ICES GRID/EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY<br />Donna J. Campbell<br />EDUC 8144-4<br />Teacher Leadership: Trends, Issues, and Glo...
Educational Opportunity: A Study of Customs/Culture, Geography and Education <br />Briefly explain significant cultural as...
Educational Opportunity con’t:<br />Suggest resources to expand knowledge about the culture. Close the ICES presentation w...
Background<br />Students in the 21st Century need to gain insight into S. Korea. Today it is one of the most influential a...
Backgroundcon’t:<br />Korean customs play an integral part when interacting socially. Students need to know and understand...
Backgroundcon’t:<br />There is fierce competition to gain acceptance into the top universities. Most students attend priva...
Lesson Plan Objectives<br />Introduce students to Korean culture and how it differs from the U. S.<br />Help students lear...
Materials<br />DAY 1-2: CUSTOMS/CULTURES<br /><ul><li>     paper or cloth flags
     worksheet #1 (customs)
     worksheet #2 (explanations of customs)
     11” x 18” paper/glue
     video on Korean culture</li></ul>DAY 3-4: GEOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li>world map
atlasses</li></li></ul><li>Materials con’t:<br /><ul><li>worksheet #1 (map of Korea)
    worksheet #2 (map of world)
    handout (overview of Korea)
    poster board or butcher paper
    books, magazines (on Korea)
    post cards (for writing to a friend about Korea)
    video (Korea, Land of the Morning Calm).
worksheet #3 (comparison of North and South Korea)</li></li></ul><li>Materials con’t:<br />DAY 5-6: EDUCATION<br /><ul><li...
handout #2 (Elite Korean Schools, Forging Ivy League Skills)
slide show (Appetite for Success)
handout #3 (Tiger Moms Hire Tutors as Korea Scraps Classes)</li></li></ul><li>PROCEDURES<br />DAY 1-2 CUSTOMS/CULTURES<br ...
    Talk about customs, both familiar and unfamiliar (KWL Chart) or diagram placing Korea in center
     Discuss customs from around the world (write on butcher paper or poster board)
     Do activity using worksheet #1 (determine if custom is from Korea, U. S. or both)</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t:...
    Students can collaborate with each other to determine which country the custom belongs
    Once it is determined the custom is properly placed, each custom will be permanently placed on large piece of paper in...
     Use worksheet #2 to guide students in knowing which custom is of South Korea
     EXTENSIONS/ASSESSMENT:  Role-play customs and talk about what is proper and what is not; research other cultures and ...
    Pass out atlases and have students look up South Korea to learn as much as they can
    Use worksheet #1 (map of Korea) and have students label major cities and features (small groups). Explain the term “de...
    Define “peninsula” and using worksheet #2 (map of world) have students identify the peninsulas. Discuss peninsular lan...
    Talk about seasonal changes in Korea. Identify other countries with similar or same climates.  Use worksheet #2 again ...
     ASSESSMENT:  Students write in journals, listing at least 3 things learned about Korea, its location, climate, etc.  ...
     Show video Korea, Land of the Morning Calm.</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t: <br />DAY 5-6: EDUCATION<br /><ul><li...
     Use handout #1 and handout #2, assign students to read and look for answers to questions identified by teacher
     Show the slide show Appetite for Success
     Teacher leads discussion comparing and contrasting pressures Korean students face to excel academically with pressure...
ASSESSMENT:  Answers to questions from handouts, group discussion at end of lesson on Cram Schools and their impact on Kor...
 PRODUCT: projects which allow students to demonstrate and extend what they have learned.  They can work alone or in group...
