Technology‟s the answer,
But what is the question?
E-learning is the answer,
The question is…….
How to change
3. To e …….?
Or not to e…….?
THAT is the Question
To e ………..
or not to be...….… !
THAT is the problem?
4. Connectivism and learning..
• Learning by connecting
• Learning is a process of connecting
specialized nodes or information
“a node is anything that can be connected
to another node: information, data,
6. e-Learning– The SCORM Overview
Advanced Distributed Learning
7. Original Goal
• The DoD established the ADL initiative in
1997 to develop a DoD-wide strategy for
using learning and information technologies
• to modernize education and training and
• to promote cooperation between
government, academia and business to
develop e-learning standardization.
DoD: the Department of Defense
ADL: the Advanced Distributed Learning initiative
SHARABLE CONTENT OBJECT REFERENCE MODEL
9. BOOK 1:
The SCORM SCORM There are three books
Overview (volumes) to specify the
standard of SCORM 1.2.
BOOK 3: The
SCORM Run Time
BOOK 2: The SCORM Environment
Content Aggregation Model
Meta-data Dictionary (from IEEE)
Content Packaging (from IMS) Data Model (from AICC)
Launch, Communication API (from AICC)
Content Structure (derived from AICC)
(Meta-data XML Binding and Best Practice (from IMS)
10. Description of the SCORM
• The Sharable Content
Object Reference Model
(SCORMTM) defines a Web-
based learning “Content
Aggregation Model” and
for learning objects.
• SCORM is a model that
references a set of
guidelines designed to
meet DoD‟s high-level
requirements for Web-
based learning content.
11. Why SCORM
12. AICC + IEEE + IMS + ADL = SCORM
Many, many long technical meetings
Partial list of participants:
Click2Learn, Avilar, Pathlore, Saba, IMS Meetings
NETg, SmartForce, Centra, Thinq, Early 2000
Macromedia, and many more…
13. • the IMS Global Learning Consortium,
• the Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-
Based Training) Committee (AICC) ,
• the Alliance of Remote Instructional
Authoring & Distribution Networks for
Europe (ARIADNE)12 and
• the Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Learning Technology Standards
18. Content Packaging
• Packaging standarts
prescribe ways to
• to protect them, xml
• to transport them.
• Packaging standarts
for e-learning specify
how to bundle the
separate files that SCORM
make up a lesson,
course or other unit SCORM
UNESCO Training the
19. Content Packaging
text image Course
20. SCORM Technology
.HTML SCORM tells a
SCO how to
SCORM tells the SCO
LMS what assets the LMS
.SWF are in a SCO SCO
.MPG SCORM tells the
LMS what SCOs
are in a course SCO
Assets SCO Course*
22. Adult learning theory
Pedagogy to Andragogy to
of adult learning
23. Changing roles for teachers
“If we teach today as we taught yesterday, we rob our
children of tomorrow.”
– John Dewey
• professional development needs to give
teachers some control over the what, who,
why, when, and where of their learning.
24. How to Bring Web 2.0 into the Classroom
25. Teacher Interests
What is it?
How will it affect
How much my organisation?
does it cost?
Will it work
Teacher Interests for my
What are the students?
What are How to I set up e-
the key learning?
26. Teacher Quality: Leave No Teacher Behind
COMPLETION From Teaching to Learning
(Tests of Knowledge From Teacher
and Skills) Learning to Student
27. A good e-teacher
• gives feedback
• answers questions
• is active
• wakes up sleeping students
• is present
• creates the material
• is expert in his or her subject area
• encourages students
28. Evidence Based Learning
29. Solid research equals solid
Doctors use solid research before treating
patients. Teachers and schools must apply
just as much care.
30. Transforming Findings into Evidence?
31. What Is Evidence-based …….?
• EB… is a decision-making approach that
places emphasis on evidence to:
• guide decisions about which interventions to use;
• evaluate the effects of an intervention.
34. Quantitative Qualitative
• Numbers • Words
• „how many‟ • „how‟ and „why‟
• Hypothesis • Emerging themes
• Representative sample • Wide range of respondents
• Statistical power • Small numbers
• Replicable • Depend on context
35. Quality+ quantity = good evidence
(U.S. Department of Education, 2003)
“dig for” evidence. The analysis of the analysis
36. Why Do Meta-Synthesis ,and meta-analysis?
• Meta-analysis – aggregating data to reach
statistical power for detection of cause and
effect between treatment and outcomes.
