Navigating a 3D Avatar using a Single Switch

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Navigating a 3D Avatar using a Single Switch

  1. 1. Navigating a 3D Avatar using a Single Switch Eelke Folmer, Fangzhou Liu, Barrie Ellis - FDG’11, Bordeaux Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  2. 2. Interaction ★2D ★3D ★Text ★Visual Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  3. 3. Users with Disabilities “ The eiffel tower was built in ...” Screen reader Assistive Technology Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  4. 4. “Gamers” with Disabilities “ ...........” Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  5. 5. Severe Motor Impairments Quadriplegics one handed eye tracker quad controller switch controller Player Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  6. 6. Adapted Controllers 1 analog ? 2-5 analog more 13 buttons 5-7 binary Ability mapping 1 analog less 1 binary Human Computer Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  7. 7. Switch Controller jellybean sip/puff pinch Severe Motor/Cognitive impairments Sturdy / Cheap No calibration / easy to use Binary input (on/off) Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  8. 8. Input Reduction ? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  9. 9. Input Reduction ? Automate Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  10. 10. Input Reduction ? Automate Remove Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  11. 11. Input Reduction ? Automate Remove Scanning Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  12. 12. Scanning 101 scanning rate A B C Selection Set Input generated Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  13. 13. Scanning 101 09 scanning rate A B C C Selection Set Activate Input generated Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  14. 14. Scanning Pattern A E B A B C D E F G C G H I F D E Cartesian Polar Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  15. 15. Scanning Pattern A E B A B C D E F G C G H I F D E Cartesian Polar Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  16. 16. Scanning Pattern A E B A B C D E F G C G H I F D E Cartesian Polar Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  17. 17. Scanning Control hold to scan A B C Not always possible Unable to hold switch (Arthritis) Sip and puff Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  18. 18. Scanning Control release to select A B C C Not always possible Unable to hold switch (Arthritis) Sip and puff Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  19. 19. Discrete Selections Text Entry H E L L O Web Navigation Menu Navigation Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  20. 20. Avatar Navigation 400ms 600ms 600ms 800ms Selection set [FORWARD,LEFT,RIGHT,BACK] Types of input: Continuous [FORWARD] for 300ms Mixed [FORWARD + TURN RIGHT] Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  21. 21. Continuous input approximation [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection set [Forward] 300ms input to generate Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  22. 22. Continuous input approximation [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection set [Forward] 300ms input to generate [Forward] [Forward] [Forward] 100 ms 3 switch activations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  23. 23. Continuous input approximation [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection set [Forward] 300ms input to generate Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  24. 24. Continuous input approximation [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection set [Forward] 300ms input to generate [Forward] 200 ms 1 switch activations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  25. 25. Continuous input approximation [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection set [Forward] 300ms input to generate [Forward] 200 ms 1 switch activations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  26. 26. Mixed Inputs Approximation [Forward+Le1] 200 ms Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  27. 27. Mixed Inputs Approximation [Forward+Le1] 200 ms [Forward] [Le1] 200 ms 2 SA Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  28. 28. Mixed Inputs Approximation [Forward+Le1] 200 ms [Forward] [Le1] 200 ms 2 SA [Forward] [Le1] [Forward] [Le1] 100 ms 4 SA Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  29. 29. Navigating an avatar Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  30. 30. Navigating an avatar [Forward] [Le1] [Forward] [Le1] [Forward] [Right] [Forward] [Forward] [Forward] [Right] [Right] Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  31. 31. Navigating an avatar Slow Cumbersome Unnatural [Forward] [Le1] [Forward] [Le1] [Forward] [Right] [Forward] [Forward] [Forward] [Right] [Right] Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  32. 32. Research Question Can we develop a more efficient scanning system that can generate continuous and mixed inputs? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  33. 33. Improved Scanning Control Continuous input [Forward] Discrete [Forward] [Forward] [Forward] [Forward] hold release hold and release [Forward] less efficient more efficient Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  34. 34. Generating Mixed Inputs ★Extending selection set [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, Forward+Right, Forward+Le%, Back +Le%, Back+Right] [Forward+Le1] ★Multistep selection [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] dynamically generated [Forward] [Cancel, Le%, Right] [Le1] Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  35. 35. Selection set order [Forward] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] cost RT [Back, Le%, Right, Forward] wait wait wait 3SR+RT More frequently used inputs should be at the front of the selection set Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  36. 36. Parameters to Compare control Discrete vs Hold and Release 2 mixing Extension vs Multistep dia 100,200....1,000 ms 10 selection [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] 24 sets [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, Forward+Right, 40,320 Forward+Le%, Back+Le%, Back+Right] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] [Cancel, Input, Input] 144 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  37. 