CHOICE BOARDS
COMPACTING
 STATIONS
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  1. 1. ICES GRID/EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY<br />Donna J. Campbell<br />EDUC 8144-4<br />Teacher Leadership: Trends, Issues, and Global Perspectives<br />Instructor: Dr. Patricia Brock<br />September 19, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Educational Opportunity: A Study of Customs/Culture, Geography and Education <br />Briefly explain significant cultural aspects that are pertinent and influence education (aspects such as government, religion, economy, etc.).<br />Explain and support significant points related to learning. Note traits, practices, and behaviors typical and/or unique to the individuals who are native to the culture of study.<br />Summarize the Educational Opportunity in the post.<br />
  3. 3. Educational Opportunity con’t:<br />Suggest resources to expand knowledge about the culture. Close the ICES presentation with an invitation for questions, criticisms, and observations from colleagues.<br />Submit a lesson plan or some other learning activity as an educational opportunity adapted to learners from South Korea.<br />
  4. 4. Background<br />Students in the 21st Century need to gain insight into S. Korea. Today it is one of the most influential and economically viable countries. Three wars have been fought in Asia with U. S. participation and the numbers of South Korean immigrants is at an all time high. Politically and economically, Asia plays an important role with America globally. <br />The educational challenge becomes one of preparing students to understand, appreciate and cooperate with Asian counterparts. Students need exposure to cultures of the global community in order to remain prepared. There is rich history beyond the Korean War, WW I and II and the Vietnam War. <br />
  5. 5. Backgroundcon’t:<br />Korean customs play an integral part when interacting socially. Students need to know and understand globally there are similar customs but also some unique only to one’s country of origin.<br />The advent of democracy in 1993 saw increased funding for education and creation of education reforms in Korea. The reforms highlighted an interest in international competitiveness. <br />South Korea operates with a national curriculum and teachers must follow the same curricular activities whether in a rural village or the urban capital of Seoul.<br />
  6. 6. Backgroundcon’t:<br />There is fierce competition to gain acceptance into the top universities. Most students attend private tutoring sessions after school or a “Cram School” often times until 2 in the morning. <br />Often times, students sleep during normal class in order to be wide awake for their tutoring sessions.<br />Students from rural areas move to the urban areas so they can gain access to the better schools. Those with the financial means gain access to the “Cram Schools”. The focus becomes one of intense energy, dedication, and self-sacrifice. <br />
  7. 7. Lesson Plan Objectives<br />Introduce students to Korean culture and how it differs from the U. S.<br />Help students learn about Korea’s geography, and basic terms<br />Help students learn about the importance of education in South Korea<br />Understand the role and popularity of “Cram Schools” and other private tutoring opportunities<br />Analyze the pros and cons of “Cram Schools” on South Korean students<br />Students will be able to effectively look at pressures facing American students to make increased gains academically<br />
  8. 8. Materials<br />DAY 1-2: CUSTOMS/CULTURES<br /><ul><li> paper or cloth flags
  9. 9. worksheet #1 (customs)
  10. 10. worksheet #2 (explanations of customs)
  11. 11. 11” x 18” paper/glue
  12. 12. video on Korean culture</li></ul>DAY 3-4: GEOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li>world map
  13. 13. atlasses</li></li></ul><li>Materials con’t:<br /><ul><li>worksheet #1 (map of Korea)
  14. 14. worksheet #2 (map of world)
  15. 15. handout (overview of Korea)
  16. 16. poster board or butcher paper
  17. 17. books, magazines (on Korea)
  18. 18. post cards (for writing to a friend about Korea)
  19. 19. video (Korea, Land of the Morning Calm).
  20. 20. worksheet #3 (comparison of North and South Korea)</li></li></ul><li>Materials con’t:<br />DAY 5-6: EDUCATION<br /><ul><li> handout #1 (At South Korean Cram School, a Singular Focus)
  21. 21. handout #2 (Elite Korean Schools, Forging Ivy League Skills)
  22. 22. slide show (Appetite for Success)
  23. 23. handout #3 (Tiger Moms Hire Tutors as Korea Scraps Classes)</li></li></ul><li>PROCEDURES<br />DAY 1-2 CUSTOMS/CULTURES<br /><ul><li> Begin lesson with definition of customs/cultures
  24. 24. Talk about customs, both familiar and unfamiliar (KWL Chart) or diagram placing Korea in center
  25. 25. Discuss customs from around the world (write on butcher paper or poster board)
  26. 26. Do activity using worksheet #1 (determine if custom is from Korea, U. S. or both)</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t: Day 1-2<br /><ul><li>Use paper flags of each country to indicate where to post the custom designation
  27. 27. Students can collaborate with each other to determine which country the custom belongs
  28. 28. Once it is determined the custom is properly placed, each custom will be permanently placed on large piece of paper in proper column
  29. 29. Use worksheet #2 to guide students in knowing which custom is of South Korea
  30. 30. EXTENSIONS/ASSESSMENT: Role-play customs and talk about what is proper and what is not; research other cultures and their customs and compare with the U. S. and South Korea</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t:<br />DAY 3-4 GEOGRAPHY<br /><ul><li>Have students locate South Korea on a world map
  31. 31. Pass out atlases and have students look up South Korea to learn as much as they can
  32. 32. Use worksheet #1 (map of Korea) and have students label major cities and features (small groups). Explain the term “demarcation line”. Discuss 38th parallel and have students draw the line from east to west.
