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Supplemental Sonification of a Bingo Game          Daniel Ramos, Eelke Folmer - FDG’11, Bordeaux                      Playe...
Why How do we play games?                  Player-Game Interaction Research                        University of Nevada, R...
Why How do we play games?1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic}                                   Player-Game Inte...
Why How do we play games?                                                 POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic...
Why How do we play games?                                               Bzzzzzz                                           ...
Why How do we play games?                                               Bzzzzzz                                           ...
Why How do we play games?                                               Bzzzzzz                                           ...
Why How do we play games?                                               Bzzzzzz                                           ...
Generalize steps   pong             mario kart                  fps1. feedback       1. feedback         1. feedback2. up/...
Gameplay State Machine                 Player-Game Interaction Research                       University of Nevada, Reno
Choice Response TaskStimulus                  Player-Game Interaction Research                        University of Nevada...
Choice Response TaskStimulus visual    Response                      Player-Game Interaction Research                     ...
Choice Response TaskStimulus visual    Response   + audio            Response                        Player-Game Interacti...
Choice Response TaskStimulus visual    Response   + audio            Response   + haptic               Response           ...
Choice Response Task                             multimodal                             representation:Stimulus           ...
Role of Feedback                       Bzzzzzz           POW                 Player-Game Interaction Research             ...
Role of Feedback           POW                 Player-Game Interaction Research                       University of Nevada...
Role of Feedback                    Bzzzzzz              Player-Game Interaction Research                    University of...
Role of Feedback                       Bzzzzzz           POW                 Player-Game Interaction Research             ...
Role of Feedback                       Bzzzzzz           POW                 Player-Game Interaction Research             ...
Video GamesStimulus visual       Response                         Player-Game Interaction Research                        ...
Video GamesStimulus visual       Response   + audio               Response        ?                           Player-Game ...
Research QuestionCan supplemental sonificationincrease performance & reduceplayer errors?                                Pl...
What is Bingo                      Ball callsPatterns          Multiple Bingos » horizontal      » single line » vertica...
What is Bingo                      Ball calls                     16Patterns          Multiple Bingos » horizontal      ...
What is Bingo                      Ball calls                     16 48Patterns          Multiple Bingos » horizontal   ...
What is Bingo                      Ball calls                     16 48 63Patterns          Multiple Bingos » horizontal...
What is Bingo                      Ball calls                     16 48 63                               “Bingo”Patterns ...
is Bingo a Video game?                 Player-Game Interaction Research                       University of Nevada, Reno
is Bingo a Video game?»Up to 100 cards»Shows cards closest to Bingo»jurisdiction determines how bingo is played           ...
Bingo is BIG business2009                    Player-Game Interaction Research                          University of Nevad...
Bingo is BIG business2009»Charitable Bingo -> 1.8 Billion (US)»WoW -> 1.0 Billion (worldwide)                             ...
Why Bingo?SimpleFinite ~bingo <24 callsControllable                           Player-Game Interaction Research         ...
Who plays Bingo?              Player-Game Interaction Research                    University of Nevada, Reno
Who plays Bingo?              Player-Game Interaction Research                    University of Nevada, Reno
Bingo Demographics  57% female  11% age 65 and up  20% are 18-24 year olds (UK)  Online bingo > 20% market share      ...
avoiding a sleeperBingo casino halls are crowded / noisyplayers more likely to have sensory impairment due to their age...
SonificationDisplaying data in non speech audio »Geiger counterTypes of sonification: »Volume »Pitch »Timbre {instruments}...
Simulator            Player-Game Interaction Research                  University of Nevada, Reno
Simulator            Player-Game Interaction Research                  University of Nevada, Reno
Away Count         ac = two                 ac = threeAC is the smallest value for any pattern                           ...
Types of sonificationTypes »Pitch {99hz, 119hz, 156hz, 193hz} »Timbre {piano, cello, organ, pan flute} »Audio Icons {dog, j...
Test Away Countrandom intervals (avg 6 calls between test)log: »value of provided AC and AC for each card »time it takes...
