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EESAP4 Bontemps, Stephanie

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  • 1. 4th European Conference on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Architecture and Planning University of the Basque Country Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain 1-3 July 2013 Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district (France) Diagnostico energético y evaluación de soluciones para la renovación del barrio Malartic (Francia) Stéphanie Bontemps Aurélien Henon, Laurent Mora, Jérôme Lopez
  • 2. Introduction Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 2 Building in France :  44% of the total final energy consumption  25% of the total national CO2 emissions French government launched:  A huge program of construction of low, passive and positive energy buildings  An extensive renovation program The Malartic district : Innovative technical, organizational and financial project for a global energy renovation of several houses
  • 3. Introduction Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 3  The « DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR » Association  The « FOURMINERGIE » Project  The Malartic district  Selection of a sample to be used as experimentation  Simulation of the current houses energy performance  Selection of technical solutions to improve the energy performance  Conclusion
  • 4. DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 4 2005: 2 presentations organized by a district association on the theme of energy savings 2006: Creation of the DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR association by 40 homeowners families Association goals:  Promote sustainable technologies for people and the environment  Inform and engage works on flows control (energy, water, waste…) in the field of housing and living conditions  Promote and develop collective initiatives, especially through energy audits and energy saving certificates
  • 5. DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 5 Actions carried out since its creation:  Thematic groups working on information and reflection on energy savings  Individual and collective operations implemented (grouped purchasing organization for boilers and pressure reducers)  2007: 39 energy audits performed supported by ADEME and Aquitaine Regional Council  2008: 2 years partnership agreement with Gaz de Bordeaux to carry out research on insulation solutions which implied works on 2 houses between 2010 and 2011  2010: 10-day Workshop with Maison de l’Architecture d’Aquitaine and ENSABx with technical and architectural discussions on works to engage and to make students think about environmental issues raised by the association (energy, water and materials used management) Association members have been highly educated on the subject of global energy renovation for many years
  • 6. FOURMINERGIE Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 6 Project launched in 2012 in the Malartic district Steps:  Analysis of the current energy performance of the different types of houses in the district  Definition of a methodology to improve the performance using significant energy renovation and construction of a decision-making tool  Financial and legal set-up  Renovation operations achievements on the experimental houses  Monitoring and feedback  Communication/Training/Duplication
  • 7. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 7  716 houses  100 hectares  Construction in the 1970s (before the first thermal regulation in France)  3 types of houses : Alicante (similar to Baléares and Bermudes), Castille, Cérac Malartic District Type and version of houses Number in the Malartic district Alicante (5 and 6 rooms), Bermudes (5 rooms), Baléares (5 rooms) 335 Castille (4, 5 and 6 rooms) 254 Cérac (4, 5 and 6 rooms) 127
  • 8. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 8 Malartic District  Alicante
  • 9. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 9 Malartic District  Castille
  • 10. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 10 Malartic District  Cérac
  • 11. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 11 Elements of construction:  Single glazing with wood frame  Many thermal bridges  Infiltration rate of around n50 = 8 vol/h  Natural ventilation with two inlet air vents  Heating system : gas central heating and wood stove for some houses Malartic District Type of walls (Alicante – 6 rooms) Materials Thickness (m) Conductivity (W/m.K) Density (kg/m²) Vertical walls Coating 0.01 1.150 17 Brick 0.14 0.500 97 Air gap 0.04 0.250 0 Brick 0.04 0.500 28 Coating 0.01 0.800 16 Floor Reinforced concrete slab 0.10 2.300 235 Mortar 0.03 1.150 60 Tiled floor 0.02 1.700 46 Intermediate floor Wood fiber 0.05 0.150 40 Roof Shingle 0.01 0.500 17 Wood particle board 0.025 0.150 20 Polyurethane foam 0.07 0.050 5 Linex 0.044 0.063 13
  • 12. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 12 Goal: Selection of a reduced number of houses among 16 cooperating houses, which represents at best the cooperating houses, and at a large scale the entire district, to be studied at a more detailed level Parameters considered to classify the houses:  The compactness of the building (2 levels)  The rate of common walls (2 levels)  The orientation of the house (2 levels)  The performance of the envelope (3 levels) Parameters with an influence on the comfort and the energy performance  5 houses selected as priorities for the following steps of the study  2 more houses considered as relevant to broaden the technical database for the energy performance analysis of the district Selection of a sample to be used as experimentation
