British and American English
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British and American English

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This is the powerpoint used to teach British and

This is the powerpoint used to teach British and

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British and American English British and American English Presentation Transcript

  • K. Kaviarasu, M.A., M.Phil., Assistant Professor of English,Bishop Heber College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli – 620 017. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com
  • Bringing English to America. Early 1600‟s:  The first wave of English-speaking settlers arrive in North America as part of the British colonization movement. They bring English, now an “emigrant language,” to native North Americans; in addition, the settlers and their families continue to speak their own native tongue. The process of an emigrant language‟s evolution: 1) The language evolves from a specific homeland language. 2) The emigrant language begins to change course because of lack of direct contact with the homeland. 3) The emigrant language continues to evolve away from the homeland, gradually creating a new dialect. 4) The homeland dialect continues to evolve as well, diverging further away from the emigrant dialect of the language. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 2
  • over the next 400 years…  Between the end of the 17th century and the 21st century, many gradual changes to the form of the English language have taken place under this process. The process caused the Americans and the British to diverge so drastically in terms of the forms of their languages that they are now considered two separate English language dialects. 1806 – Noah Webster publishes his first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language. Up until this time, English dictionaries included strictly British vocabulary, spellings, and pronunciations. Webster was convinced that an outline of a common, American, national language would unify his country. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 3
  • Webster‟s Dictionaries.  1828 –publishes American Dictionary of the English Language 1890 – Merriam brothers {who received the rights to Webster‟s dictionaries after his death} publish Webster’s First International Dictionary, an all-encompassing look at the English language Noah Webster‟s intentions? To prove that Americans spoke a different dialect than the British {but a dialect that was in no way inferior – he believed it deserved a unique documentation of its own trends} Merriam‟s intentions? "The purpose of the dictionary is to provide a record of the language as it is used by educated people have been speaking and writing it all their lives.“ -- H. Bosley Woolf {Merriams editorial director} kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 4
  • British English: history.  West-Germanic A “borrowing language” – enriched by Anglo-Saxon, Scandinavian, and Norman influences Evolved over many centuries; experienced many shifts/changes Spread of British English is attributed to trade and commerce throughout the established British Empire kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 5
  • Which is correct?  American and British English are taught in English as a foreign language programs No one version is "correct" RULE: be consistent in your usage The largest difference is probably in the choice of vocabulary and pronunciation kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 6
  • British v American English American English  British English (BrE) is  (AmE) is the form of the form of English used English used in the in the United Kingdom. United States. It It includes all English dialects used within the includes all English United Kingdom. dialects used within the  In the United Kingdom, United States of Received Pronunciation America. (RP) is considered General American "standard“ (GA) is considered to be  also called the Queens "standard" or English and BBC "accentless" English kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 7
  • Visible Changes?  There are quite a few noticeable differences between the British English dialect and the evolved dialect of American English. These are the ones we will cover: Spelling Pronunciation {accent} Pronunciation {affixes} Pronunciation {stress} Grammar Vocabulary kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 8
  • kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 9
  •  English spelling was standardized after the publishing of influential dictionaries British-Samuel Johnson‟s A Dictionary of the English Language (1755) American- Noah Webster’s American Dictionary of the English Language (1828) kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 10