Demo       Player-Game Interaction Research             University of Nevada, Reno
User study9 participants2 female / 7 maleage = 41.2 (SD=12.8)Expert Bingo PlayersNo impairmentsVersions {none, pitch...
Results              Table 1: Results of Bingo simulation.        Type         Error   σ       Time (ms) σ (ms)        NON...
Qualitative resultsall subjects felt sonification helped »5 preferred audio icons »2 preferred pitch »1 preferred timbre »...
Discussion & future workSemiotics of audio iconsSonification can be facilitated on most daubersTest with sensory impaire...
Discussion & future workSemiotics of audio iconsSonification can be facilitated on most daubersTest with sensory impaire...
Questions            Player-Game Interaction Research                  University of Nevada, Reno
Questions ?            Player-Game Interaction Research                  University of Nevada, Reno
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Real time sensory substitution of a bingo game

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  • Hello, My name is Eelke Folmer\nMy Final talk will be about supplemental sonification of a bingo game\n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • so in previous talks several people has asked the question why we play games but I&amp;#x2019;m posing the question how do we play games. \nLets take a first person shooter as an example. \nThe game provides feedback which are typically visual and audio and there may be some haptic feedback as well. \nBased on the feedback provided the player determines what in game response to provide (for example shoot at an enemy)\nand then in the third step the player physically activates an input (for example pressing a button on a controller). \nBased on the input the game generates new feedback and the three steps repeat until game over or finished right? \n
  • Now looking at other games you can identify the same basic steps and you can synthesize this in a basic interaction model for games that can be represented as a simple state machine. \n\n
  • okay so now we&amp;#x2019;ve represented playing games as a simple model which kind of resembles a kind of test that is being used in psychology to study human \n
  • In psychology people have done all sorts of experiments on human behavior using a technique that is called choice response task.\nWhich are perceptual motor tasks that study the content duration and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations\nFor example a subject is presented a certain stimuli \nand then they have to press a certain button that corresponds to this stimuli. \nStudies found that when stimuli are \nrepresented in multiple modalities simultaneously can be detected at lower thresholds, faster and more accurately than when presented separately in each modality. \n
  • In psychology people have done all sorts of experiments on human behavior using a technique that is called choice response task.\nWhich are perceptual motor tasks that study the content duration and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations\nFor example a subject is presented a certain stimuli \nand then they have to press a certain button that corresponds to this stimuli. \nStudies found that when stimuli are \nrepresented in multiple modalities simultaneously can be detected at lower thresholds, faster and more accurately than when presented separately in each modality. \n
  • In psychology people have done all sorts of experiments on human behavior using a technique that is called choice response task.\nWhich are perceptual motor tasks that study the content duration and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations\nFor example a subject is presented a certain stimuli \nand then they have to press a certain button that corresponds to this stimuli. \nStudies found that when stimuli are \nrepresented in multiple modalities simultaneously can be detected at lower thresholds, faster and more accurately than when presented separately in each modality. \n
  • In psychology people have done all sorts of experiments on human behavior using a technique that is called choice response task.\nWhich are perceptual motor tasks that study the content duration and temporal sequencing of cognitive operations\nFor example a subject is presented a certain stimuli \nand then they have to press a certain button that corresponds to this stimuli. \nStudies found that when stimuli are \nrepresented in multiple modalities simultaneously can be detected at lower thresholds, faster and more accurately than when presented separately in each modality. \n
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback.\nBut are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, \ncan you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs.\nCan you play a game without visual feedback? \nNot really. \nAudio and haptic doesn&amp;#x2019;t tell you what to do and when. \n\n
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback.\nBut are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, \ncan you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs.\nCan you play a game without visual feedback? \nNot really. \nAudio and haptic doesn&amp;#x2019;t tell you what to do and when. \n\n
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback.\nBut are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, \ncan you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs.\nCan you play a game without visual feedback? \nNot really. \nAudio and haptic doesn&amp;#x2019;t tell you what to do and when. \n\n
