School-Based Assessment for Learning Workshop (Bengkel Penilaian Kendalian Sekolah) Ministry of Education, Negara Brunei Darussalam SBA PD Program for Y7 & Y8 Teachers 17 Januari 2011 BRIDEX, Jerudong
School-Based Assessment for Learning Workshop (Bengkel Penilaian Kendalian Sekolah)
The term School Based Assessment for Learning (SBAfL) is a fusion of School Based Assessment (SBA), which has already been widely practiced in schools since the introduction of SPN21 Interim in 2008, and Assessment for Learning (AfL). The term was adopted during the SBA core group training session in order to emphasize the distinction between current SBA practices in school and the revised SBAfL.
When School Based Assessment (SBA) was implemented during the first year of the interim stage, students were over-assessed to the extent that almost all the homework and classwork were elevated into high-stakes summative assessments . This over-assessment did not allow sufficient time for teaching and learning. Students did not have the opportunity to receive formative feedback from their teachers, reflect on their own learning and learn from their mistakes in a low-stakes environment before they were assessed for summative purposes.
In addition, assessments were mostly based on written tests which were mini versions of external written exams. Thus, the students were taught in an exam-oriented manner where they were drilled towards an end-of-year exam. The reliance on written tests in SBA meant that students were assessed on a limited set of skills. Skills such as oral communication, ICT, research and creative thinking were not enhanced as they are not readily assessed in a one-off written test. Therefore, students resorted to rote-learning as their assessments mainly focused on memorisation skills.
Because every piece of student work was accounted for summative marks , teachers’ time was devoted mostly to assessing and marking for summative purposes. Teachers were required to record marks from each piece of assessment in the teachers’ record book. Teachers could not provide quality feedback to students as marks were not accompanied by useful descriptions or criteria in rubrics.
Penilaian Kendalian Sekolah atau nama Inggerisnya ‘School Base Assessment’ (PKS/ SBA) adalah penilaian yang terkandung di dalam proses p & p . Pelbagai kriteria boleh membezakannya dengan bentuk penilaian lainnya, iaitu:
Memerlukan penyertaan guru dari awal proses p & p hinggalah kepada penyudahnya. Ini termasuklah dalam hal merancang program penilaian, mengenalpasti dan memperkembangk
an tugasan penilaian dan diakhiri dengan membuat keputusan terhadap penilaian berkenaan.
[… apa saja jenis penilaian yang bertujuan untuk memajukan pembelajaran pelajar … maka aktiviti penilaian yang boleh mendorong pembelajaran tersebut haruslah menggunakan penilaian berbentuk informasi seperti maklum balas dari guru, dan pelajar-pelajar boleh menilai diri sendiri juga sesama mereka..]
Example of SBAfL policy in Singapore … “ For teaching and learning to be effective, teachers will identify and monitor pupils’ changing needs, abilities and interests so that they can modify or adapt their teaching methods to help pupils improve their learning . Teachers will also give timely and useful feedback to pupils and provide them with opportunities to act on the feedback to improve their learning. Together, the processes of diagnosing pupils’ needs, abilities and interests, monitoring pupils’ learning progress, and feeding-forward to improve learning constitute Assessment for Learning (A f L).” (MOE Singapore, 2008)
Example of SBAfL policy in Hong Kong … “ Based on the beliefs that every student is unique and possesses the ability to learn, and that we should develop their multiple intelligences and potentials … there should be a change in assessment practices and schools should put more emphasis on 'Assessment for Learning' as an integral part of the learning, teaching and assessment cycle … … In other words, teachers should use assessments (e.g. as simple as effective verbal questioning , observation of student behaviour) and provide immediate feedback to enhance student learning in everyday classroom lessons. The focus is on why they do not learn well and how to help them to improve rather than just to use assessments to find out what knowledge students have learned ” http://cd.emb.gov.hk/basic_guide/BEGuideeng0821/chapter05.html
(Khusus penilaian BM bagi tahun 7&8) Strategi penilaian untuk belajar (Black & William, 1998a, 1999 dlm Glasson: 2009)
Memberikan maklum balas yang tepat dan berguna bagi meningkatkan pembelajaran pelajar.
Harus menggunakan penilaian (contoh menggunakan cara penyoalan yang efektif dan mencerap kelakuan pelajar).
Maklum balas secara langsung.
Penilaian melalui pemerhatian, checklist (senarai semak), catatan maklum balas untuk tindakan susulan (feed-forward) .
Kongsi sama guru dengan pelajar mengenai objektif dan kriteria yang akan dinilai dalam pembelajaran.
Strategi penyoalan .
Maklum balas yang efektif.
Menjadikan penilaian formatif berguna dalam penilaian sumatif