  •  A Dictionary of the English Languageaks. Johnsons Dictionary (1755)  The pre-eminent English dictionary before the OED  “one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship”  Deduce to the origin  Illustrate with literary quotations  Provide Multiple definitions  With illustrations kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 11
  • A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (1806)  Introducing American spelling and words American Dictionary of the English Language (1828)  Expanding to 70,000 entries Spelling reform kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 12
  •  Greek Spelling: -our/-or; -se/-ce; -re/-er Latin-derived Spelling: -ise/-ize; -yse/-yze; - ogue/-og Doubled Consonants: -ll Dropped “e” kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 13
  • Spelling British English   American English Centre  Center Theatre  Theater Realise  Realize Catalogue  Catalog Programme  Program Travelled  Traveled Neighbour  Neighbor Grey  Gray Plough  Plow To practise  To practice Practise  Practice cheque  Check kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 14
  • Spelling.AMERICAN – “-or”Color  BRITISH – “-our” ColourHonor HonourFavorite favourite AMERICAN – “-ze” BRITISH – “-se” Analyze Analyse Criticize Criticise Memorize MemoriseAMERICAN – “-ll” BRITISH – “-l”Enrollment EnrolmentFulfill FulfilSkillful skilful kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 15
  • Spelling, continued.  AMERICAN – “-er” BRITISH – “-re” Center Centre Meter Metre Theater theatreAMERICAN – “-og” BRITISH – “-ogue”Analog AnalogueCatalog CatalogueDialog Dialogue AMERICAN – “-ck” or “-k” BRITISH – “-que” Bank Banque Check Cheque kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 16
  • Spelling, continued. AMERICAN – “-e” Encyclopedia  BRITISH – “-ae” or “-oe” Encyclopaedia Maneuver Manoeuvre Medieval MediaevalAMERICAN – “-dg” “-g” “-gu” BRITISH – “-dge” “-ge” “-gue”Aging AgeingArgument ArguementJudgment Judgement AMERICAN – “-ense” BRITISH – “-ence” License Licence Defense Defence kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 17
  • Spelling, continued.  Other word-specific differences --AMERICAN BRITISHJewelry JewellryDraft DraughtPajamas PyjamasPlow PloughProgram ProgrammeTire Tyre kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 18
  • Spelling {last one!}. Base words that end in L normally double the L inBritish English when a suffix is added.BASE WORD AMERICAN BRITISHCounsel Counseling CounsellingEqual Equaled Equalled The letter canModel Modeling Modelling double in AmericanQuarrel Quarreling Quarrelling as well – but ONLY IFSignal Signaled Signalled the stress is on the second syllableTravel Traveling Travelling of the base word. BASE AMERICA BRITISH WORD N Excel Excelling Excelling kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 19 Propel Propelling Propelling
  • PRONUNCIATION kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 20
  • Pronunciation {accent}  The British accent was created by a mixture of the Midland and Southern dialects of the Middle Ages. There are many sub-dialects and varying accents under British English. American English was not so strongly influenced by the accent as Australia or New Zealand, for example – the Americas broke away from British control much earlier and were distanced from direct speakers of the language as a result. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 21
  • Pronunciation {accent}  British English = non-rhotic; American English = rhotic This means that “R” is only pronounced in British English when it is immediately followed by a vowel sound. “R” in British English is either not pronounced or replaced with a schwa kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 22
  • Pronunciation {affixes}  -ary, -ery, -ory, -bury, -berry, -mony When the syllable before these affixes is stressed, American and British English pronounce these endings in a similar way: /əri(ː)/ When it is unstressed, American English uses a full vowel rather than a schwa while British English retains the reduced vowel or elides it completely. {i.e. “military” – American: /mɪlɪtɛriː/ and British: / ɪlɪtəriː/ m or /mɪlɪtriː/}Exceptions, in which the full vowel is used in American English even though the preceding syllable is stressed: library, primary, rosemary kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 23
  • Pronunciation {affixes}  Adverbs: -arily, -erily or -orily British English speakers follow the American practice of shifting the stress to the antepenultimate syllable {i.e. militarily is /ːm ɪlɪtɛrɪliː/ not /mɪlɪtrɪliː/} -ile When words end in an unstressed “-ile,” British English speakers pronounce them with a full vowel: /aɪl/ while American speakers pronounce them with either a reduced vowel /ɪl/ or a syllabic /l/ {i.e. in British English, “fertile” rhymes with “fur tile” – in American English, it would rhyme with “turtle”} examples of words this applies to: mobile, fragile, sterile, missile, versatile, etc. examples of exceptions to this difference: reptile, exile, turnstile, senile, etc. -ine When unstressed, this affix can be pronounced as /aɪn/ (like feline), /i(ː)n/ (like morphine), or /ɪn/ (like medicine). Generally speaking, British English uses /aɪn/ most often while American English favors /in/ or /ɪn/ {i.e. crystalline} kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 24