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback.\nBut are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, \ncan you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs.\nCan you play a game without visual feedback? \nNot really. \nAudio and haptic doesn&amp;#x2019;t tell you what to do and when. \n\n
  • Now going back to video games. We said that games provided visual, audio and haptic feedback.\nBut are they all just as important? Can you play a game without haptic feedback? yes, \ncan you play a game without audio, well to a large extent you may miss out on dialogs.\nCan you play a game without visual feedback? \nNot really. \nAudio and haptic doesn&amp;#x2019;t tell you what to do and when. \n\n
  • Now going back to video games. You see that they actually only present a stimuli in the visual modality. So in this paper we explore\n
  • As people often make errors in playing games theres the potential to explore how supplemental representation of feedback in a different modality than feedback could increase performance and player error. \n\n
  • And we focus on the game of bingo\n
  • And we focus on the game of bingo\n
  • And we focus on the game of bingo\n
  • And we focus on the game of bingo\n
  • \n
  • Bingo is a significant industry. \n
  • Going back to our game interaction model the game mechanics of bingo resemble the simplest way you can play a game. Bingo is the closest\nthing to a choice response task while still a game. It is also simple and finite which allows for a controllable user study. \n
  • So who plays bingo? well grandma does and that&amp;#x2019;s a stereotype that is hard to debunk\n
  • The demographics are slightly changing. Especially in the UK a younger audience is playing it and mostly online. \n
  • \n
  • frequency of clicks to indicate the level of radiation. Other types of sonification include using volume or the pitch of a tone. \nTimbre, \n\nSonification has primarily been explroed in sensory substitution. There&amp;#x2019;s all sorts of navigation systems for users who are blind which uses sonification\nand there&amp;#x2019;s all sorts of audio games for users. \nNot much work has been done in the area of using supplemental sonification e.g. representing information using visual as well as audio\n
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  • The variable we seek to sonify is the away count. The away count indicates how far the player is away from achieving a bingo. This is a dynamic variable that depends on the specific pattern used. \n
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  • Transcript of "Real time sensory substitution of a bingo game"

    1. 1. Supplemental Sonification of a Bingo Game Daniel Ramos, Eelke Folmer - FDG’11, Bordeaux Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    2. 2. Why How do we play games? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    3. 3. Why How do we play games?1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic} Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    4. 4. Why How do we play games? POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic} Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    5. 5. Why How do we play games? Bzzzzzz POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic} Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    6. 6. Why How do we play games? Bzzzzzz POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic}2.Player determines in game response (shoot) Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    7. 7. Why How do we play games? Bzzzzzz POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic}2.Player determines in game response (shoot)3.Player provides input (press button) Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    8. 8. Why How do we play games? Bzzzzzz POW1.Game provides feedback {visual,audio,haptic}2.Player determines in game response (shoot)3.Player provides input (press button)4.goto 1 until gameover or finished Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    9. 9. Generalize steps pong mario kart fps1. feedback 1. feedback 1. feedback2. up/down 2. le//right/gas 2. le//right/shoot3. button 3. wheel 3. button / mouse Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    10. 10. Gameplay State Machine Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    11. 11. Choice Response TaskStimulus Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    12. 12. Choice Response TaskStimulus visual Response Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    13. 13. Choice Response TaskStimulus visual Response + audio Response Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    14. 14. Choice Response TaskStimulus visual Response + audio Response + haptic Response Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    15. 15. Choice Response Task multimodal representation:Stimulus performance++ error-- visual Response + audio Response + haptic Response Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    16. 16. Role of Feedback Bzzzzzz POW Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    17. 17. Role of Feedback POW Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    18. 18. Role of Feedback Bzzzzzz Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    19. 19. Role of Feedback Bzzzzzz POW Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    20. 20. Role of Feedback Bzzzzzz POW Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    21. 