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Presentation for the Stanford Engineering Venture Fund meeting 3-9-10

Presentation for the Stanford Engineering Venture Fund meeting 3-9-10

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  • Wide range of work backgrounds, but not formally randomized. The Tsinghua Alumni Association set up interviews, specifically asked to talk with some who were not successful. Probably weighted towards more successful entrepreneurs

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  • 1. 1
    Technology Entrepreneurship Research at Stanford
    Chuck Eesley
    Management Science & Engineering
    Stanford Technology Ventures Program
    March 9th, 2010
    cee@stanford.edu
  • 2. Chuck Eesley
    Lobby 10 Consulting
    Sun Dance Genetics
  • 3. Institutional Environments and Entrepreneurship
    Drivers of entrepreneurial entry and performance (different contexts)
    Developed economy
    Entrepreneurs from Technology-Based Universities - with David Hsu (Wharton), Ed Roberts (MIT)
    Bringing Entrepreneurial Ideas to Life
    Boom and Bust Founders
    Cutting Your Teeth - Prior entrepreneurial experience
    Developing economy
    The Right Stuff
    Role of institutional environment in selection of high human capital entrepreneurs
    Entrepreneurial Performance in a Developing Country: Evidence from China
    What Drives an Innovation Strategy?
    Role of Institutional Env./funding of S&T in search for ideas
    3
  • 4. Entrepreneurship Research
    B-schools, economics and sociology faculty have produced a large literature on industry dynamics, strategy and firm performance for large firms.
    Management of Innovation – largely shows difficulty large firms have with surviving waves of innovation (creative destruction)
    (Much less on how and when entrepreneurial firms take advantage of this)
    Studies of Tech. Entrepreneurship began in 1960s (Roberts, Cooper)
    Data, Quality Research scarce (self-employment) E-ship taught via war stories
    Systematic study of Tech. Commercialization and Entrepreneurship Lacking
    Almost nothing is known outside of the US and EU
    4
  • 5. Factors that Drive Founding Do Not Drive Performance
    5
  • 6. 6
    Data
    Unique data on firm origins, early composition and multiple stages of performance measures
    Alumni: 105,000 surveyed; 42,930 records in 2001
    Date of birth, country of citizenship, gender, major at MIT, highest attained degree
    7,798 indicated founding at least one company
    Survey of self-identified MIT alumni entrepreneurs in 2003
    2,067 respondents (r.r. 27%)
    Hsu, Roberts, Eesley 2007
    Alliances & Acq. - SDC Platinum
    Patents – USPTO
    VC - VentureXpert
  • 7. Table 1. Estimated Employment and Sales Data for All Active MIT Alumni Companies°
    °Underlying data from 2003 MIT survey of all living alumni, updated to 2006; ~25,800 active companies.
    ALL DATA FROM: Entrepreneurial Impact: The Role of MIT,
    Edward Roberts & Charles Eesley, MIT Sloan, February 2009
  • 8. Estimated Number of “First-Time” Firms Founded Each Decade By MIT Alumni
  • 9. More entrepreneurs emerge from each successive MIT class, and they start their companies sooner and at younger ages.
  • 10. Table 4. One-Time and Repeat MIT Founders by Decade of Graduation (percent)
    Over time, the number of multiple companies founded per MIT alumnus has been increasing, with dramatically increased economic impact per entrepreneur.
  • 11. The MIT “magnet”: <10% of MIT students grew up in Massachusetts; 31% of alumni firms are in Massachusetts
  • 12.
  • 13. 13
  • 14. MIT Entrepreneurial Ecosystem has grown in its components and impact over the yearsUnderlying culture, history, role models, and policiesAlumni initiatives: MIT Enterprise ForumRe-oriented Technology Licensing OfficeMIT Entrepreneurship Center: Classes: 1 to 30 in 15 years; 3 new ones in energy ventures in past 2 years Clubs, including MIT $100K Business Plan Competition Conferences, and many forms of internal and external networkingRecent MIT institutional broadening and growth Venture Mentoring Service MIT Deshpande Center Entrepreneurship & Innovation MBA Track
  • 15. Table 14. Entrepreneurship Center Factors Important to Venture Founding (from limited sample only)
    *Respondents could check all relevant categories.
  • 16. Table 8. Role of MIT’s Positive Feedback Loop in Venture Founding(from limited sample only)
  • 17. For more information, see complete report:Entrepreneurial Impact: The Role of MIThttp://entrepreneurship.mit.edu/Downloads/Entrepreneurial_Impact_The_Role_of_MIT.pdf
  • 18. Context
    Alumni survey Tsinghua University
    ~26,700 mailed (correct addresses)
    3,000 surveys
    11% r.r.
    Growing tradition: Stanford GSB, Chicago, HBS
    Disadvantages: Biased towards tech., other response bias?
    Advantages: Defined‘at risk’ set, first abroad, detailed work history and founding data, less biased by govt. concerns
    Other surveys: business owners, self-employed and entrepreneurs merged together – Treiman and Walder, “Life Histories and Social Change in Contemporary China”
    Self-employment (Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey, NBS HH Survey)
    18
  • 19. Merged MIT and Tsinghua Dataset
  • 20. 20
  • 21. Context - interviews
    79 pages of notes from interviews with 42 individuals
    26 Tsinghua alumni entrepreneurs
    2 Tsinghua staff (TLO, Science Park)
    5 Chinese venture capitalists (VCs)
    2 Government officials
    3 Other Chinese entrepreneurs (non-Tsinghua)
    2 MIT Alumni (non-entrepreneurs)
    2 Tsinghua alumni (non-entrepreneurs).
    • Interviews were in Beijing, Shanghai and Xi’an
    21
  • 22.
  • 23. Tsinghua Data
    19892004 China 29% growth vs. US 1% (State Statistics Bureau)
  • 24. Founding Rates
  • 25. Where did the primary idea for the start-up come from?
  • 26. Industry Breakdown
  • 27. MIT and Tsinghua alumni firms
    Purchasing Power Parity converted to constant 2005 U.S. dollars
  • 28. MIT Firms Significantly Larger (why?)
    28
    MIT firms significantly older; GDP/capita is 43x higher in U.S.
  • 29. Tsinghua firms profits
    29
  • 30. Proportion of Revenue Not from Founding State
    30
  • 31. Interview Quotes
    China is more state-led than a market economy still. The government controls many resources. For firms the quickest way to make a lot of money is through the government. The government has incentives for firms to put up good numbers (it’s good for the politicians’ careers).
    In the 1990s … government was giving them less support. Many universities created “university –run” enterprises and were basically selling off the periphery of campus. Even high schools had school—run enterprises that were considered acceptable. There is a Tsinghua name to many of them. - GC – 2nd generation investor
  • 32. Interviews
    Historically, investors in China see fewer experienced, serial entrepreneurs
    “Forced to rely more on work experience outside of an entrepreneurial context to judge the quality of entrepreneurs – GY – VC investor
    Tsinghua alumni, entrepreneurship among alumni has a meta-effect where some learn the process and mentor each other so in the future there will be more and more entrepreneurs from Tsinghua as has already happened with MIT alumni. – RC – Wave Communications (his 6th start-up firm)
    32
  • 33. 33
    Analysis:
     E[yi | x] = α + ρ’zi + ’xi + ’yi + ’pre xi + ’Xi + pre, mid, post + η + φ + i
     
