1

Uploaded
on
January
30,
2008

by
alsjhc






                                2

Example
of
biological
system


Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
23,
2007
by
V
i
l
l
a
n
u
e
v
a






                            ...
Mechanical
systems

Flickr:
Uploaded
on
February
11,
2005
by
DogFromSPACE






                                          ...
human/mechanical
systems
(for
example,
riding
a
bicycle)

Flickr:
Uploaded
on
January
31,
2009
by
bichxa






           ...
ecological
systems
(for
example,
predator/prey)


Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
12,
2006
by
TangoPango






                  ...
social
systems
(for
example,
groups,
supply
and
demand
and
also
friendship)

Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
2,
2007
by
Jayel
Ahe...
Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
September
10,
2007
by

Julien
Harneis


•
Every
system
has
a
purpose
withi...
Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
March
5,
2006
by
blackholeSleep
:



Flickr
Uploaded
on
April
28,
2009
by
...
Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
September
6,
2005
by
Mal
Cubed

We
dissected
the
caterpillar
form
of
Mandu...
Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
December
23,
2008
by
boltron‐
At

a
rest
stop
on
highway
40
outside
of
Gal...
Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?

Flickr:
Uploaded
on
January
18,
2009
by
BrotherMagneto


•
Systems
maintain
their
stability
b...
13

14

15

Systems
Thinking
Tools:
Causal
Loops





                                        16

Circles
of
causality

The
basic
idea
of
system
thinking
is
that
every
acRon
triggers
a
reacRon.
In

system
dynamics
this
r...
Systems
Thinking
Tools:
Archetypes:
Fixes
That
Fail

Flickr:
Uploaded
on
March
6,
2009
by
neolibertariandotcom

Near
Sight...
Archetypes:
Shiing
the
Burden

How
many
Rmes
have
you
noRced
that
you
seem
to
solve
the
same
problem
over
and
over.

When
...
Archetypes:
Limits
to
Growth

The
unprecedented
growth
is
produced
by
a
reinforcing
feedback
process
unRl
the

system
reac...
21

22

Flickr
Uploaded
on
October
23,
2007
by
The
Wandering
Angel






                                                         ...
Flickr
Uploaded
on
October
23,
2007
by
The
Wandering
Angel






                                                         ...
25

26

27

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Seeing Systems Notes

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Seeing Systems Notes

  1. 1. 1

  2. 2. Uploaded
on
January
30,
2008
 by
alsjhc

 2

  3. 3. Example
of
biological
system

 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
23,
2007
by
V
i
l
l
a
n
u
e
v
a

 3

  4. 4. Mechanical
systems
 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
February
11,
2005
by
DogFromSPACE

 4

  5. 5. human/mechanical
systems
(for
example,
riding
a
bicycle)
 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
January
31,
2009
by
bichxa

 5

  6. 6. ecological
systems
(for
example,
predator/prey)

 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
12,
2006
by
TangoPango

 6

  7. 7. social
systems
(for
example,
groups,
supply
and
demand
and
also
friendship)
 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
June
2,
2007
by
Jayel
Aheram

 7

  8. 8. Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
September
10,
2007
by
 Julien
Harneis

