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EESAP4 Lodder, Marleen

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  • 1. ERASMUS UNIVERSITY ROTTERDAM Rotterdam School of Management (RSM) & Dutch Research Institute for Transitions (DRIFT) Cradle to Cradle® in the Built Environment @ 4th European Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Architecture and Planning Academic Chair ‘Cradle to Cradle for Innovation and Quality’ Cradle to Cradle® and C2C® are registered trademarks held by McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry, LLC (MBDC).
  • 2. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ‘CRADLE TO CRADLE FOR INNOVATION AND QUALITY’ Department of Decision and Information Sciences Rotterdam School of Management (RSM) Katja Hansen Senior Researcher Diana den Held Senior Researcher Douglas Mulhall Senior Researcher prof.dr. Michael Braungart Marleen Lodder PhD Student 2
  • 3. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ‘CRADLE TO CRADLE FOR INNOVATION AND QUALITY’ 1. Erasmus University Rotterdam “Cradle to Cradle for Innovation and Quality” Rotterdam School of Management 2. University Twente “Cradle to Cradle in Industrial Design Engineering” 3. Technical University Delft Visiting professorship Building Design Technology Faculty of Architecture - C2C lab • Technische Universität München Cradle to Cradle Followship Fakultät für Bauingenieur- und Vermessungswesen Fakultät für Architektur 3
  • 4. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 MARLEEN LODDER – PhD-candidate Erasmus University Rotterdam • Rotterdam School of Management (RSM) • Dutch Research Institute for Transitions (DRIFT) – The Transition towards Beneficial Area (Re)Development • Ecological-, Economical and Societal Added Value • Healthy Area’s in itself and for their surroundings • Variable Scales according to context and continuous cycles • Process that involves public-, private-, civil society- & ecological “stakeholders” – Background • Master Architectural Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology • Bachelor Built Environment, Avans University of Applied Sciences ‘s- Hertogenbosch 4
  • 5. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: EPEA 5 BEECH TREE
  • 6. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CRADLE TO CARDLE® IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Michael Braungart & William McDonough "We do not want sustainability, because that is not enough. We want real quality.“ (Braungart) “A delightfully diverse, safe, healthy and just world - with clean air, soil, water and power - economically, equitably, ecologically, and elegantly enjoyed.” (McDonough) Source: http://www.amazon.com Source: http://www.mcdonough.com Source: http://greenatwork.com 6
  • 7. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CRADLE TO CARDLE® IN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT 7 Up
  • 8. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: EPEA 8 TAKE – MAKE – WASTE
  • 9. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 FRACTAL TRIANGLE (McDonough W. & Braungart M., 2002) McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Design for the triple top line: New tools for sustainable commerce. Corporate Environmental Strategy, 9(3), 251-258. 9
  • 10. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 TRIPLE TOP LINE (McDonough W. & Braungart M., 2002) “triple top line growth: products that enhance the well-being of nature and culture while generating economic value” (pp252) McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Design for the triple top line: New tools for sustainable commerce. Corporate Environmental Strategy, 9(3), 251-258. Source: Diana den Held 10
  • 11. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 BUILDINGS LIKE TREES ECO EFFICIENCY– ECO-EFFECTIVENESS Source: EPEA 11 Doing things right Doing the right things!
  • 12. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 201312 HOW CAN ONE BECOME CLIMATE NEUTRAL? Source: UNEP
  • 13. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 201313 HOW CAN A CITY BECOME CARBON NEUTRAL? Source: Copenhagen climate plan
  • 14. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ? THE GREENEST HOUSE IS THAT, THAT IS NEVER BUILT? 14
  • 15. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: Toyota 15 TREES WITH ZERO EMISSIONS?
  • 16. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ? TREES HAVE BENEFICIAL EMISSIONS Source: EPEA 16  Absorbs CO2  Produces Oxygen  Produces biomass  Supports biodiversity  Provides habitat to many species  Filters the air  Makes soil ………. etc.