21. Video GamesStimulus visual Response Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    22. 22. Video GamesStimulus visual Response + audio Response ? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    23. 23. Research QuestionCan supplemental sonificationincrease performance & reduceplayer errors? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    24. 24. What is Bingo Ball callsPatterns Multiple Bingos » horizontal » single line » vertical » full card » diagonal Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    25. 25. What is Bingo Ball calls 16Patterns Multiple Bingos » horizontal » single line » vertical » full card » diagonal Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    26. 26. What is Bingo Ball calls 16 48Patterns Multiple Bingos » horizontal » single line » vertical » full card » diagonal Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    27. 27. What is Bingo Ball calls 16 48 63Patterns Multiple Bingos » horizontal » single line » vertical » full card » diagonal Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    28. 28. What is Bingo Ball calls 16 48 63 “Bingo”Patterns Multiple Bingos » horizontal » single line » vertical » full card » diagonal Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    29. 29. is Bingo a Video game? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    30. 30. is Bingo a Video game?»Up to 100 cards»Shows cards closest to Bingo»jurisdiction determines how bingo is played Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    31. 31. Bingo is BIG business2009 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    32. 32. Bingo is BIG business2009»Charitable Bingo -> 1.8 Billion (US)»WoW -> 1.0 Billion (worldwide) Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    33. 33. Why Bingo?SimpleFinite ~bingo <24 callsControllable Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    34. 34. Who plays Bingo? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    35. 35. Who plays Bingo? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    36. 36. Bingo Demographics 57% female 11% age 65 and up 20% are 18-24 year olds (UK) Online bingo > 20% market share Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    37. 37. avoiding a sleeperBingo casino halls are crowded / noisyplayers more likely to have sensory impairment due to their ageplayers play with a large number of cards Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    38. 38. SonificationDisplaying data in non speech audio »Geiger counterTypes of sonification: »Volume »Pitch »Timbre {instruments} »Frequency of a repetitive cue »Audio IconsSensory substitutionAudio Games (users with visual impairments) Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    39. 39. Simulator Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    40. 40. Simulator Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    41. 41. Away Count ac = two ac = threeAC is the smallest value for any pattern Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    42. 42. Types of sonificationTypes »Pitch {99hz, 119hz, 156hz, 193hz} »Timbre {piano, cello, organ, pan flute} »Audio Icons {dog, jackhammer, cash register, audience clapping}Length ~ 1 secondOnly sonify when AC changes for a card Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    43. 43. Test Away Countrandom intervals (avg 6 calls between test)log: »value of provided AC and AC for each card »time it takes to do test Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    44. 44. Demo Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    45. 45. User study9 participants2 female / 7 maleage = 41.2 (SD=12.8)Expert Bingo PlayersNo impairmentsVersions {none, pitch, audiocon, timbre}Randomized & Balanced4 Tests or BingoQuestionnaire Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    46. 46. Results Table 1: Results of Bingo simulation. Type Error σ Time (ms) σ (ms) NONE 0.241 0.19 16,554 22,677 PITCH 0.105 0.14 9,879 5,672 TIMBRE 0.074 0.11 9,149 8,510 AUDIOICON 0.059 0.06 6,954 1,815 Significant No Significant P<0.05 p> 0.05 good health, with no hearing or vision impairments (some Post Hoc Tests had corrected vision) that could possibly impede their ability Timbre > None to play the game. Each user was given a brief explanation AudioIcons > None and walk-through of the application, a demonstration of the Pitch <> None different sounds and subjects were able to play a number ofa- games using <> Timbre AudioIcons different sonification techniques. Player-Game Interaction Researchof Subjects were tested alone in a room using a laptop.of There University Nevada, Reno
    47. 47. Qualitative resultsall subjects felt sonification helped »5 preferred audio icons »2 preferred pitch »1 preferred timbre »1 preferred timbre & pitch Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    48. 48. Discussion & future workSemiotics of audio iconsSonification can be facilitated on most daubersTest with sensory impairedUse in other gamesExplore haptic feedback drop 7 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    49. 49. Discussion & future workSemiotics of audio iconsSonification can be facilitated on most daubersTest with sensory impairedUse in other gamesExplore haptic feedback drop 7 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    50. 50. Questions Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
    51. 51. Questions ? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, Reno
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