  33. 33. Define “peninsula” and using worksheet #2 (map of world) have students identify the peninsulas. Discuss peninsular land form and its pros and cons
  34. 34. Talk about seasonal changes in Korea. Identify other countries with similar or same climates. Use worksheet #2 again and have students color between latitudes north 42 and 34 (see world atlas). </li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t: Day 3-4<br /><ul><li>EXTENSIONS: Discuss differences between North and South Korea using worksheet #4 (comparison of North and South Korea); using worksheet #5 follow directions to identify physical features of the land.
  35. 35. ASSESSMENT: Students write in journals, listing at least 3 things learned about Korea, its location, climate, etc. Write in paragraph format. Students can send a postcard to a friend sharing what they have learned about Korea.
  36. 36. Show video Korea, Land of the Morning Calm.</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t: <br />DAY 5-6: EDUCATION<br /><ul><li>Introduce “Cram School” concept and discuss why rural families move children especially boys to urban areas for better schools and better private tutoring opportunities
  37. 37. Use handout #1 and handout #2, assign students to read and look for answers to questions identified by teacher
  38. 38. Show the slide show Appetite for Success
  39. 39. Teacher leads discussion comparing and contrasting pressures Korean students face to excel academically with pressures placed on American students</li></li></ul><li>Procedures con’t: Day 5-6<br /><ul><li>EXTENSION: Write a newspaper article describing pressures on high school students in order to be accepted into the best universities in America or write a reaction paper to the recent article addressing the elimination of Saturday classes (Tiger Moms Hire Tutors as Korea Scraps Classes by Sangim Han and Rose Kim, June 29, 2011)
  40. 40. ASSESSMENT: Answers to questions from handouts, group discussion at end of lesson on Cram Schools and their impact on Korean students, unit test on East Asia/South Korea</li></li></ul><li>Differentiation: Strategies<br />Explanation of Differentiation: Every child is unique in their own way therefore instruction needs to be tailored to meet the individual students’ needs. <br /><ul><li>CONTENT: concepts, principles, and skills the teacher wants the student to learn; do not change core content for struggling learners – provide same big ideas. Content can be field trips, lectures, videos, web sites, demos, interviews, etc. Use pre-tests to determine where student needs to begin study, vary instructional delivery methods to address different learning styles, break assignments into smaller parts and give structured instruction for each. </li></li></ul><li>Differentiation con’t:<br /><ul><li>PROCESS: activities used to help student understand skills taught. Modify through scaffolding if necessary, using reteach or step by step directions for example. Target auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners, use stations for independent learning, create activities with varying levels of complexity, use flexible grouping.
  41. 41. PRODUCT: projects which allow students to demonstrate and extend what they have learned. They can work alone or in groups. Use variety of assessment strategies, performance-based and open-ended. Balance teacher-directed and student-selected projects, offer choice of projects reflecting a variety of learning styles and interests. Keep assessment on-going.</li></li></ul><li>Differentiation con’t:<br /><ul><li> FLEXIBLE GROUPING
  42. 42. CHOICE BOARDS
  43. 43. COMPACTING
  44. 44. STATIONS
  45. 45. PEER TUTORING GROUPS
  46. 46. WRITING/READING
  47. 47. GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
  48. 48. THINK DOTS
  49. 49. TIC-TAC-TOE
  50. 50. TIERED INSTRUCTION
  51. 51. RAFT
  52. 52. COLLABORATION</li></li></ul><li>Significant Aspects of the Culture Influencing Education in South Korea<br /><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY: South Korea is located in both the northern and eastern hemispheres occupying the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula extending southward of the Asian continent. North Korea borders South Korea as does the Yellow Sea, East Sea (also known as the Sea of Japan) and the Korean Strait. The Korean coastline covers 1, 499 miles and 37,911 miles makes up land mass and 112 square miles is water mass. South Korea is mountainous to the east with the Taeback Mountains dominating the landscape. Most of South Korea’s people live in the flatter coastal plains which is also where useable agricultural land can be found. Land is divided into 9 provinces and 7 metropolitan cities (Graphic Maps). Summer months bring heavy rainfall due to the East Asian Monsoon but summers are hot and humid. Winters are very cold. (About.com)</li></li></ul><li>Significant Aspects con’t:<br /><ul><li>IMPACT ON EDUCATION: The layout of the land will determine where people live and find work. Climate can have a direct impact, for example in Korea when the monsoon season hits or the weather if too hot or too cold will have an impact on what is worn and if the family can afford the required articles such as jackets or close toed shoes. Also what can they