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Surrealism Final Presentation Surrealism Final Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Dan Adsit
    Liz Ferrill
    Erin Fowler
    Surrealism
    Surrealism
    Liz Ferrill
    Dan Adsit
    Erin Fowler
    6th hour
  • Background
    Founded in 1924 by André Breton (Surrealist Manifesto)
    Manifesto stated: it was the means of uniting the conscious and unconscious realms
    The world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world in a “surreality”
    Emphasis on psychic automatism: artist using the interplay between free creation and unconscious where there is no conscious control
    Major artists include Dali, Magritte, Man Ray, Ernst, and Miró
  • History
    • The revolution took place through the medium of automatic writing
    • Automatic writing: continuation of writing without thinking what is beneath your pen, writing as fast as you can, choosing a letter to begin a sentence at random
    • Gave an outlet for repressed
    thoughts and instincts
  • History Cont.
    • Dadaism provided a “vital staging point”
    • Considered to be the pre-Surrealist phase
    • Surrealism has a lighter spirit than Dadaism
    • December 1, 1924: La Revolution Surrealistewas the “the most shocking review in the world”
    • Two distinct groups emerge: Veristic and Absolute Surrealists
  • Absolutev. Veristic
  • History Cont.
    Surrealists’ Goal: attempt to discover a super-reality
    Tap into hallucinatory power of the irrational
    Surrealist poets were reluctant to align themselves with visual artists (laborious process of painting, drawing, sculpting were at odds with spontaneity of uninhibited expression)
    Surrealist movement in Europe dissolved with onset of World War II
    Renewal in the United States around 1940
  • Influences on Surrealism
    World War I
    World War II
    Dada
    Heisenberg
    Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
    Einstein
  • JoanMiró
    Background and Timeline
    • Born in Barcelona
    (1893)
    • Referred to as the
    “most Surrealist
    of us all” by Andre
    Breton
    • Disciplined, orderly,
    reliable, punctilious
    man
  • JoanMiró Timeline
    1913-17: Fauvist influence-Close objects with bright, broken colors, decorative ornaments
    1918: Detailistic phase/poetic realism (farms)
    “The Farm”
    (1921)
  • JoanMiró
    1923: Move toward sign-like forms, geometric shapes, overall rhythm
    1924: joined Surrealist group led by breton (never completely integrated himself)
    1927-28: Images crowded, gradually simplified
    “Horse, Pipe, and Red Flower”
    (1920)
    “Air”
    (1930)
  • JoanMiró
    1930s: Experimentation with
    materials, dropped all traditional
    practices
    1950: Mottled and “painterly”
    background, touches of color
    but mostly black and white
    1950-70: Monuments and sculptures
    “Figurgegen rote Sonne II”
    (1950)
    “Lunar Bird”
    (1945)
  • Constellations
  • Miró:Paintings
    Influenced by:
    Catalan folk art (flat, 2-dimensional, natural forms)
    Romanesque church frescoes in native Spain
    Crude execution, simple, flat, cartoon-like images
    Primary colors with thick black boundary
    Dark surrounding field
    Memory, fantasy, “hunger hallucinations”, informalism
    Grattage: partial images (complete image in mind of viewer), scrap paint off canvas with a trowel, increase texture
    Concentrated interest on the symbol embedded in piece
  • Miró:Paintings
    Paintings have a whimsical, humorous quality (like a 5 year old’s drawings)
    Differences of scale (largest object is most important)
    Playfully distorted animal forms, geometric constructions, organic shapes
    Limited range of bright colors
    Overall type composition: encompass entire canvas evenly
    Movement (curves, organic forms)
    Characterized by body language and freshness
  • Harlequin’s Carnival (1924-1925)
  • Still Life with Old Shoe (1937)
  • The Garden
  • SalvadorDali
    “Every morning upon awakening, I experience a supreme pleasure: that of being Salvador Dali”