 •
Every
system
has
a
purpose
within
a
larger
system.
Example:
The
purpose
of
the
 R&D
department
in
your
organizaIon
is
to
generate
new
product
ideas
and
features
 for
the
organizaIon.
 FighRng
in
North
Kivu
is
threatening
the
lives
of
children.
Tens
of
thousands
of
 children
have
been
displaced
in
the
last
weeks,
in
the
confusion
of
flight
children
have
 been
separated
from
their
parents.
Already
malnourished
children
are
now
even
 more
vulnerable.
In
the
crowded
makeshi
camps
measles
and
cholera
are
growing
 dangers.
Thousands
of
children
are
unable
to
start
the
school
year.
Armed
groups
are
 using
at
least
a
1000
children
and
more
are
being
recruited.
 UNICEF,
through
a
network
of
partners,
is
assisRng
60,000
people
around
Muganga
 and
Minova
in
the
Kivus.
UNICEF
is
idenRfying
separated
children
and
reunifying
 them
with
their
families.
Rape
survivors
are
being
given
medical
and
psychosocial
 support.
Clean
water
distribuRon
and
latrines
have
been
set
up.
Displaced
families
 have
received
temporary
shelter
materials,
bedding
and
cooking
sets.
All
children
 under
the
age
of
14
are
being
vaccinated
against
measles
and
pregnant
women
 against
neo
natal
tetanus.
2000
children
have
been
screened
for
malnutriRon.
 Emergency
educaRon
programmes
have
started.
 UNICEF’s
partners
are
AVSI,
Caritas,
the
InternaRonal
Rescue
Commi`ee,
Heal
Africa,
 the
Norwegian
Refugee
Council,
Save
the
Children
UK,
Solidarités,
World
Vision
 InternaRonal
and
the
provincial
health
service
of
the
DemocraRc
Republic
of
Congo.
 UNICEF
has
assisted
350,000
displaced
persons
since
the
start
of
fighRng
in
Sake
last
 November.
UNICEF’s
acRons
are
part
of
a
coordinated
response
with
other
UN
 organizaRons;
Office
CoordinaRon
for
Humanitarian
Affairs,
United
NaRons
High
 Commission
for
Refugees,
World
Food
Programme,
World
Health
OrganisaRon
&
The
 8
 Mission
of
the
United
NaRons
in
the
DemocraRc
Republic
of
Congo.

 Despite
all
this
the
majority
of
displaced
persons
remain
inaccessible
due
to
the

  9. 9. Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
March
5,
2006
by
blackholeSleep
:


 Flickr
Uploaded
on
April
28,
2009
by
Tasa_M

 •
All
of
a
system's
parts
must
be
present
for
the
system
to
carry
out
its
purpose
 opImally.
Example:
The
R&D
system
in
your
organizaIon
consists
of
people,
 equipment,
and
processes.
If
you
removed
any
one
of
these
components,
this
 system
could
no
longer
funcIon.
 9

  10. 10. Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
September
6,
2005
by
Mal
Cubed
 We
dissected
the
caterpillar
form
of
Manduca
sexta
(also
known
as
the
Sphinx
moth
 or
the
Tobacco
worm)
I
believe
this
is
the
first
abdominal
ganglion.
 •
A
system's
parts
must
be
arranged
in
a
specific
way
for
the
system
to
carry
out
its
 purpose.
Example:
If
you
rearranged
the
reporIng
relaIonships
in
your
R&D
 department
so
that
the
head
of
new‐product
development
reported
to
the
entry‐ level
lab
technician,
the
department
would
likely
have
trouble
carrying
out
its
 purpose.
 10

  11. 11. Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
Flickr:
Uploaded
on
December
23,
2008
by
boltron‐
At
 a
rest
stop
on
highway
40
outside
of
Gallup,
New
Mexico.

 •
Systems
change
in
response
to
feedback.
The
word
feedback
plays
a
central
role
in
 systems
thinking.
Feedback
is
informaIon
that
returns
to
its
original
transmiSer
 such
that
it
influences
that
transmiSer's
subsequent
acIons.
Example:
Suppose
you
 turn
too
sharply
while
driving
your
car
around
a
curve.
Visual
cues
(you
see
a
 mailbox
rushing
toward
you)
would
tell
you
that
you
were
turning
too
sharply.
 These
cues
consItute
feedback
that
prompts
you
to
change
what
you're
doing
(jerk
 the
steering
wheel
in
the
other
direcIon
somewhat)
so
you
can
put
your
car
back
 on
course.