• Meta-synthesis – integrating data to reach a
new theoretical or conceptual level of
understanding and development.
Thorne, S., Jensen, L., Kearney, M.H., Noblit, G., Sandelowski, M. (2004). Qualitative metasynthesis:
Reflections on methodological orientation and ideological agenda. Qualitative Health Research, 14 (10), 1342-1365.
• “... Beyond; transcending; more comprehensive.”
• “... the combining of the constituent elements of separate material or
abstract entities into a single or unified entity.”
Meta-synthesis: is not a word that can be found
in the dictionary: it is a neologism, which can readily be
inferred as describing a high order form of synthesis.
• Meta-data-analysis = “the interpretive analysis of findings
of primary research studies to identify similarities and
discrepancies among them”. (eg: meta- ethnography of
Noblit and Hare (1988).
• Meta-method = the study of the appropriateness and
influence of particular research methods and procedures in
research (Szmatka, Lovaglia & Mazur 1996)”.
• Meta-theory = the consideration of theoretical frameworks
and underlying assumptions of primary research studies in
their broader social and theoretical contexts.”.
39. • Step 1: Identifying findings
• Step 2: Grouping findings into categories; and
• Step 3: Grouping categories into synthesized
METASYNTHESIS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES
Identification of practice issue
Search for appropriate research reports
Critical appraisal and selection of studies to include
32 Findings from 15 41 Findings from 7 38 Findings from 11
Phenomen. Studies Ethnographies Discourse Analyses
Aggregate of Aggregate of Aggregate of
well-founded and explicit well-founded and explicit well-founded and explicit
Findings Findings Findings
9 "CATEGORIES" 4 "CATEGORIES" 7 "CATEGORIES"
Synthesis of Findings
10 "SYNTHESISED FINDINGS"
40. • The Qualitative Assessment and Review
42. Reviews of meta-analytic software
• Arthur, W., Bennett, W. & Huffcutt, A. (1994). Choice of software and programs
in meta-analysis research: Does it make a difference? Educational &
Psychological Measurement, 54, 776-787.
• Egger, M., Sterne, J.A.C. & Davey Smith, G. (2000). Meta-analysis software.
British Medical Journal, 316.
• http://www.bmj.com/archive/7126/7126ed9.htm/ (accesed 21.11.2000).
• Normand, S.L. (1995). Meta-analysis software: A comparative review.
American Statistician, 49, 298-309.
• Sterne, J.A.C., Egger, M. & Sutton, A.J. (2001). Meta-analysis software. In M.
Egger, G. Davey Smith & D.G. Altmann (Eds.), Systematic Reviews in Health
Care: Meta-analysis in Context (pp. 336-346). London: BMJ Pub. Group.
• Sutton, A.J., Lambert, P.C., Hellmich, M., et al. (2000). Meta-analysis in
practice: A critical review of available software. In D.A. Berry & D.K. Stangl
(Eds.), Meta-analysis in Medicine and Health Policy. New York: Marcel Dekker.
43. Constructivism from the Perspective of
• Require meaningful assessment criteria vs. those
epistemic criteria of scientism.
• “The Parallel Criteria (Trustworthiness)” and “Authenticity”
Guba and Lincoln (1989)
• The Parallel Criteria speak to methods (parallel to reliability
& validity) that can ensure one has carried out the process
correctly, as in scientism.
• Authenticity speaks to outcome, product, and negotiation
which are unique to constructivism
44. • Trustworthiness • Authenticity
• Credibility - prolonged • Fairness - stakeholder
engagement, triangulation identification, member
• Transferability - • Ontological - testimony
extensive description of the wrt growth of perceptions
context & culture of the
• Educative - greater respect
study for alternative views
• Dependability - • Catalytic - willingness to be
emergent design-induced involved in change
changes in the process • Tactical - quality of change
• Confirmability - occurring in follow-up
and reflexive journals
After Rodwell & Beyers (1997)
45. • Learner-centred
• learner free to make his/her own interpretations
• teacher as a facilitator
• context-rich, experience-based activities
• Social interaction
• sharing of multiple representations, reflection and
• opportunity for negotiation (social/meaning)
• manipulation of attention (focus on meaning/form)
• collaboration to achieve aims
• Role of teacher
• Facilitator/mediator of learning
• Teacher place--anywhere
• Type of listening -- what for?
• Goal is divergence--everyone learning in a unique
• Learning occurs through social
• Evaluation--student understanding
47. “We’re smart when we listen. We’re
smarter when we share.”
Queen Rania of Jordan