  • 17. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: http://atsukojoe.wordpress.com 17 HOW HUMANS COULD HAVE A………………… …………………BIG BENEFICIAL FOOTPRINT
  • 18. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ? AND HOW BUILDINGS COULD HAVE A………………… …………………BIG FOOTPRINT! Source: Unknown 18
  • 19. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: http://www.stefanoboeriarchitetti.net/ 19 BUILDINGS LIKE TREES – CITIES LIKE FORESTS
  • 20. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 QUALITY INGREDIENTS + QUALITY DESIGN = QUALITY PRODUCTS = 20 Source: EPEA
  • 21. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 UNKNOWN INGREDIENTS & UGLY DESIGN = LOW QUALITY PRODUCTS = ? 21 Source: EPEA
  • 22. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: http://www.businessweek.com Source: http://home.howstuffworks.com 22 INDOOR AIR QUALITY
  • 23. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 HAITI & TURKEY. BAD DESIGN & UNKNOWN INGREDIENTS = CATASTROPHE Source: EPEA 23
  • 24. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 OFF-GASSING OF CHILDREN'S TOYS QUALITY QUESTION Source: HUI 24
  • 25. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 OFF-GASSING OF “NATURAL” CARPET QUALITY QUESTION Source: HUI 25
  • 26. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 ? - Based on Stewart Brand, How Buildings Learn, 1994 26
  • 27. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 BIOLOGICAL & TECHNICAL METHOBOLISMS Source: EPEA 27 Up
  • 28. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 SERVICE PRODUCTS - Upcycled of re-used at the same or a higher quality in a technical environment Source: EPEA 28 Up
  • 29. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CONSUMPTION PRODUCTS - Cascade models for creating added value for the natural environment as “food” 29 Source: EPEA Source: http://methodhome.com/ocean-plastic/ Up
  • 30. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: EPEA Source: http://methodhome.com/ocean-plastic/ CONSUMPTION PRODUCTS - Cascade models for creating added value for the natural environment as “food” Source: Bor, A., Hansen, K., Goedkoop, M., Rivière, A., Alvarado, C., & van den Wittenboer, W. (2011). Usability of life cycle assessment for cradle to cradle purposes. Utrecht: NL Agency. 30 Up
  • 31. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 MINIMIZE THE NEGATIVE FOOTPRINT…. …. WHILE OPTIMIZING THE POSITIVE 31 Source: Based on image by Royal Haskoning
  • 32. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 201332
  • 33. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CONTEXT SPECIFIC PRINCIPLES - Hannover Principles - Almere Principles - Venlo Principles - Limburg Principles - Marina Principles - C2C Architects Manifesto - C2C Architecture Charter 33
  • 34. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 There is not yet a 100% C2C building, highway or airport New approaches are required to get there. Focus on Innovation instead of Certification 34
  • 35. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 FRAMEWORK: CRADLE TO CRADLE CRITERIA FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT PLANNING GUIDE How To Plan A Big Beneficial Footprint; Guide To Innovation Tools For Cradle To Cradle-Inspired Value In Building Developments. REGISTRY http://www.rsm.nl/research/decision-information-sciences/research/cradle-to-cradle-for-innovation-and-quality/registry/ 35
  • 36. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 C2C® CRITERIA FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT For more information see: http://www.duurzaamgebouwd.nl/bookstore 36
  • 37. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 - Definition of a C2C building - Criteria based on C2C principles - Implementation criteria - Measuring intentions, milestones & roadmaps - Defining C2C energy C2C® CRITERIA FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT 37
  • 38. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 DEFINITION OF A CRADLE TO CRADLE® BUILDING “Cradle to Cradle building contains defined elements that add value and celebrate innovation and enjoyment by measurably enhancing the quality of - materials, - biodiversity, - air, - and water, - using current solar income, - being deconstructable - and recyclable, - and performing diverse practical and life-enhancing functions for its stakeholders to holistically improve the economy, ecology and social equity.” 38
  • 39. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 C2C® CRITERIA FOR THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT 1. State your intentions EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 2. Quality of materials – Defined pathways – Defined use periods – Design for disassembly 3. Soil production, Bio-nutrients 4. Climate, Air and Sound quality 5. Water quality USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME 6. Produce more energy then one needs by using current solar income CELEBRATE DIVERSITY 7. Bio-diversity, Conceptual-diversity, Social-diversity, Cultural- diversity 39
  • 40. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 THE PRINCIPLE CRITERIA 1. STATE YOUR INTENTIONS. Which C2C principles do you plan to implement by when? Which Goals do you plan to declare? 40
  • 41. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: C2C ROADMAP, measurable goals and milestones in a defined period - Desso Source: www.desso.com 41
  • 42. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 THE PRINCIPLE CRITERIA Example of Goals for the sites: “In Ten Years Our Site is Profitably Energy- Positive” - Keep Investment at Home - Generate, Sell, and Buy Power - Install & Maintain the Systems 42
  • 43. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 THE PRINCIPLE CRITERIA Example of Goals for Materials: “In ten years 90 percent of the materials used in our building will have C2C materials passports” 43
  • 44. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 2. DEFINE MATERIALS AND THEIR INTENDED USE PATHWAYS (a) whose contents are measurably defined in technical or biological pathways from manufacturing through use and recovery and (b) whose impacts are measurably beneficial for human health and the environment. 44
  • 45. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - DESSO AirMaster® A carpet which ensures cleaner air in your home or office Source: DESSO 45
  • 46. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - DESSO AirMaster® A carpet which ensures cleaner air in your home or office Source: DESSO 46
  • 47. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 C2C MATERIAL PASSPORTS & MATERIAL BANKING - combined with Building Information Models (BIM) Source: Based on multiple sources Source: www.ibom.biz 47