 11

  12. 12. Systems
–
What’s
in
Common?
 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
January
18,
2009
by
BrotherMagneto

 •
Systems
maintain
their
stability
by
making
adjustments
based
on
feedback.
 Example:
Your
body
temperature
generally
hovers
around
98.6
degrees
Fahrenheit.
 If
you
get
too
hot,
your
body
produces
sweat,
which
cools
you
back
down.
 12

  13. 13. 13

  14. 14. 14

  15. 15. 15

  16. 16. Systems
Thinking
Tools:
Causal
Loops
 16

  17. 17. Circles
of
causality
 The
basic
idea
of
system
thinking
is
that
every
acRon
triggers
a
reacRon.
In
 system
dynamics
this
reacRon
is
called
feedback.
There
are
two
types
of
feedback
‐
 reinforcing
feedback
and
balancing
feedback.
SomeRmes
a
feedback
(or
a
reacRon)
 does
not
occur
immediately
‐
the
process
contains
delays.
Any
system
can
be
drawn
 as
a
diagram
set
up
with
circles
of
causality
–
including
acRons,
feedbacks
and
delays.
 [1]
 [edit]
Reinforcing
feedback
(+)
 Reinforcing
feedback
(or
amplifying
feedback)
accelerates
the
given
trend
of
a
 process.
If
the
trend
is
ascending,
the
reinforcing
(posiRve)
feedback
will
accelerate
 the
growth.
If
the
trend
is
descending,
it
will
accelerate
the
decline.
Falling
of
an
 avalanche
is
an
example
of
the
reinforcing
feedback
process.
[1]
 [edit]
Balancing
feedback
(‐)
 Balancing
feedback
(or
stabilizing
feedback)
will
work
if
any
goal‐state
exists.
 Balancing
process
intends
to
reduce
a
gap
between
a
current
state
and
a
desired
 state.
The
balancing
(negaRve)
feedback
adjusts
a
present
state
to
a
desirable
target
 regardless
whether
the
trend
is
descending
or
ascending.
An
example
of
the
 balancing
feedback
process
is
staying
upright
on
bicycle
(when
riding).
[1]
 17

  18. 18. Systems
Thinking
Tools:
Archetypes:
Fixes
That
Fail
 Flickr:
Uploaded
on
March
6,
2009
by
neolibertariandotcom
 Near
Sighted
Success:
Radio
Rush
Helps
Out
In
the
short
term,
you
can
think
about
it
like
this:
 The
Democrats
get
more
power
(top)
 This
increases
the
level
of
talk
radio
hysteria
against
Democrats
using
scare
tacRcs,
name
calling,
and
 so
on
 This
increases
the
appeal
of
Republican
candidates
or,
if
you
want
to
look
at
it
the
other
way
around,
it
 mobilizes
the
base
to
vote
for
Republican
candidates
they
don’t
parRcularly
like
which
leads
to
more
 Republican
votes.
 The
Republicans
get
more
support,
so
they
get
more
power
which
reduces
the
“problem”
of
the
 Democrats
getng
more
power
that
we
started
with
.
.
.

 This
is
great
and
it
looked
like
it
could
last
forever
(anyone
sRll
remember
Karl
Rove
and
the
 “permanent
majority”?).
In
the
short
term,
Rush
was
part
of
the
Republican
soluRon,
but
in
the
long
 term,
Rush
became
part
of
the
Republican
problem.
 Rush
Is
Not
The
Guy
For
A
Long
Run
.
.
.
 Let’s
look
at
the
same
short
term
loop
above
but
let’s
add
a
long
term
loop
to
the
diagram:When
we
 look
at
the
long
run,
we
see
the
same
short
term
loop
but
we
also
see
another,
slower
loop.
 Talk
radio
hysteria
makes
RINOs
(Republicans
In
Name
Only)
more
electable
and
re‐electable.
When
 every
Senator
and
RepresentaRve
is
viewed
as
crucial
to
reducing
Democrat
power,
there
is
enormous
 pressure
to
elect
and
re‐elect
RINOs.
 This
insulates
RINOs
from
criRcism
and
a`ack
from
within
the
party
and
allows
them
to
proliferate.
 RINOs
alienate
the
base
and
cannot
broaden
the
party
because
they
neither
understand
nor
arRculate
 conservaRve
values.
 Over
Rme,
the
RINOs
then
destroy
the
Republican
and
ConservaRve
brands
with
fiscal
irresponsibility,
 enRtlement
programs,
centralized
federal
control,
and,
more
than
anything
else,
the
socialist
bail
out
 programs
iniRated
under
the
Bush
administraRon
and
supported
by
RINOs.
 This
brand
destrucRon
accumulates
and
eventually
turns
into
a
disaster
at
the
polls,
reducing
 Republican
support
so
far
and
so
fast
that
the
short
term
effects
of
ever
more
hysterical
criRcism
of
 Democrats
cannot
make
up
for
it.
 Systems
thinking
junkies
will
immediately
recognize
this
as
the
“Fixes
That
Fail”
archetype:
a
very
 common
condiRon
where
repeated
use
of
a
good
short
term
fix
actually
makes
things
worse
in
the
 long
run.
 18