endure as far as temperatures? Physical land barriers and lack of resources can have a direct impact. There may or may not be direct access to an education. Where one lives can have an impact on vocabulary and the exposure the student experiences. For example, if one lives near water, they may have knowledge or useage of a high number of nautical terms or if living in a forested area, they may have different words for various colors. Physical geography will have an impact on the economic and social development of people depending on whether they live near the sea, in the mountains, forests, grasslands, etc. If they are shut off from others because of mountains or water, this can create homogeneous people. If they live near others, they can adopt characteristics of neighboring cultures. Transportation will have an impact – land or water?? (these are all supporting reasons why parents relocate their children from rural areas to urban areas to find the best schools and the best tutoring opportunities such as the Cram Schools)</li></li></ul><li>Significant Aspects con’t:<br />GOVERNMENT/ECONOMY: The government of South Korea is made up of three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. The executive and legislative branches function at the national level, with various ministries from the executive branch also functioning at the local level. Local governments are semi-autonomous and are made up of executive and legislative bodies as well. The judicial branch is found at national and local levels. The structure of the government is set by the Constitution of the Republic of Korea, established 1948. There is a careful system of checks and balances, for example when impeachment is recommended or passed by the legislature, it must be sent to the judicial branch for a final decision.<br />
  53. 53. Significant Aspects con’t:<br /> South Korea remains a prime international economic power. It ranks 12th in the world and 3rd in Asia. China is the largest trading partner and export market for South Korea. Its rise in economic power can be attributed to exporting manufactured goods. This rapid growth is referred to as “Miracle on the Han River” because the Han River is the main one running through Seoul (the capital) which is also the nation’s largest city. Some examples of South Korea’s manufactured goods are: cars, electronics, shipbuilding, steel, digital monitors, mobile phones and semiconductors; this is a big change from mostly textiles and shoes, making them more of a global producer. Seoul is called a megacity, home to some of the largest companies such as Samsung and Hyundai. Seoul produces over 20% of the country’s gross domestic product. Agriculture also plays a major role. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011) <br />
  54. 54. Significant Aspects con’t:<br /><ul><li>IMPACT ON EDUCATION: Most of what happens in South Korea in education is produced at the national level. For example, the entrance exam the high school students take one time a year is administered at the national level. Students study for 3 or more years to pass the exam and parents pay heavily for their child to partake of every possible tutoring opportunity and to be admitted to the various Cram Schools in addition to the regular school day. Students also participate in enrichment programs in between the regular school day and the afterschool tutoring sessions (Taekwondo, music, art, dance). Class days go for most well into the night and early morning. </li></li></ul><li>Significant Aspects con’t:<br />Recently, President Lee MyungBak’s government recommended schools adopt a shorter week beginning in 2012, which would also means the end to Saturday classes two times a month (Han & Kim, 2011). This will mean more tutoring, more Cram Schools and more on-line learning for parents to get their kids into college. An expensive adventure for sure but parents will pay it to keep South Korea a dominating force in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s assessment of reading, math and science skills as well as secure a passing score the first attempt on the national college entrance exam.<br />
  55. 55. Significant Aspects con’t:<br />ASSESSMENTS/NATIONAL CURRICULUM: South Korea is 2nd in the world on Math PISA and in 2009 were 1st in the world on the PISA in the Digital Reading Assessment. South Korea uses the ACT and SAT, PISA and TIMSS. They also have the Test of the English Proficiency (TEPS) which covers language, grammar, vocabulary and reading. The Test of English for International Communications (TOEIC) covers language, reading, speaking and writing and is administered to non-native English speaking to see if they can speak in everyday workplaces. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is administered to use and understand English in academic settings and is only valid for 2 years. It is often used as an entrance requirement to English speaking colleges or universities and can be internet based or paper. The internet test covers reading, language, speaking and writing. The paper test consists of language, structure and written expression, reading comprehension and writing. <br />