  • Pronunciation {stress} There are words borrowed from French that feature stress differences.American first-syllable; British last-syllable: address, mustache, cigarette, magazineAmerican 1st-syllable; British 2nd-syllable: liaison, RenaissanceAmerican 2nd-syllable; British last-syllable: New Orleans kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 25
  • Pronunciation {stress}  Most two syllable verbs that end in –ate have first syllable stress in American English and second-syllable stress in British English (i.e. castrate, locate) Derived adjectives with the ending -atory differ in both dialects; for British English, the stress shifts to –at whereas American English will stress the same syllable as the corresponding –ate verb (i.e. regulatory, celebratory, laboratory) kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 26
  • Pronunciation Differences British English American English [o] in spot  [a:] in spot [a:] in fast  [ae] in fast [t‟] in better  [d] in better [r] – sometimes silent  [r] pronounced everywhere [ɪ] in privacy  [aɪ] in privacy kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 27
  • American English BATH  bath=trap in GenAm bath=palm=start in RP kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 28
  • Differences in spoken English AE BE dance [dæns] [da:ns] not [nat] [not] fast [fæst] [fa:st] clerk [klэ:k] [kla:k] class [klæs] [kla:s] kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 29
  • Grammar The differences in American and British grammar are as small and few as holds true for both versions of their lexicon. Still, here are some of them: kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 30
  • Grammar.  VERBSNOUNS morphologyIn British English, collective  American -- "-ed" nouns can take either British -- "-t" singular or plural verb i.e. learned/learnt, dreamed/dreamt forms, depending on  British English rarely use “gotten;” instead, “got” whether the emphasis is on is much more common. the body or the members  Past participles often vary: within it. i.e. saw – American: sawed; British: sawn i.e.“A committee was tenses appointed.”  British English employs the present perfect to talk “ The committee were about a recent event {i.e. “I’ve already eaten,” “I’ve unable to agree.” just arrived home.”} auxiliaries  British English often uses “shall” and “shan’t” American English kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com uses “will” and “won’t” 31
  • Grammar.Possession  There are two forms to express possession in English. -- "have" or "have got“ “Do you have a computer?" "Have you got a computer?" "She hasn‟t got any hobbies." "She doesn‟t have any hobbies." "She has an interesting new book." "She‟s got an interesting new book.“ While both forms are correct (and accepted in both British and American English), "have got" ("have you got", "he hasn‟t got", etc.) is generally the preferred form in British English while most speakers of American English use the "have" ("do you have", "he doesn‟t have" etc.) kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 32
  • Present Progressive (also known as Present Continuous)  There are some verbs in British English that cannot be used in the Present Progressive while in American English they can. Here are two examples:  American English British English  "I‟m liking this conversation more and "I like this conversation more and more.“ more.”  "I‟m remembering this quite clearly." "I remember this quite clearly." kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 33
  • Adverbs  instead of adverbs. Instead of Americans tend to use adjectives"That‟s really good" you might hear them say "That‟s real good" orinstead of "I‟m doing very well" they say "I‟m doing pretty good". British English  American English He did that really quickly.  He did that real quick. Let’s take things slowly.  Let’s take things slow. Her car drives more  Her car drives quicker. quickly. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 34
  • Plurals  British English  American English types of accommodation  Accommodation types of food  Foods a lot of fruit  many fruits  hairs strands of hair kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 35
  • GrammaticalDifferences  kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 36
