The history of globalization. Globalization: pros and cons

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The history of globalization. Globalization: pros and cons

  1. 1. GLOBALIZATION
  2. 2. Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.
  3. 3. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions capital and investment movements migration and movement of people dissemination of knowledge
  4. 4. HISTORY OF GLOBALIZATION
  5. 5. Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people—and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries. In fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
  6. 6. Thomas L. Friedman divides the history of globalization into three periods: Globalization 1(1492 -1800) – Globalization of countries Globalization 2 (1800 -2000) – Globalization of companies Globalization 3 (2000 – present) – Globalization of individuals
  7. 7. An early form of globalized economics and culture, known as archaic globalization, existed during the Hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers were focused around the axis of Greek culture over a wide range that stretched from India to Spain, with such cities as Alexandria, Athens, and Antioch at its center. Trade was widespread during that period, and it is the first time the idea of a cosmopolitan culture
  8. 8. The Islamic Golden Age was also an important early stage of globalization, when Jewish and Muslim traders and explorers established a sustained economy across the Old World resulting in a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and technology. Globally significant crops such as sugar and cotton became widely cultivated across the Muslim world in this period, while the necessity of learning Arabic and completing the Hajj created a cosmopolitan culture.
  9. 9. In the years since the Second World War many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential and creating new opportunities for international trade and investment. Governments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to commerce and have established international agreements to promote trade in goods, services, and investment.
  10. 10. Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign markets, corporations have built foreign factories and established production and marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an international industrial and financial business structure.
  11. 11. PROS & CONS OF GLOBALIZATION
  12. 12. NEGATIVE SIDE  1. The proponents of global free trade say that it promotes global economic growth, creates jobs, makes companies more competitive, and lowers prices for consumers. It also provides poor countries, through infusions of foreign capital and technology, with the chance to develop economically and by spreading prosperity creates the conditions in which democracy and respect for human rights may flourish.  2. According to libertarians, globalization will help us to raise the global economy only when the involved power blocks have mutual trust and respect for each other’s opinion. Globalization and democracy should go hand-inhand. It should be pure business with no colonialist designs.  3. Now there is a worldwide market for companies and consumers to access products from different countries.  4. There is a world power that is being created gradually, instead of compartmentalized power sectors. Politics are merging and decisions that are being made are actually beneficial for people all over the world.
  13. 13.  5. Anti-globalists also claim that globalization is not working for the majority of the world. During the most recent period of rapid growth in global trade and investment, 1960 to 1998, inequality worsened both internationally and within countries. The UN Development Program reports that the richest 20 percent of the world's population consume 86 percent of the world's resources, while the poorest 80 percent consume just 14 percent.  6. Some experts think that globalization is also leading to the incursion of communicable diseases. Deadly diseases like HIV/AIDS are being spread by travelers to the remotest corners of the globe.  7. Globalization has led to exploitation of labor. Prisoners and child workers are used to work in inhumane conditions. Safety standards are ignored to produce cheap goods. There is also an increase in human trafficking.  8. Social welfare schemes or ―safety nets‖ are under great pressure in developed countries because of deficits and other economic ramifications of globalization.
  14. 14. POSITIVE SIDE  1. The proponents of global free trade say that it promotes global economic growth, creates jobs, makes companies more competitive, and lowers prices for consumers. It also provides poor countries, through infusions of foreign capital and technology, with the chance to develop economically and by spreading prosperity creates the conditions in which democracy and respect for human rights may flourish.  2. According to libertarians, globalization will help us to raise the global economy only when the involved power blocks have mutual trust and respect for each other’s opinion. Globalization and democracy should go hand-inhand. It should be pure business with no colonialist designs.  3. Now there is a worldwide market for companies and consumers to access products from different countries.  4. There is a world power that is being created gradually, instead of compartmentalized power sectors. Politics are merging and decisions that are being made are actually beneficial for people all over the world.
  15. 15.  5 There is more influx of information between two countries.  6. There is cultural intermingling. Each country is learning more about other cultures.  7. Since we share financial interests, corporations and governments are trying to sort out ecological problems for each other.  8. Socially we have become more open and tolerant towards each other, and people who live in the other part of the world are not considered aliens.  9. Most people see speedy travel, mass communications and quick dissemination of information through the Internet as benefits of globalization.
  16. 16. FIN

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