    Dep. Variables: yi represents our measures of firm performance
    xi is government ties (father in government, privatized, coastal province)
    yi is government programs (specifically science parks)
    zi is separate measures for exposure to entrepreneurship, prior founding experience, or innovation
    Xi vector of control variables - Everjob_govt, Comm. Party, Govt. customer, Privatized, Entrep. parents, Entrep. index, rural, EECS, Overseas, SEZ, software, electronics, wealthy family, Master’s, PhD, number of cofounders
    η and φ represent year and industry sector dummies
    >0
  • 34. 34
    Results: firm performance
    N=230; (R2 0.627) ***, **, and * indicate statistical significance at the 1%, 5%, and 10% levels, respectively. Everjob_govt, Comm. Party, Govt. customer, Privatized, Entrep. parents, Entrep. index, rural, EECS, Overseas, SEZ, software, electronics, wealthy family, Master’s, PhD, number of cofounders, industry and year fixed effects were included as controls but coefficients are not shown to save space.
  • 35. Stanford Alumni Entrepreneurship Survey
    Endorsed by Pres. Hennessy
    Planned for this year
    Enable a comparison with MIT, Tsinghua
    Aggregate Economic Impact on Region and World
    New questions about entrepreneurial process, success factors, impact of university programs
    IIT India data
    More broadly always looking for help:
    Mentoring, guest teaching
    Access to Data (Portfolio companies)
    Funding
    Ideas / Advice
    35
  • 36. Thank you!
    Chuck Eesley
    Stanford University
    Management Science & Engineering (MS&E)
    cee@stanford.edu