Chapter 10

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  • Most important aspects – density and refractive index
  • Chapter 10

    1. 1. Hard, amorphous solidUsually transparentPrimarily composed of silica, with various amounts of elemental oxidesBrittleExhibits conchoidal fracture
    2. 2. Soda-lime—used in plate and window glass, glass containers, and electric lightbulbsSoda-lead—fine tableware and art objectsBorosilicate—heat-resistant, like PyrexSilica—used in chemical wareTempered—used in side windows of carsLaminated—used in the windshield of most cars
    3. 3. • Natural – slight green• Adding Manganese – clears it• Iron & sulfur – brown bottles• Chromium – green bottles• Cobalt – blue bottles• Copper – red bottles• Silver – yellow bottles• Tin – white bottles
    4. 4. Density—mass divided by volumeRefractive index (RI)—the measure of light bending due to a change in velocity when traveling from one medium to anotherFracturesColorThicknessFluorescenceMarkings—striations, dimples, etc.
    5. 5. Immersion method—lower fragments into liquids whose refractive index is differentMatch point—when the refractive index of the glass is equal to that of the liquidBecke line—a halo-like glow that appears around an object immersed in a liquid. It disappears when the refractive index of the liquid matches the refractive index of the object (the match point)
    6. 6.  If Becke line is inside perimeter – the glass has a higher refractive index than the liquid If Becke line is outside perimeter – the glass has a lower refractive index than the liquid
    7. 7. Radial fracture radiate out from the origin of the impact begin on the opposite side of the forceRadial cracks form a right angle on the reverse side of the forceConcentric fracture circular lines around the point of impact begin on the same side as the force.
    8. 8. A high-velocity projectile always leaves a wider hole at the exit side of the glass.
    9. 9.  Cracks terminate atintersections with others.can be used to determinethe order of events
    10. 10. Individual characteristics: if the fragments can fit together like pieces of a puzzle, the source can be considered unique

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