37. Parameters to Compare control Discrete vs Hold and Release 2 mixing Extension vs Multistep dia 100,200....1,000 ms 10 ~400k selection [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] 24 sets [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, Forward+Right, 40,320 Forward+Le%, Back+Le%, Back+Right] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] [Cancel, Input, Input] 144 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  38. 38. Characterizing Avatar Navigation Forward 873 Forward+Left 220 Left 293 Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 Second Life Key Logger 8 Able bodied users Focus on grounded navigation Navigated in SL Environment for 8 minute Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  39. 39. Keystroke frequency be the Table 1: Characteristics of Avatar Navigation. rearran Input Single Multi Total Time of occu FORWARD 74.9 - 46.8 79.4 RIGHT 10.6 - 6.6 6.1 LEFT 12.7 - 8.0 7.0 4.4 BACK 1.9 - 1.2 1.8 Adding FORWARD+RIGHT - 46.7 17.5 10.3 facilita FORWARD+LEFT - 52.4 19.6 8.9 BACK+RIGHT - 0.5 0.19 0.12 1. E se BACK+LEFT - 0.5 0.19 0.21 total 100% 100% 100% 100% 2. M F key that is held the longest (86.92% of single & multi) of the 4,300 keystrokes totalLEFT are used m total time participants held keys. RIGHT and Single: 62.6% comprise 46.21% and ca less frequently in single strokes but Multi: 37.4% 52.71% of multistrokes. This confirms our assumption that Each s multistrokes are primarily used to adjust the course of an Player-Game Interaction Research ciency avatar. BACK is rarely used. We consider the collected data Reno University of Nevada, to be representative of 3D navigation behavior in general to scanThursday, June 30, 2011
  40. 40. keystroke length min: 26ms max: 30,606ms average: 804 ms (δ=1,404)   Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  41. 41. Parameters to Compare update control Discrete vs Hold and Release 2 mixing Extension vs Multistep 40 dia 25, 50,....1,000 ms selection [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] 7 sets total 24 sets [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, 120 Forward+Right, Forward + Le%] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, Forward+Right, 40,320 Forward+Le%, Back+Le%, Back+Right] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] [Cancel, Input, Input] 144 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  42. 42. Parameters to Compare update control Discrete vs Hold and Release 2 mixing Extension vs Multistep 40 dia 25, 50,....1,000 ms selection [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] 7 sets total 24 ~3.3 M sets [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, 120 Forward+Right, Forward + Le%] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back, Forward+Right, 40,320 Forward+Le%, Back+Le%, Back+Right] [Forward, Le%, Right, Back] [Cancel, Input, Input] 144 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  43. 43. Simulator Simulator Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  44. 44. Simulator keystrokes Forward 873 Forward+Left 220 Left 293 Simulator Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  45. 45. Simulator keystrokes Forward 873 Forward+Left 220 Left 293 Simulator Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] selection sets Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  46. 46. Simulator keystrokes Forward 873 Forward+Left 220 Left 293 Simulator Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] [Forward, Back, Right, Le1] [Back, Le1, Forward, Right] [......] selection sets permutations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  47. 47. Simulator 25<i<1,000, i+=25 dia keystrokes Forward 873 Forward+Left 220 Left 293 Simulator Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] [Forward, Back, Right, Le1] [Back, Le1, Forward, Right] [......] selection sets permutations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  48. 48. Simulator 25<i<1,000, i+=25 dia keystrokes Forward 873 average per stroke: Forward+Left 220 ★time (ms) Left 293 Simulator ★switch activations Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 ★error (ms) [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] [Forward, Back, Right, Le1] [Back, Le1, Forward, Right] [......] selection sets permutations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  49. 49. Simulator 25<i<1,000, i+=25 SR = 1,000ms dia RT = 650ms keystrokes Forward 873 average per stroke: Forward+Left 220 ★time (ms) Left 293 Simulator ★switch activations Left+Forward 167 Forward 675 ★error (ms) [Forward, Le1, Right, Back] [Forward, Back, Right, Le1] [Back, Le1, Forward, Right] [......] selection sets permutations Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  50. 50. Results Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  51. 51. Results Discrete Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  52. 52. Results Hold and release approximates keystrokes the best. H&R [Multistep] Significantly faster p<.01 »time: 1,539 ms per stroke »error: 122 ms (~35 cm) H&R 2.4x slower than keyboard Discrete [Extended] »time: 3,442 ms per stroke »error: 114 ms (~32 cm) H&R [Extended] Significant fewer errors p<.01 »time: 2,444 ms per stroke »error: 0 ms Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  53. 53. Demo / Implementation Human Computer Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  54. 54. Limitations User error modeling is limited assume user has perfect timing skills »selection accuracy >90% but not 100% correction may be difficult --> extended set model error using Bayesian noise & error correction strategies. switch users may develop different behavior -- >remove [Back] Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  55. 55. Future Work Other VW functions »Object interaction User studies with switch users Real time response environments (FPS/ Racing game) Hold and Release integrated in console OS as HUD Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  56. 56. Questions Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011
  57. 57. Questions ? Player-Game Interaction Research University of Nevada, RenoThursday, June 30, 2011

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