  56. 56. Significant Aspects con’t:<br />South Korea also has a College Scholastic Ability Test administered once a year. It serves as an entrance exam to college and requires preparation as early as Kindergarten. The exam addresses Korean language and reading, math, English, various elective subjects in social and physical science and foreign language or Chinese characters and classics. ( more justification for private tutoring and Cram Schools) The curriculum of most schools are built around its content. South Korea’s national curriculum is developed and monitored by the Ministry of Education and is revised every 5 to 10 years.<br />
  57. 57. Significant Aspects con’t:<br /><ul><li>IMPACT ON EDUCATION: Assessments improve teaching and produce improved student scores. The national curriculum seeks to develop democratic citizens with strong moral and civic convictions. Students who relocate from rural to urban areas for the better schools and tutoring opportunities can receive the same level of standardized instruction and will not suffer academically.</li></li></ul><li>Significant Aspects con’t:<br />EDUCATION SYSTEM: The South Korea school system is divided into 3 parts: primary, middle, high. There is a standardized curriculum with boys and girls studying technology and domestic science. Middle school teachers are content specialists and high school teachers are vocational or academic. There is a high respect for teachers; students bow when passing teachers in the halls and never step on their shadow. Koreans view education as crucial to success in life. Competition is strong as seen in the 2006 results of the Programme for International Student Assessment (OECD). South Korea was 1st in problem solving, 3rd in math and 7th in science. South Korea’s system is technologically advanced and enjoys the recognition of being the world’s first to use high-speed fibre-optic broadband internet access to each primary and secondary school nation-wide. As such they have also created the 1st digital textbooks in the world with distribution set to take place by 2013 and will be free to all.<br />
  58. 58. Significant Aspects con’t:<br /><ul><li>IMPACT ON EDUCATION: South Korea is totally on board with the value of education which is why it is so competitive in the country. Parents send their children (primarily boys) to aftercare type schools even after they complete a full day of regular school as well as enrichment such as Taekwondo, music, art, dance. These schools go until late hours such as midnight or in the case of Cram Schools – 2am. Regular schools tend to start later in the day to allow for these students to get proper rest, although most still fall asleep during class so they are awake and rested for the grueling afterschool lessons. South Korea is also running away with digital means to educate.</li></li></ul><li>S. W. O. T. Analysis<br />STRENGTHS: Strengths can be found in the desire of the Korean children to excel academically and their willingness to give up a social life, playtime with friends, sleep, etc. <br />WEAKNESS: can be found in the availability of tutoring sessions and Cram Schools countrywide so parents would not have to separate from their primary family to send their child or children to urban areas such as Seoul and possibly the mom to live there as well.<br />OPPORTUNITIES: in the fact that the country is widespread with tutors and Cram Schools of all subjects and students can belong to more than one Cram School at a time and there is a wealth of enrichment opportunities in Taekwondo, music, art, dance.<br />  THREATS: the competition is so fierce to get into the best colleges or universities, to ones social status, sleep, parent's financial status due to the high cost of the afterschool programs, less of a need for the human touch (teacher) with more and more digital advancements.<br />
  59. 59. References<br />ACARA(2009). Curriculum design paper v2.0. Retrieved on August 9, 2011 from http://www.acara.edu.au/news_media/publications.html<br />Administrative Division: South Korea. Retrieved on August 20, 2011 from http://www.southkoreagovernment.com/administrative_division.htm<br />Administrative Divisions of South Korea. Retrieved on August 21, 2011 from http:///www.enotes.com/topic/Administrative_divisions_of_South_Korea?<br />Association for supervision and curriculum development (2011). Retrieved on August 8, 2011 from http://www.r.smartbrief.com/resp/detABYpWhBCassxrCicOzwCicNAgac<br />Bandyopadhyay, J. K., & Scott, J. P. (2006). Developing a model disability resource information center (DRIC) for an institution of higher education in the United States. International Journal of Management, 23(4), 801-807.<br />Barnes, C. R. (2011). “Race to the top” only benefits big government. Journal of Law & Education, (40)2,393-402.<br />
  60. 60. References con’t:<br />BBC News: South Korea’s education success Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from http:///newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi//uk_news/education/4240668.stm<br />Bigaj, S. J., Shaw, S. F., Cullen, J. P., McGuire, J. M., & Yost, D. S. (1995). Services for students with learning disabilities at two- and four-year institutions: Are they different? Community College Review, 23, 17-36.<br />Burke, L. (2010). National review on line. The corner: The obama education revolution. Retrieved on August 19, 2011 from http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/233703/obama-education-revolution-lindsey-burke#<br />Capps, S. C., Henslee, A. M., & Gere, D. R. (2002). Learning disabilities within postsecondary education: Suggestions for administrators and faculty members. Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, 1(3), 15-24.<br />Central Intelligence Agency (2010). CIA – The World Factbook – South Korea Retrieved on August 20, 2011 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html<br />