  • 13. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 13 Studied case: Alicante house (6 rooms) Available data:  Interviews with homeowners in 2012  Infrared thermography surveys in 2012 and 2013  Study of an architectural firm involved in the project  Energy audits of 2007 and 2013 with temperature measurements Simulation of the current houses energy performance
  • 14. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 14 From these data we deduced:  Walls composition  Works done since the construction  Infiltration rate  Location of thermal bridges  Heating, lighting and household appliances power  Building functioning (stove use, temperature instructions, house occupancy between 2006 and 2011) Simulation of the current houses energy performance
  • 15. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 15  Several thermal zones  Radiative and convective heat transfers taken into account in a global constant coefficient depending on the angle and optical properties of the walls, in addition to wind exposure outside  Thermal bridges values chosen according to the thermal regulation values ​​included in the software  Assumption on some walls and windows thermal conductivities  Time step of 1 hour  Loose power calculated with electricity bill Simulation of the current houses energy performance Assumptions made on Pléiades+Comfie to model the house:
  • 16. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 16 Calculation of the actual heating energy requirements from the gas and wood consumption between 2006 and 2011:  Boiler energy efficiency: 80%  Stove energy efficiency: 60%  Distribution losses are neglected  Gas consumption for hot water: 30% of the total consumption of water is hot water consumption and water is boiled at 55°C Results on heating energy requirements: Pléiades+Comfie: 13 223 kWh/year From energy bills: 13 170 kWh/year Simulation of the current houses energy performance
  • 17. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 17 Methodology to elaborate a scenario as part of a global renovation:  Selection of possible solutions taking account of the specific constraints of the Malartic district houses  Evaluation of single solutions concerning insulation (walls, roofs, floors) and windows with the integration of a single flow ventilation. Each item can be refurbished with two or three different variations. Solutions are ranked with energy, environmental, economic and comfort assessments  Combinations of single technical solutions taking care that the combinations of each best single solution do not lead to incoherent combinations. The proposed scenarios are the combination, globally one solved per exterior the other per interior, of two or three solutions concerning the insulation  Dual flow ventilation with heat recovery included when the entire envelope is renovated  The old gas boiler and all the supply system are replaced when the heat demand is significantly reduced, otherwise, the present solution is maintained, but including supply system balancing and thermostatic valves addition Selection of technical solutions to improve the energy performance
  • 18. Conclusion Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 18 First stages of the « FOURMINERGIE » project presented:  Selection of experimental houses  Current house energy performance estimated using a dynamic thermal simulation tool and compared to the real energy performance  Methodology developed to determine the renovation scenarios In prospect:  Improve the house model on Pléiades+Comfie using hourly measurements of Mérignac meteorological station (2003-2012), ageing of materials and with a more accurate air change rate  Simulate the renovation scenarios to choose the innovative technical solutions to implement on the experimental houses  Evaluate selected solutions on experimental houses using consumption monitoring  Replicate and/or fixe the retained solutions to the whole Malartic district, to districts with similar typology and insert them to the decision-making tool
  • 19. Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 19 Thank you for your attention Any questions stephanie.bontemps@u-bordeaux1.fr
  • 20. References Energy diagnosis and solutions evaluation for the renovation of the Malartic district – Stéphanie Bontemps – EESAP4 – 1-3 July 2013 20  ADEME, Chiffres clés bâtiment 2011, (2012)  Les objectifs du Plan Bâtiment Grenelle - Le Grenelle Environnement, http://www.legrenelle-environnement.fr/Les-objectifs-du-Plan-Batiment,974.html  DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR, Fourmilien Cahier 0 Démarche de l’association mode d’emploi, (2008)  Des fourmis dans le compteur - Accueil, http://www.fourminergie.fr/  DES FOURMIS DANS LE COMPTEUR, Fourmilien Cahier 2 Bilan énergétique des maisons du quartier de Malartic à Gradignan, (2008)  Pleiades+COMFIE, http://www.izuba.fr/logiciel/pleiadescomfie  Barmaud, G., Optimisation de l’implantation d’une double cellule expérimentale dans le site EDF des Renardières, (1987)  La consommation d’eau chaude sanitaire, http://www.energieplus- lesite.be/index.php?id=11314