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  • I was particularly interestedin the process input of ICT relating to
    lack of process models, lack of a sustainable and successful implementation of pedagogical innovations; only small groups of teachers wo attempt to spread the innovation into curriculum. These are very importnge change factors in sustaining ICT into education and need continued review, action research type analysis.
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    Supportive and hindering factors editing Supportive and hindering factors editing Presentation Transcript

    • Supportive and Hindering Factors toa Sustainable Implementation of ICT in schools Author: Birgit Eickelmann, 2011 Presented by : Effendi Limbong Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    • ICT Use in German Schools The regular use of ICT by majority of teachers and students within a school is still not commonplace. The comparatively small number of computers and their infrequent use (Schulz-Zander & Eickelman, 2009) The explosion of IT tools and resources within recent years has been an ongoing problem for schools (Cox, 2008) Eickelmann, 2011, p.76
    • State or the Art-Factors Contributingand Hindering ICT use in Schools Material Factors refer to the access to technology in schools Immaterial factors relate to school organization and teacher variables (Eickelmann & Schulz-Zander, 2006; Pelgrum, 2001; Schaumburg, 2003) School effectiveness is determined by factors that relate to each (Ditton, 2000, Scheerens, 2000) Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    •  The School context level (administrative, the socio-regional level and cooperation with external partners) The Input level (personnel and financial conditions, teacher and student variables and curricula) The Processes level (two dimension): 1. The school level (school management, school culture, cooperation structures, and personnel development). 2. The classroom level (the quality of teaching, the appropriateness of methods and media use, the motivation and the effective use of learning time (Ditton, 2000, Scheerens, 2000; Slavin, 1994) Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    • Factors concerning ICT integrationinto two levels:1. The Input Level  Curricula  Attitude and Structural  Personal  Material and Financial Conditions  Teacher Variables  Student Variables (Eickelmann, 2011) Eickelmann, 2011, p.77-78
    • The Process Level:I. School level a. school leadership/management b. cooperation inside the schools, c. Staff policy d. School culture e. Personal development (Eickelmann, 2011)II. Classroom level a. The quality of learning and teaching b. The appropriateness of classroom practice with ICT (method and media use) c. Teachers’ & students’ motivation d. Effective use of time for learning Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    • Factors Concerning ICT Integrationon “the Input Level of Schools”What the researchers say: The availability of ICT infrastructure (e.g. measured in student-computer ratios) and teacher variables. The availability and access to technologies seem to be obvious and vital for using ICT in schools (Deaney & Hennessey, 2007; Pelgrum, 2008) The age of the teachers and the use of digital media do not correlate (Law & Chow, 2008). Teachers differ in motivation, computer experience and familiarity, innovativeness, personal beliefs and attitudes toward the usefulness of ICT for teaching and learning (Ertmer, 2005; Tondeur, Coopert & Newhouse, 2010). Teachers’ Competences on TPCK (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) Eickelmann, 2011, p.78
    • Factors Concerning ICT Integrationon “the INPUT Level of Schools” The age of the teachers and the use of digital media DO NOT CORRELATE (2 nd IT in education Study, Module 3, 2004-2008). Teachers’ attitude towards ICT use for teaching and learning (Teo, 2009). Teachers’ attitudes are more positively correlated with their familiarity with ICT (Christensen & Knezek, 2008) Eickelmann, 2011, p.78
    • Factors Concerning ICT Integrationon “the PROCESS Level of Schools” Lack of process models of change in schools or innovation Lack of a sustainable and successful implementation of pedagogical innovation e.g. the implementation of ICT into teaching and learning (Fullan, 2001-2007) Only one or small group of teachers who attempt to spread the innovation into the curriculum (Schnoor, 1998). Lack of the use of ICT for teaching and learning integrated into every day teaching (Schnoor, 1998) Eickelmann, 2011, p.79
    • Obstacles & Supportive factors on the school levelWhat the researchers say The support of the school principals have been found to be the most important and supportive factor for teachers (Leonard & Leonard, 2006) Aspects of school culture, especially teachers cooperation, have great influence on others’ ICT use (Dexter, Seashore & Anderson, 2002) The necessity of a strong culture for professional collaboration between teachers (Kelchtermans, 2006; Eickelmann, 2010) Combining the implementation of ICT with other innovations in the school is a supportive factor (Krumsvik, 2005) Eickelmann, 2011, p.79-80
    • Obstacles & Supportive factors on the Classroom levelWhat the researchers sayThe Focus is on Pedagogical Aspects of ICT use The limited availability of the teachers’ time is hindering factor e.g. how to use new technologies within the scope of prering lessons (Deaney & Hennessy, 2007) The lack of specification for ICT in the curricula hinders the development and distribution of learning with ICT (Deaney & Hennessy, 2007) Eickelmann, 2011, p.79-80
    • Research Questions: To what degree can sustainable ICT integration into teaching and learning be found in single schools? Which factors on the school input and process level support or hinder the sustainable integration of ICT into teaching and learning? Eickelmann, 2011, p.81
    • The Aim of this study: The study aims to clarify the factors that determine sustainable and successful ICT implementation. Thus, it aims to provide knowledge about activating parameters to enhance teaching and learning with technology. Eickelmann, 2011, p.81
    • Data and Methods Observation (longer period) Triangulation Longitudinal case studies (Qualitative) Instrumental case study approach Mixed Methods Eickelmann, 2011, p.81
    • Sample, Instrumentation & MethodologySample of the study: Six schools in German (school A,B,C,D,E,F)Instrumentation of the study:Qualitative Questionnaires DocumentsSchool principal School principal NarrativeIT coordinator IT coordinator School programsInnovative teachers using ICT All teachers Media conceptsOther teachers All students Homepages of schoolsOther students (grades 4, 10, 12)Methodology: A case study Eickelmann, 2011, p.83-86