    1904-1989
  • Dali’sBeginningPaintings
    • Landscapes, houses, olive trees, portraits, boats
    • Bright and exuberant colors
    • Influenced by cubism, psychology, and philosophy
    • Finds comfort in art from ambiguous sexuality
    • Encouraged by Roman Pichot
    • “The Sick Child” (1915)
  • Mother’sDeath
    • Switched from portraits and landscapes to images that reflect his tormented soul
    • Influenced by Neo-Cubists, Impressionists, and Realists, Hieronymus Bosch’s landscapes of hell
    “Garden of Earthly Delights” (1515)
  • MeetingPicasso (1926)
    “Figure on the Rocks” (1926)
    “Apparatus and Hand” (1927)
  • Un ChienAndalou(1929)
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pib9zv1dHcE
  • “The Great Masturbator” (1929)
    “The Enigma of Desire: My Mother, My Mother, My Mother” (1929)
  • “DismalSport” (1929)
  • ParanoiacCriticalMethod
    Induced paranoid state
    Gain greater understanding of world and reality
    Work through obsessions with symbolism
    “The Persistence of Memory” (1931)
  • “TheEnigma of WilliamTell” (1933)
  • PostSpanishCivilWar
    “Soft Construction wit Boiled Beans (Premonition of War)” (1936)
    “Autumn Cannibalism” (1936)
  • PostWorldWarII
    “Daddy Long Legs of the Evening-Hope!” (1940)
  • NuclearMysticism
    • Mysticism: Energy behind Roman Catholicism
    • Paintings become more comprehensible to public
    • Reflects growing interest in Catholicism and in post WWII science and physics
    • Heisenberg replaces Freud as “father”
    “Galatea of the Spheres” (1952)
  • “The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory” (1954)
  • “The Hallucinogenic Toreador” (1970)
  • AndreBreton
    Writer/poet
    Published magazine, La Révolutionsurréaliste
    One of the founders and leaders of the Surrealist movement
    Main Style:
    Automatic writing
  • “Les Champs magnétiques(The Magnetic Fields)”(1920)
    First piece to employ automatic writing
  • TheSurrealistManifesto (1924)
    “pure psychic automatism whereby one’s intention is to express, either verbally or in writing, or in any other way, the real functioning of thought”
  • LesVasescommunicants (The Communicating Vessels) (1932)
    Aimed to establish the existence of close connections between dreams and the waking state
  • ManRay
    - “I photographed as I painted, transforming the subject as a painter would”
    - “I do not photograph nature. I photograph my visions”
    Experimented with new photography procedures:
    Rayograph: photographs without a camera
    -Also experimented with writing, painting, and Surrealist objects
  • “Le Violond'Ingres” (1924)
  • Untitled Rayograph(1922)
  • “Electricity”(1931)
  • “The Gift”(1921)
  • ReneMagritte
    • “An object is not so attached to its name that we cannot find another one that would suit it better”
    • Founded Belgian Surrealist Group, member of Breton’s group in Paris
    • Juxtaposed ordinary objects in an extraordinary way
    - Methodical in his painting, had mastered the traditional art styles
  • Querelledesuniversaux (1928)
  • Latrahisondesimages (The Treachery of Images) (1929)
    “This is not a pipe”
  • “The Portrait”(1935)
  • “Golconda” (1953)
  • “The HumanCondition” (1933)
  • ImpactofSurrealism
  • Picasso
    “Guernica”
  • AbstractExpressionism: Gorkey
    “The Liver is the Cock’s Comb” (1944)
    “Garden in Sochi”
  • AbstractExpressionism: Pollock
    “Autumn Rhythm #30, 1950” (1950)
  • Neo-Expressionism: Clemente
    “Water and Wine” (1981)
  • Sculpture: Hans Arp
    Human Concetion Series
  • Sculpture: Calder
    “Lobster Trap and Fishtail”
  • Photography: Brandt
    “London Child”
  • Fashion: Elsa Shirapelli
    “Shoe Hat”
    “Lobster Dress”
    “Skeleton Dress”
  • Politics
    Directly: joining or aligning themselves with radical political groups, movements, and parties
    Indirectly: emphasize link between freeing imagination and the mind from archaic social structures
    New Left of the 1960’s and 70’s
    French revolt of May 1968
  • Literature: Joyce
    Stream of consciousness style of writing