  • 48. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Definition Materials Passport: Set of data describing defined characteristics of materials in products that give them value for recovery and reuse. Passports are a marketplace mechanism to encourage product designs, material recovery systems, and chain of possession partnerships that improve the quality, value, and security of supply for materials so they can be reused in continuous loops or closed loops or beneficially returned to biological systems. For other definitions please refer to Resource Repletion, Role of Buildings, Katja Hansen, Michael Braungart, Douglas Mulhall, The Springer Encyclopaedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, 2012, pp. 9096-9117 ISBN 978-0-387- 89469-0 MATERIAL PASSPORTS 48
  • 49. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: www.youtube.com EXAMPLE: Maersk 49
  • 50. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Source: www.youtube.com EXAMPLE: Maersk 50
  • 51. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 3. INTEGRATE BIOLOGICAL NUTRIENTS. Recycle biological nutrients and water by integrating topsoil and biomass production into buildings, landscaping, and spatial plans to generate more biomass and clean water than before development of the site. 51
  • 52. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - QUANTIFYING NUTRIENT RECYCLING - BASIS FOR C2C Water environment & technology 1997 Source: HUI 52
  • 53. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013
  • 54. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 4. ENHANCE CLIMATE, AIR AND SOUND QUALITY. Actively contribute to measurably improving air quality so the indoor air is healthier for occupants than before it entered the building and provides a comfortable climate for occupants. 54
  • 55. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Mosses for uptake and conversion of fine particulates EXAMPLE: Source: Prof. Frahm – Uni Bonn 55
  • 56. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Happy Healthy School EXAMPLE: Source: http://www.happyhealthyschool.com/ 56
  • 57. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Green walls in office spaces EXAMPLE: Source: http://www.truestars.nl/Page/299875_groene-wanden-mos-panelen.aspx 57
  • 58. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EVERYTHING IS A NUTRIENT FOR SOMETHING ELSE 5. ENHANCE WATER QUALITY. Measurably improve water quality so the water is healthier for biological metabolisms than before it entered the building. 58
  • 59. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - COVENT GARDEN: Urban applications of bionutrient recycling in temperate climates Source: Steven Beckers 59
  • 60. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 USE CURRENT SOLAR INCOME 6. INTEGRATE RENEWABLE ENERGY. Integrate renewable energy (current solar and gravitational income) into buildings and area plans so the building and site generate more energy than they use. 60
  • 61. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Building integrated PV in BSH building Park 20|20 (William McDonough + Partner) Source: http://daylightaward.nl 61
  • 62. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CELEBRATE DIVERSITY 7. ACTIVELY SUPPORT BIODIVERSITY. Integrate measurable species diversity so the area supports more diversity than before development. 62
  • 63. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Ferrer Research & Development Center: Releasing endangered butterfly species every week (William McDonough + Partner) EXAMPLE: Source:http://www.mcdonoughpartners.com 63
  • 64. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 CELEBRATE DIVERSITY 8. CELEBRATE CONCEPTUAL DIVERSITY WITH INNOVATION. Focus on special beneficial features of a building and integrating innovative components that are beneficial for the well-being of occupants and the environment. 64
  • 65. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - Park20|20 (William McDonough + Partner) EXAMPLE: Source: www.bouwwereld.nl 65
  • 66. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE: - NIOO BUILDING (Claus and Kaan Architects) Source: http://www.nioo.knaw.nl 66
  • 67. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 THE REGISTRY For more information see: http://www.rsm.nl/research/decision- information-sciences/research/cradle-to- cradle-for-innovation-and-quality/registry/ 67
  • 68. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 “Cradle to Cradle-Inspired Element support the C2C principles, intentions and goals of stakeholders by integrating diverse value- added functions. The integration of quality, added value, and beneficial impacts.” C2C-INSPIRED ELEMENTS Source: Building Registry 68
  • 69. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE OF A C2C-INSPIERED ELEMENT: - Active Green Facade (kraaijvanger • Architects) Source: www.youtube.com 69
  • 70. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 EXAMPLE OF A C2C-INSPIRED ELEMENT: - Atrium (Steven Beckers) Source: Steven Beckers 70
  • 71. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 Marleen Lodder PhD candidate | Erasmus University Rotterdam | www.marleenlodder.nl | @LMLodder @ Dutch Research Institute For Transitions (DRIFT) Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 | M5-37 | 3062 PA Rotterdam | The Netherlands | +31 10 4089775 | lodder@drift.eur.nl | www.drift.eur.nl @ ROTTERDAM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT Academic Chair ‘Cradle to Cradle for Innovation and Quality’ Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 | T9-18 | 3062 PA Rotterdam | The Netherlands | +31 10 4082022 | mlodder@rsm.nl | www.rsm.nl Follow me on: Thanks for your attention! 71
  • 72. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 THE CIRCULAR ECONOMY: C2C THE BASIS - The Ellen MacArthur Foundation Source: www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org “The circular economy requires careful management of material flows, which are of two types. These are characterised by McDonough and Braungart in Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things as biological nutrients—materials designed to re-enter the biosphere safely and rebuild natural capital, and technical nutrients, designed to circulate at high quality without entering the biosphere.” (Towards the circular economy 2, pp 26) 72
  • 73. Cradle to Cradle in the Built Environment - July 1st 2013 FRACTAL TRIANGLE (McDonough W. & Braungart M., 2002) McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Design for the triple top line: New tools for sustainable commerce. Corporate Environmental Strategy, 9(3), 251-258. 73