  19. 19. Archetypes:
Shiing
the
Burden
 How
many
Rmes
have
you
noRced
that
you
seem
to
solve
the
same
problem
over
and
over.
 When
the
problem
arises
you
address
it,
then
some
Rme
later,
maybe
a
day,
a
week,
or
a
 month
later
the
same
problem
arises
again.
This
situaRon
is
quite
oen
the
result
of
a
 Shiing
the
Burden
structure.
In
the
above
diagram
a
problem
symptom
is
perceived
with
 mulRple
possible
courses
of
acRon.
One
course
of
acRon,
the
symptomaIc
soluIon
has
an
 apparent
Rme
frame
advantage
over
the
fundamental
soluIon
because
of
other
associated
 delay.
As
a
result
the
problem
symptom
influences
the
applicaRon
of
the
symptomaIc
 soluIon.
ApplicaRon
of
the
symptomaIc
soluIon
reduces
the
problem
symptom
which
 dissolves
the
perceived
necessity
of
pursuing
the
fundamental
soluIon.
A
failure
to
 implement
the
fundamental
soluIon
ensures
that
the
problem
symptom
will
return.
Let's
 face
it,
band
aids
on
cut
knees
don't
keep
one
from
falling
of
bicycles.
 As
if
this
wasn't
annoying
enough,
implementaRon
of
the
symptomaIc
soluIon
oen,
in
 Rme,
influences
the
development
of
unintended
side
effects,
which
are
oen
further
 preclude
employing
the
fundamental
soluIon.
The
interacRons
between
the
problem
 symptom,
symptomaIc
soluIon,
side
effect,
and
fundamental
soluIon
form
a
viscous
 reinforcing
loop
which
make
the
real
source
of
the
problem,
in
Rme,
even
more
difficult
to
 resolve.
 EffecIve
Strategies
 When
dealing
with
a
problem
ask
yourself
if
you
are
treaRng
the
symptoms
or
addressing
the
 real
cause
of
the
problem.
Oen
,out
of
expediency,
the
symptomaRc
soluRon
is
essenRal.
 The
most
effecRve
strategy
for
dealing
with
a
Shiing
the
Burden
structure
is
an
employment
 of
the
symptomaIc
soluIon
AND
development
of
the
fundamental
soluIon.
Thus
one
 resolves
the
immediate
problem
and
works
to
ensure
that
it
doesn't
return.

 19

  20. 20. Archetypes:
Limits
to
Growth
 The
unprecedented
growth
is
produced
by
a
reinforcing
feedback
process
unRl
the
 system
reaches
its
peak.
The
halt
of
this
growth
is
caused
by
limits
inside
or
outside
of
 the
system.
However,
if
the
limits
are
not
properly
recognized;
the
former
methods
 are
conRnuously
applied,
but
more
and
more
aggressively.
This
results
in
the
contrary
 of
the
desired
state
‐
a
decrease
of
the
system.
The
soluRon
lies
in
the
weakening
or
 eliminaRon
of
the
cause
of
limitaRon.
Example:
dieRng,
learning
foreign
languages
[1]
 20

  21. 21. 21

  22. 22. 22

  23. 23. Flickr
Uploaded
on
October
23,
2007
by
The
Wandering
Angel

 23

  24. 24. Flickr
Uploaded
on
October
23,
2007
by
The
Wandering
Angel

 24

  25. 25. 25

  26. 26. 26

  27. 27. 27


×