  •  The past participle of the  is gotten verb get is got Hes gotten much better at playing tennis. differences in preposition use:  at the weekend  on the weekend Different from  Different than from 5 to 6  from 5 through 6 Past Simple/Past ParticiplesBurnt OR burned dreamt OR dreamed irregular form is more regular form is more common in Br. E. common to American English. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 37
  • Creation of American Lexicon. From the beginning, Americans borrowed words from Native American languages for unfamiliar objects {i.e. opossum, squash, moccasin}They took many “loanwords” from other colonizing nations {i.e. cookie, kill, and stoop from Dutch; levee , prairie, and gopher from French; barbecue, canyon, and rodeo from Spanish}British words were obviously borrowed, but often evolved to mean new things in an American landscape {i.e. creek, barrens, trail, bluff, etc.}With the development of the new continent, new words were necessarily brought in to describe new things: split-level {in real estate}, carpetbagger {in politics}, commuter {in transportation}, and a variety of vocabulary to distinguish among professions.Many words originated as American slang: hijacking, boost, jazz, etc. kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 38
  • Vocabulary. AMERICAN BRITISHAmerican& British  Apartment Argument Flat RowEnglish Carriage/coach Pramsometimes Bathroom Loohave Can Tin Cookie Biscuitdifferent Diaper Nappywords for Elevator Liftthe same Eraser Rubberthings -- Flashlight Torch Fries Chips Gas Petrol Guy kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com Bloke/chap 39
  • More Vocabulary.AMERICAN  BRITISH AMERICAN BRITISHHighway Motorway Truck LorryHood {of a car} Bonnet Trunk BootJelly Jam Vacation HolidayKerosene Paraffin Windshield WindscreenLawyer Solicitor License Plate Number PlateLine Queue Pacifier DummyMail Post Parking lot Car parkNapkin Serviette Pharmacist ChemistNothing Nought Sidewalk PavementPeriod Full stop Soccer FootballPotato chips crisps Trash can Bin kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 40
  • More Vocabulary.  speakers often use the American and British English same words but intend very different meaning with them: WORD AMERICAN BRITISH Biscuit Dinner roll Cookie Brew Beer Tea Bureau Chest of drawers Writing table/desk Casket Coffin Jewelry Box First Floor Ground Floor “Second” Floor To hire To employ To rent kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 41
  • Lexical Differences British English American English Pardon?  Excuse me? Autumn  Fall Film  Movie Trousers  Pants Flat  Apartment Tin  Can Mobile phone  Cell phone Biscuit  Cookie lorry  truck kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 42
  • Quiz: What are the British equivalents? 1. Q: Vocabulary „round trip - I booked a round trip. Return ticket2. Q: Spelling check - I wrote a check for the full amount. cheque3. Q: Spelling tire - Do you know how to change a tire? tyre4. Q: Vocabulary subway - I took the subway to work. underground5. Q: Spelling color - Do you have this shirt in a different color? colour kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 43
  • 6. Q:Vocabulary trunk - Put your luggage in the trunk. Lorry 8. Q: Vocabulary flashlight - The lights have gone out. Where is the flashlight? torch9. Q: Expression with preposition Monday through Friday - He works Monday through Friday to.10. Q: Grammar seven hundred thirty - eight thousand seven hundred thirty And thirty12. Q: Vocabulary „gas - I think we need some gas. petrol kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 44
  • 13. Vocabulary call collect - (on the telephone) Id like to call collect reverse the charges14. Grammar this - (on the telephone) Hello, is this Peter? that 15. Past participle form - Hes gotten more difficult. got17. Q: Vocabulary diaper - Honey, can you change the babys diaper? nappy18. Q: Grammar committee meets - The committee meets tomorrow. will meet19. Q: Vocabulary chips - Im hungry. Lets stop and get a bag of chips at the supermarket. crisps kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 45
  • 20. Q: Vocabulary intersection - Take a left at the second intersection. crossroads 21. Q: Vocabulary stand in line - We had to stand in line for three hours to get into the concert. queue22. Q: Expression with preposition do over - Can I do that over? again23. Q: Vocabulary garbage - Why is there so much garbage in here? rubbish23. Q: Vocabulary rest room - Excuse me, where is the rest room? Public toilet25. Q: Vocabulary vacation - We went on a two week vacation last month. holiday kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 46
  • http: // iteslj. org/v/e/ck-british-american.htmlhttp://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/alle_words.htm kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 47
  • Thank you andGood bye! kaviarasu.kk@gmail.com 48