Making `free' work for social entrepreneurship:  The benefits and challenges of developing your idea in an open source com...
Making free work <ul><li>Why isn't all content free?
What does “free” mean?
How do you make it “free”?
“Socially responsible”
Benefits
Challenges </li></ul>
Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Standard disclaimer: I am not a lawyer. This is not legal advice. </li></ul>Image copyri...
Introduction to copyright <ul>DON'T PANIC </ul>
Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Copyright limits what people can do with each others' creative works.
What you produce is under copyright  </li><ul><li>By you -> your users are limited </li></ul><li>What your users produce i...
Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Copyright reserves for the creator of a work the rights to: </li><ul><li>Publish the work
Make and distribute new copies of the work
Make new works that build upon the original work (derivative works)  </li></ul></ul>
Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Creative works include: </li><ul><li>Literature
Visual art
Performance art
Music (notation)
Music (sound)
Computer software
…  </li></ul></ul>
Copyright is not forever...  <ul>In 1709, the first copyright statute (the Statute of Anne, UK), gave exclusive publicatio...
Copyright has reason... Wikimedia Commons , Public domain.
Copyright has limits <ul><li>“Fair use” (US)
“Fair dealing” (more limited, UK, eg) </li></ul><ul>The extent of the exceptions: <ul><li>Depend on the country
Often do not delineate clear boundaries </li></ul></ul>
Copyright in  halakha <ul><li>It's complicated
Jurisprudence has tended to follow secular law
An interesting topic for more than one  shiur ... </li></ul>
The web c. 1990 Website User
The web now Website User 1 User  n
Who “owns” your users' contributed content? <ul>Make a deal with them! </ul>
A standard copyright notice (book) ...
Copyright notice (website)
Terms of service (website)
Terms of use (website)
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Open siddur freedom

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These were the slides I presented at PresenTense Jerusalem hub

