, was unbreakable. But was it changing now?McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Introduction – 10 Engin. 2 GROUP DEFINITIONS • Group • Group of people held together by a common culture. • These groups do not have set rules controlling • Primary members. • These groups are organized with rules and • Informal regulations, possibly having uniforms and a code of conduct. • Made up of two or more persons engaged in • Secondary any type of activity. • The relationship is based on face-to-face communication and frequent interaction. • Society • Institutions like the Lions Club or the Red Cross or the Army make up this group. • FormalMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Lesson Objectives Students will be able to: • Distinguish between groups and institutions; • Identify at least six types of groups/institutions and briefly explain the characteristics of each; • State how groups and their members are shaped by group size, leadership style, and pressures to conform?McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups How would you define a group? •Group A group is composed of at least two people who share one or more goals in common and share similar ways of behaving.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups • Group members are usually in contact with one another • They tend to behave and think in similar ways. • They have interests or goals in common and common symbols • Groups range from the small and informal to the large and formal. • Some groups have boundaries and are hard to become a part of or to remain a part of. • Membership may be voluntary or involuntary. • They have clearly defined status and values.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Why do we join groups? • "No man is an island no man stands alone." • The need for friendship and a sense of belonging • To accomplish much desired goals • To fulfil acquired social roles and assumed status • Identity and securityMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Characteristics of groups • 1. Voluntary or involuntary membership • 2. Common needs and interest • 3. Common goals and objectives • 4. Marks of identity, such as a uniform, badge, language, social class and so on • 5. Established rules, laws, norms to which members should conform • 6. Cooperation, in order to achieve objectsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group cohesion and interaction Group cohesion and interaction are very crucial to the endurance of groups in society. Individuals are in various groups and groups have different demands on individuals. The role and behaviour of individuals in groups differ with the type of group. Groups, therefore, need to have stability and to ensure that certain fundamental conditions are put forward to enable continuity.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Group cohesion interaction Cooperation (Working or acting together) Leadership Conflict Authority Social exchange Control Coercion Cooperation (Working or acting together) Commitment/loyalty (Firm in ones Conformity allegiance, obligation pledge and or involvement)McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups Types of Groups •Primary Group --This term refers to a small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation e.g. family, childhood friends, class of students etc. •Secondary Group --This term refers to formal, impersonal groups in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding e.g. schools, churches, trade unions and political parties.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups Table 6.1: Composition of Primary and Secondary GroupsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups Group to which a person belongs and In group feels a sense of identity e.g. family Group to which a person doesn’t belong Out group and feels a sense of hostility towards. Reference Groups - Reference Groups are any groups that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior eg. Teachers in a school, community leaders etc.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups A voluntary group is a collection of individuals who work together to undertake certain activities for the benefit of the Voluntary community. Voluntary groups generally exist because people perceive a need and work together to bring about change or group provide a service for the benefit of the community. An involuntary group is a collection of individuals who work together because they have no choice. They may be forced or Involuntary threatened with penalty if they refuse to become a part of group this group. An example of an involuntary group is enlistment of all citizens in the army, upon reaching a certain age.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • An in-group is a group or category to which In-group people feel they belong. An out-group is a group or category to which people feel they do not belong. Antagonism is out-group always expressed towards this group. Group made up of peers which associate with each other to meet specific needs e.g. Cricket Peer group team, boys on street corner etc.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups A Social Network is a group of people Social interact with for various purposes but with no Network emotional attachment. Any group used to evaluate oneself. It does not necessarily have to be a group you belong Reference to. It is a group people draw on for the social group norms which give order and meaning to their lives.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Understanding Groups Groups have constitution or rules and regulations; procedures for becoming members; clear line s of authority with appointed or elected leaders; members are Formal group expected to behave a certain way; sanctions for violating rules e.g. schools, churches, workplaces, civic organizations, towns, cities No written rules controlling behaviour of Formal Groups – members. Roles and goals arise spontaneously Informal group with the changing activities of the group e.g. neighborhoods, friendships, hobby groups, computer-user groupsMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Informal Organization Formal Organization Members typically engage in many of the Members typically engage in highly same activities. specialized activities. Hierarchy mostly non existent Clearly defined hierarchies, corresponding to offices. No charter by-laws or regular meeting Clearly defined rules and regulations. hours. Membership criteria vary, and are often Technical competence to carry out based on personal affection or kinship. assigned/required task. Relationship varies and is typically primary. Typically secondary with selective primary ties. Communication is typically casual and face- Communication is very formal and in to-face. writing. Person oriented Task oriented.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • What are the things that affect group togetherness? • 1. Lack of consensus The word consensus refers to everyone or a majority of persons • 2. Poor leadership agreeing to do something. • 3. Competition among members for positions and recognition • 4. Lack of unity • 5. Fear • 6. Selfishness and ignorance • 7. Prejudice and discrimination • 8. Lack of financingMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Leadership For groups to be effective, there must be persons who are will to take up the responsibility to lead. Some leaders are automatically determined by the functions that they perform eg. a father and/or mother is the leader of his/her family. In other groups leaders are chosen eg. Headboy or headgirl, while in others, persons simply assume the role of leaders.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • What makes a person a good leader? • use rewards, such as education and independence, to motivate members. • not act domineering and superior with people. They believe the only way to get things done is through penalties, such as loss of job, days off without pay and reprimanding members in front of others. • be concerned about the human needs of their members. • build teamwork, help members with their problems and provide psychological support. • Get results by consistently keeping people busy and urging them to produce.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Leadership Functions • The autocratic/authoritarian style • The persons who use this style are strict leaders who, as the sole decision-makers, have full control in the decision-making process. Thus, those who will be affected by a decision are not involved in the decision-making and their opinions are not taken into consideration. • Such a leader sees himself as an expert, an authority on all matters, and expects persons to carry out the required tasks. • Subordinates usually do as these leaders say because of fear that they will be punished in some way. Examples of punishment vary from demotion to suspension or dismissal.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Leadership Styles • The laissez-faire/free reign style • Laissez-faire is French for let them do it. Workers are made aware of what they have to do, but the leader stands back and allows them to plan their work and take their own decisions, as far as possible. Managers give little or no direction to workers. • Thus, there is minimum supervision and workers are expected to use their own initiative in achieving certain objectives. • This style is normally practised in creative productions and services, such as the graphic departments of advertising agencies.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Leadership Styles • The democratic/participative style • Workers prefer this style as it strikes the middle ground. The leader does not dominate and those most likely to be affected by a decision are consulted before the decision is made. Note that the leader reserves the right not to accept a majority vote. This leader ensures that everybody receives fair treatment.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Leadership Styles • The charismatic style • This leader is one who is able to lead simply by reason of his/her outstanding skills, personality or character. Such a leader is said to lead from the front by inspiring others through skill, personality or character.McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Group Leadership StylesMcGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • McGraw-Hill © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.