    • EXPLANATION Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    • The schools’ context level Administrative level Socio-regional level Cooperation with external partners Eickelmann, 2011, p.77
    • Supportive Factors on the SCHOOL Levela. The principals in the successful schools had strong leadership skillsb. The schools had established cooperation with external partners to raise fundingc. The school realized intra-school cooperation (coaching system, de- privatization of classroom practice)d. They developed concept to cope with digital trends (implementation of new staff development schemes)e. They used their radius of operation on the process level to cope with problems and challenges regarding ICT implementation and did not externalize problems. Eickelmann, 2011, p.92
    • Supportive Factors on the Classroom Level The successful schools disseminated ICT’s potential to enhance learning within they whole school (use ICT to support personalized learning) They closely linked ICT-use to existing and prospective pedagogical aims (equipping students with portable devices or locating computers in the classroom to support individualized learning) They disseminated ICT into teaching and learning by integrating technology into compulsory school program and curricula Eickelmann, 2011, p.93
    • Hindering factors on School Level When funding was available, these schools did not develop long-term strategies to integrate digital media into learning and teaching. The school principals relied too much on individuals They failed to develop holistic support structures for ICT-use that cover both pedagogical and technological aspects. Schools reported ‘teacher variables’ as hindering factors for ICT integration especially lack of acceptance. Eickelmann, 2011, p.94
    • Hindering factors on Classroom Level The school could not clearly disseminate the potential of ICT-use to enhance learning (some teachers only). The school have focused on teaching ICT competencies, instead of using ICT to enhance learning (word, excel) not to support their pedagogical approach They have not developed concepts to use the potential benefits of ICT to achieve their pedagogical aims. Eickelmann, 2011, p.94
    • Obstacles to computer use (teacher perspective)My school does not have the required peripheral equipment 48.5My school does not have the required ICT infrastructure 41.2I do not have the sufficient time to develop and implement the activities & plan lesson 38.2IT-equipment is old and too slow 37.6I do not think one teacher is enough in computer-supported instruction 32.1IT-equipment is not reliable but flaky 29.1I do not have the necessary ICT-related pedagogical skills 23.0I do not have the required technological skills 19.4My students do not have access to the required ICT tools outside the classroom 19.4My school does not have good quality programs 18.2I do not know how to integrate ICT into teaching and learning 17.0I do not know hoe to identify which ICT tools will be useful 17.0I am afraid of vandalism when using ICT with students 15.2I do not have sufficient confidence to try new approaches alone 13.3My school lacks digital learning resources and adequate software 12.1My students do not possess the required ICT skills 10.3I do not consider ICT useful for teaching and learning 7.9 Eickelmann, 2011, p.95
    • Discussion and ConclusionsThe purpose of this study wasTo Investigate Factors that Supportor Hinder the Sustainable & Long-term ICT Implementation in Schools. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • The main Finding of this study is1. Factors on process level are most crucial (school and classroom level).2. The schools’ cooperation with external partners (the intra-school cooperation, the development of concepts to cope and to re-act to new digital trends) which is one of the most important new finding revealed.3. To overcome this issue, the support of the school principal and his or her leadership skills are crucial for the implementation of ICT. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • The main Finding ….Cont. Factors on the Process level (both the school level and the classroom level) are most crucial.  The way schools in this study’s sample act and re-act on these levels create differences between them and influences sustainable implementation of ICT (similar to previous study: Leonard & Leonard, 2006; Tondeur, 2010) Eickelmann, 2011, p.98
    • Cont. The support of the School Principal and his/her leadership skills are crucial for the implementation of ICT. The schools’ cooperation with external partners, the intra-school cooperation, the development of concepts to cope and to re-act to new digital trends are the most important new findings. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • Finding on Hindering Factors: The absence of holistic support structures for ICT-use in the school, related to both pedagogical and technological aspects The lack of acceptance and appreciation of the value of ICT-use for teaching and learning Missing competencies in technical and pedagogical use of ICT. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • There are two theoreticalimplications from this study:Firstly, the process level of schoolsare crucial. It became obvious thatschools that used their radius ofoperation succeeded, while otherswith comparably good startingsituations that did not developadequate strategies failed. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • Secondly, the implementation ofdigital media is a special innovationfor schools in which the mostchallenging task for the school is therapid change of the innovation itself.It might happen that one innovationprocess has not been completed(e.g. the implementation of one-to-one computing) when the next one(e.g. the applications of Web2-technologies) has already begun. Eickelmann, 2011, p.97
    • To overcome this challenge: Schools have to develop appropriate strategies and coming back to the first issue, they have to focus on the process level (both school and classroom level) because this is their only scope for action. Suggestions:  Computers and Internet were designed to be integrated into schools.  To improve the frequency of computer use in schools Eickelmann, 2011, p.98-99
    • ReferenceEickelmann, B. (2011). Supportive and Hindering Factors to a Sustainable Implementation of ICT in schools. Journal for Educational Research Online. Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 75-103. Eickelmann, 2011, p.99
    • DISCUSSIONDiscuss with your partner, based on your owncontext… What are supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation of ICT in YOUR SCHOOL level and strategy to overcome those factors. What are supportive and hindering factors to a sustainable implementation of ICT in YOUR CLASSROOM level and strategy to overcome those factors. Eickelmann, 2011, p.77