1. The artists of the Renaissance focused on… The human experience2. The development of printing in Europe led to… Learning & literacy increased Individual pursuit of religion increased (Protestantism was made possible by the Gutenberg bible) New ideas of all types spread more rapidly3. Luther criticized the Roman Catholic Church for… The Church & the Pope competed with Italian princes for political power Popes maintained a lavish lifestyle The Church required numerous fees, including indulgences4. What was a result of the Catholic Reformation? Rome was a more relgious city than it had been 100 years earlier. Piety and charity flourished across Catholic Europe. Slowed Protestant tide Protestants returned some areas to the Catholic Church5. What did Copernicus propose? He proposed a heliocentric, or sun-centered, model of the universe. The sun, he said, stood at the center of the universe. The Earth was just one of several planets that revolved around the sun.6. What contributed to the birth of the Renaissance in Italy? The greater prosperity of Italian city-states encouraged cultural activity7. What best explains why the Renaissance occurred in northern Europe later than it did in Italy? The Black Death or Black Plague delayed economic growth in northern Europe8. What were some effects of the printing revolution in the 1500s? It spread throughout Europe & exposed them to new ideas, expanding their horizons. Books were cheaper and easier to produce.9. Luther believed that… Christians could be saved by faith alone The bible is the only authority for Christianity All Christians had equal access to God10. How did Henry VIII react when the Pope refused to annul his marriage? He withdrew the Catholic Churches in England from the Pope’s authority. He creates the Anglican Church; receives annulment; the groundwork is laid for additional struggles between advocates for Catholicism and Protestantism.11. By the Edict of Nantes in 1598, Henry IV of France granted religious toleration to… Protestants12. During the 1700s, which countries battled for control of the German states?
Prussia and Austria13. Peter the Great forced Russians to accept social reforms that would make their culture more like that of… Western Europe14. As a result of Peter the Great’s war against Sweden, Russia gained… Land across the Baltic Sea15. Who mocked the traditions of Spain’s feudal past in his novel Don Quixote? Miguel de Cervantes16. In the late 1500s, France was torn apart by religious wars between Catholics and… Protestants/Huguenots17. French styles of art, culture, manners, and customs became the standard for European taste as a result of the reign of… Louis XIV18. The Stuart kings’ claims to absolute power were challenged by… Leaders in the House of Commons19. What “empire” was divided into many small states as a result of the Thirty Years’ War? The Holy Roman Empire20. Why did Prussia battle Austria during the 1700’s? For control over the German states21. Peter the Great fought the Ottoman Turks for the purpose of… To take over the warm-water ports so Russia could trade more easily with the West22. What happened to Poland in 1795 as a result of actions by Russia, Austria, and Prussia? It disappeared off of the map23. Montesquieu believed the purpose of the separation of powers was to… Protect liberty24. How did the Enlightenment affect European peasants during the Enlightenment It had little effect on the immediate (day to day) life.25. What factors helped Britain become a global power in the 1700s? Geography Success in war Favorable business climate They profited heavily from slave trade26. Who had the right to vote in Britain in the 1700s? Very few males who owned property27. The American Declaration of Independence was heavily influenced by the thinking of… John Locke28. Thinkers during the Age of Reason challenged the established social order by… Calling for a “just society based on reason”
29. Joseph II adopted Enlightenment ideas… And traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn their problems.30. The Tory party in Britain was made up primarily of… Landowning aristocrats31. What was a new feature of English government in the late 1700s? The cabinet system32. The Church controlled ________ of the land, collected tithes, and paid ___________________________ to the state. 10% No direct taxes33. Some clergy, the high church officials, were nobility who were very wealthy; others, the parish priests… Were often as poor as the peasants they served34. Churches, in addition to religious service, also provided… Schools, hospitals, and orphanages35. Nobles, like clergy… Did not pay taxes36. The bourgeoisie or middle class included… Bankers, merchants. Royal bureaucrats, lawyers, doctors, journalists, professors, and skilled aristocrats37. __________ of the Third Estate were peasants, some who owned land and earned a good living and others who labored for landowners. 90%38. For many living on low wages, even a slight increase in the price of bread led to… starvation39. The Third Estate paid _____________ tax burden of the country’s expenses. The entire40. Enlightenment ideas led the Third Estate to challenge… inequality41. Deficit spending on ________________ and a lavish court lifestyle led to a massive debt leading up to the French Revolution. wars42. By 1789, ___________ of its tax income went to paying the interest on the debt. half43. Poor harvests in the late 1780’s led to ______________ inflation. high44. When the first two estates learned of Finance Minister Jacques Necker’s plan to tax them, they forced the king to _______________ and call a meeting of the Estates General where they hoped they could influence the king’s future attempts at reform. Dismiss him
45. The Cahiers (notebooks listing grievances to the king) include… Fairer taxes Freedom of the press Regular meetings of the Esates General Reduced leather costs The right to hunt/kill animals that damaged crops To leave service and receive a reward46. If the Third Estate is the vast majority of the people, how did the first two estates control the vote in the Estates General? Each estate had one vote; the first two estates would join in on an issue and outvote the third.47. What was the Tennis Court oath? The 3rd estate wanted all 3 estates to meet in a single body. The 3rd estate declared itself the National Assembly with the power to draft a constitution. The King locked them out of their meeting hall, and in response, the delegates met at an indoor tennis court and agreed not to disband until a constitution was written.
Definitions1. Heliocentric: based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe2. Humanism: study of subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history3. Indulgence: in the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime4. Predestination: idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation5. Inquisition: A Catholic Church court that allowed secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy.6. Balance of power: distribution of military & economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong7. Divine right: belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God8. Limited monarchy: government in which a constitution/legislative body limits the monarch’s power9. St. Petersburg “Window of the west”10. Constitutional government: government whose power is defined and limited by law11. Enlightened despot: absolute ruler who uses his power to bring about political and social change12. Natural laws: rule/law that governs human nature13. Natural rights: right that belongs to all humans from birth14. Physiocrat: enlightenment thinker who searched for natural laws to explain economics15. Voltaire: Candide: opposed inequality, favored freedom of speech16. Adam Smith: Wealth of Nations: rejected mercantilism urged laissez-faire developed supply and demand no government interference with trade
government should only provide goods and services not profitable for private business17. Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract: people are naturally good, but corrupted by civilization The good of the community should be picked above the individual “Man is born free, but is everywhere in chains”18. Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws: “In order to have liberty, it is necessary that the powers of the government be separated”19. Bacon: devoted himself to the problem of knowledge; also help create the scientific method. He emphasized experimentation and observation.20. Descartes: devoted himself to problem of knowledge; created the scientific method. He emphasized human reasoning.