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Open siddur freedom

  1. 1. Making `free' work for social entrepreneurship: The benefits and challenges of developing your idea in an open source community Efraim Feinstein The Open Siddur Project PresenTense Jerusalem Hub 19/09/2011 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License
  2. 2. Making free work <ul><li>Why isn't all content free?
  3. 3. What does “free” mean?
  4. 4. How do you make it “free”?
  5. 5. “Socially responsible”
  6. 6. Benefits
  7. 7. Challenges </li></ul>
  8. 8. Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Standard disclaimer: I am not a lawyer. This is not legal advice. </li></ul>Image copyright peggydavis66 CC-BY-SA 2.0 (Modified)
  9. 9. Introduction to copyright <ul>DON'T PANIC </ul>
  10. 10. Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Copyright limits what people can do with each others' creative works.
  11. 11. What you produce is under copyright </li><ul><li>By you -> your users are limited </li></ul><li>What your users produce is under copyright </li><ul><li>by your users -> you are limited </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Copyright reserves for the creator of a work the rights to: </li><ul><li>Publish the work
  13. 13. Make and distribute new copies of the work
  14. 14. Make new works that build upon the original work (derivative works) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Introduction to copyright <ul><li>Creative works include: </li><ul><li>Literature
  16. 16. Visual art
  17. 17. Performance art
  18. 18. Music (notation)
  19. 19. Music (sound)
  20. 20. Computer software
  21. 21. … </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Copyright is not forever... <ul>In 1709, the first copyright statute (the Statute of Anne, UK), gave exclusive publication rights to the publisher for 14 yrs and the author for an additional 14 yrs... </ul><ul>Currently, the Berne Convention sets a minimal international copyright term for literary works of 50 years after the death of the author. In many countries, the term is longer. </ul><ul>For practical purposes, copyright on new works is forever... </ul>
  23. 23. Copyright has reason... Wikimedia Commons , Public domain.
  24. 24. Copyright has limits <ul><li>“Fair use” (US)
  25. 25. “Fair dealing” (more limited, UK, eg) </li></ul><ul>The extent of the exceptions: <ul><li>Depend on the country
  26. 26. Often do not delineate clear boundaries </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Copyright in halakha <ul><li>It's complicated
  28. 28. Jurisprudence has tended to follow secular law
  29. 29. An interesting topic for more than one shiur ... </li></ul>
  30. 30. The web c. 1990 Website User
  31. 31. The web now Website User 1 User n
  32. 32. Who “owns” your users' contributed content? <ul>Make a deal with them! </ul>
  33. 33. A standard copyright notice (book) ...
  34. 34. Copyright notice (website)
  35. 35. Terms of service (website)
  36. 36. Terms of use (website)
  37. 37. … or make it “free”... Image Copyright AGoK, CC-BY-SA 2.0, source
  38. 38. What does “free” mean? <ul><li>“Four freedoms” (Richard Stallman/GNU Project) </li><ul><li>The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0).
  39. 39. The freedom to study how the program works, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
  40. 40. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2).
  41. 41. The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What does “free” mean? <ul><li>Free culture (freedomdefined.org): </li><ul><li>the freedom to use the work and enjoy the benefits of using it
  43. 43. the freedom to study the work and to apply knowledge acquired from it
  44. 44. the freedom to make and redistribute copies, in whole or in part, of the information or expression
  45. 45. the freedom to make changes and improvements, and to distribute derivative works </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Free culture copyright licensing <ul><li>Agreement between you and your users: </li><ul><li>What rights you give your users
  47. 47. What rights your users give to you
  48. 48. What rights your users give to all other users </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Choosing a license <ul><li>Make your intent clear.
  50. 50. Standard set of terms that allow authors to choose terms for their work from among a spectrum of rights .
  51. 51. Well understood
  52. 52. Legally sound </li></ul><ul>Creative Commons http://www.creativecommons.org </ul>
  53. 53. Creative Commons Zero (CC0) <ul><li>Equivalent to a public domain declaration:
  54. 54. No copyright
  55. 55. No attribution required
  56. 56. For modified works, should not imply endorsement by the original author (true for all copyright licenses – not really a consequence of copyright) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) <ul><li>Author does not disclaim copyright
  58. 58. Allows: </li><ul><li>Verbatim copying
  59. 59. Distribution
  60. 60. Modification
  61. 61. Distribution of derived works </li></ul><li>Under the condition: </li><ul><li>All copies reference the author and license </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA) <ul><li>Allows: </li><ul><li>Verbatim copying
  63. 63. Distribution
  64. 64. Modification
  65. 65. Distribution of derived works </li></ul><li>Under the conditions: </li><ul><li>All copies reference the author and license
  66. 66. All derivative works are also released under the same terms ( copyleft ) </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. WARNING <ul>Not all Creative Commons licenses are free </ul><ul>Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs </ul><ul>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial </ul><ul>Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike </ul>
  68. 68. Now what? <ul><li>Facilitate sharing between you and your users
  69. 69. Open up (some) free culture works for your use (read the licenses!)
  70. 70. Collaborative possibilities with other projects </li></ul>
  71. 71. The “open source” development model Code repository Developers Users Bug reporting tool Communications media
  72. 72. Social responsibility <ul><li>Minimize duplication of effort
  73. 73. Provide back to the community what they provide to you
  74. 74. Failure is not a total loss </li></ul>
  75. 75. Pitfalls <ul><li>Putting a license notice on a work is only a prerequisite </li><ul><li>Ideally, all aspects of development take place in public
  76. 76. Community does not appear out of nowhere </li></ul><li>Competitors will benefit from your work too
  77. 77. Business model
  78. 78. Gate-keeping </li></ul>
  79. 79. Open Siddur <ul><li>Content (now being gathered)
  80. 80. Web application (now under development)
  81. 81. Blog: http://opensiddur.org
  82. 82. Demo: http://shell.jewishliturgy.org:8080/code/apps/builder </li></ul>
  83. 83. Open Siddur Licensing Structure <ul><li>Software and code is GNU Lesser General Public License v3
  84. 84. Public domain data stays in the public domain
  85. 85. Contributors are given a choice of which Creative Commons license to use: </li><ul><li>CC0
  86. 86. CC-BY
  87. 87. CC-BY-SA </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. Open Siddur Community Structure <ul><li>Announcement list ( opensiddur-announce )
  89. 89. General discussion list ( opensiddur-talk )
  90. 90. Technical discussion list ( opensiddur-tech )
  91. 91. Source code repository (on Github )
  92. 92. Live conferences over IRC and Skype
  93. 93. Upload page (to be replaced by a web application) </li></ul>
  94. 94. Conclusions <ul><li>Copyright is a barrier to mutually beneficial sharing on the Internet
  95. 95. Free culture copyright licensing is a legal framework that facilitates sharing
  96. 96. Building community is essential for the open source development model
  97. 97. Open source has a real meaning
  98. 98. Open source won't make your hair grow back </li></ul>
  99. 99. Conclusions Use your freedom: Copy. Don't duplicate. Innovate. Share.
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