  61. 61. References con’t:<br />Central Intelligence Agency (2010). CIA – The World Factbook – United States Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ks.html<br />Cuban, L. (2011). Keeping up with Korea: All textbooks to be digital by 2014. Retrieved on August 14, 2011 from http:///larrycuban.wordpress.com/2011/7/21<br />Curriculum: National and State Standards. Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from http://www.educationworld.com/standards.<br />Dail, A. R., & Payne, R. L. (2010). Recasting the role of family involvement in early literacy development: A response to the NELP report. Educational Researcher, (39)4,330-333. doi: 10.3102/0013189X10370207.<br />Diem, R., Levy, T., & VanSickle, R. (unk). South Korean education. Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from http:///asiasociety.org/education/learning-world/south-korean-education<br />Disabilities in Korea. Retrieved on August 16, 2011 from http:///childisabled.org/childisabled/country/South_Korea<br />
  62. 62. References con’t:<br />Dutta, A., Kundu, M. M., & Schiro-Geist, C. (2009). Coordination of postsecondary transition services for students with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation., 75(1), 10-17.<br />Education Week (2011). Broad coalition opposes national curriculum initiative. U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved on August 8, 2011 from http://www.educationnews.org/ed_reports/155764.html<br />Education World (2011). Curriculum: National and state standards. Retrieved on August 8, 2011 from http://www.educationworld.com/standards/<br />El Nokali, N. E., Bachman, H. J., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2010). Parental involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child Development, (81)3, 988-1005.<br />Geography of South Korea. Retrieved on August 20, 2011 from http://geography.about.com/od/southkorea/a/south-korea.htm<br />
  63. 63. References con’t:<br />Goad, C. J., & Robertson, J. M. (2000). How university counseling centers serve students with disabilities: A status report. Journal of College Psychotherapy, 14(3), 13-22.<br />Griffiths, L., Worth, P., Scullard, Z., & Gilbert, D. (2010). Supporting disabled students in practice: A tripartite approach. Nurse Education in Practice, 10(3), 132-137.<br />Gross National Income by Country: 2000 and 2008. Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from U. S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2011<br />Guzman, A. (2009). Exploring postsecondary education disability service’s standards: Alignment with disability studies. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Illinois. Dissertations & Thesis Full Text, AAT 3381162.<br />Han style. Retrieved on August 16, 2011 from http:///english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/CU/CU_EN_8_1.jsp<br />
  64. 64. References con’t:<br />Harris-Hart, C. (2010). National curriculum and federalism: The Australian experience. Journal of Educational Administration and History, (42)3, 295-313<br />Heritage Foundation. Promoting economic opportunity & prosperity: The 2011 index of economic freedom. Retrieved on August 20, 2011 from http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index.<br />Hurst, D., & Smerdon, B., (Eds.). (2000). Postsecondary students with disabilities: Enrollment, services, and persistence [Stats in Brief NCES 2000-092]. Washington DC: U. S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/2000092.pdf.<br />Infoplease.com. (n.d.). Korea, South: History, geography, government, and culture.<br />Infoplease.com. (n.d.). International comparison of math, reading, and science skills among 15-year-olds<br />Infoplease.com. (n.d.). United States facts and figures: History, geography, government and culture.<br />
  65. 65. References con’t:<br />Knight, E., Skunberg, A., Langner, A., & Aberson, J. (2011). National curriculum. Power Point Presentation, slides 2, 4, 6, 7. Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from Google.com larrycuban.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/eder711pres.ppt<br />Literacy rate – How many are illiterate. (2008). Retrieved on August 21, 2008 from http:///www.caliteracy.org/rates<br />Literacy Statistics. Retrieved on August 21, 2011 from http:///www.begintoread.com/research/literacystatistics.html<br />Lynch, D. (2008). USA could learn from South Korean schools. USA Today Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from http:///www.usatoday.com/money/world/2008-11-18-korea-education-usa_N.htm<br />North America: United States: Economy. Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from http://www.nationmaster.com/country/us-united-states/eco-economy<br />
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