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Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal
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Energy efficiency in electrical system and Energy Tariffs in Nepal

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This presentation was held in the context of DCCI Capacity Development Workshop December 2013 in Nepal. For further information go to our website.

This presentation was held in the context of DCCI Capacity Development Workshop December 2013 in Nepal. For further information go to our website.

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  • 1. FROM POTENTIAL ENERGY (WATER FLOW FROM HIGHT ) CONVERTED TO KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE)2. KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE ) IS TRANSFERRED TO ELECTRIC ENERGY
  • 1. FROM POTENTIAL ENERGY (WATER FLOW FROM HIGHT ) CONVERTED TO KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE)2. KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE ) IS TRANSFERRED TO ELECTRIC ENERGY
  • 1. FROM POTENTIAL ENERGY (WATER FLOW FROM HIGHT ) CONVERTED TO KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE)2. KINETIC ENERGY (ROTATING HYDRO TURBINE ) IS TRANSFERRED TO ELECTRIC ENERGY
  • Till now no proven reserves of petroleum suitable for commercial exploitation have been found in Nepal. The big share of 87.2% is by the traditional form of energy and only 12% share of commercial energy. Similarly, A small share of 0.7% is achieved from the renewable energy, nevertheless, it is in good progress situation since last decadeMore than 300,000 households are electrified by solar home systems (SHS) and micro hydro-power and around 200,000 households are using biogas for cooking and lightning in Nepal.
  • Petroleum products have yet again topped the import list for Nepal in the FY 2012-13. With a total import figure of NPR 549.6 billion (USD 5.8 billion), the country imported NPR 100.6 billion (USD 1.1 billion) worth of petroleum products comprising of 18% of the total imports. The import of petroleumproducts has increased at a rate of 15.9% since last year.
  • - In this picture you can see the protest march against the load shedding announcement of the government in 2008. The protest was done ELECTRIC THREE WHEELER Public vehicle operators. Due to 16 hours load shedding, they were not able to charge batteries to run their vehicles.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Electrical Energy Efficiency & Energy Tariff Mr. Khem Raj Bhandari Energy Efficiency Expert GIZ-Integration EEC/FNCCI
    • 2. What is Electricity ??? Electricity >> Flow of Current Current >> Flow of Electron - All matters are made up of atoms that have electric charges. ATOM ATOM -e -e +p n +p -e -e n +p +p Materials that allow many electrons to move freely are called Conductors. Materials that allow few free electrons to move are called Insulators.
    • 3. Current and electron flow in the opposite direction. Current flows from positive to negative and electron flows from negative to positive.
    • 4. DIFFERENT METHOD : ELECTRIC GENERATION BY BATTERY ELECTRONE FLOW, CURRENT FLOW Battery
    • 5. Current (I): Electrons move through a conductor when electric current flows. Voltage (V): The force required to make current flow through a conductor is called voltage. Resistance (R): Materials that Oppose the flow of electric current Voltage = Current * Resistance Ammeter Voltmeter Multi-meter, Ω Meter
    • 6. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPAL OF ELECTRIC GENERATION BY ELECTRIC GENERATOR 1.WHEN COIL ROTATES IN MAGNETIC FIELD CURENT IS GENERATED IN THE COIL 2. COIL IS ROTATED BY PRIME MOVER - TURBINE, BOILER 3. PRIME MOVER IS OPERATED BY WATER, STEAM, COAL, GAS, NUCLEAR, TIDAL, WIND ETC. MAGNET NORTH ROTATING COIL MAGNETIC FIELD MAGNET SOUTH
    • 7. WATER TURBINE TURBINE PRINCIPAL OF HYDRO ELECTRIC GENERATOR TO LOAD TURBINE
    • 8. HOW WATER IS CONVERTED TO ELECTRICITY ?? Electric Energy Potential energy Kinetic Energy
    • 9. Big Problem of Electricity !! • Gas – can be stored in cylinder • Diesel/Petrol – can be stored in a tank • Coal – can be stored • Electricity – can’t be stored except for small demand in the battery storage.
    • 10. MAJOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS USED IN INDUSTRY
    • 11. Transformer
    • 12. 3-Phase Panels
    • 13. Electric Motors
    • 14. Air Compressor Unit FD Fan
    • 15. Capacitor Bank Variable Speed Drive
    • 16. HOW MUCH DOES ELECTRICITY COST TO ME ?
    • 17. Electricity pricing • There are different price structures for electricity users • Two Part Tariff: Demand (kVA)and Consumption (kWh) • Time of the Day (TOD) meters for effective utilization of the energy – by NEA
    • 18. Tariff Demand Rate per Energy Rate Consumer Classification KVA per month (NRs. Per unit) High Voltage (66 KV or above) Industrial 220 6.25 Medium Voltage (33 KV) Industrial 230 7 Commercial 285 9 Non Commercial 220 9.5 Medium Low Voltage (11 KV) Industrial 230 7.2 Commercial 285 9.2 Non Commercial 220 9.6 Source: NEA 2012
    • 19. Other Consumers 230/400 Volts: Rate Demand Rate Particulars Rural and cottage industries Small Industries Commercial Non commercial Irrigation Source: NEA 2012 Energy Charges Nrs per KVA per Month Per Unit Industry: 55 100 295 195 6.5 8 9.35 10 3.6
    • 20. Time of Day (TOD) Meter: Energy Charge (NRs/unit) Monthly Peak Off Demand Time Peak Normal Consumer Category and Charge 17:00 23:005:00Supply Level (Rs/KVA) 23:00 5:00 17:00 High Voltage (66KV and Above) Industrial 220 7.75 3.3 6.25 Medium Voltage (33 KV) Industrial 230 8.5 4.2 7 Commercial 285 10.25 5.4 9 Industrial Commercial Non Commercial Source: NEA 2012 Medium Voltage (11 KV) 230 8.75 285 10.5 220 11.25 4.3 5.5 5.7 7.1 9.25 10.2
    • 21. Where are we in Terms of Electricity Use ?
    • 22. Energy Situation of Nepal – Background (Energy Supply and Demand of 2009) Traditional energy (87.3%) Fuel Wood 89.2% Agri. Residue 4.2% Renewable energy (0.7%) Commercial Energy (12%) Animal Dung 6.6% Solar 1.1% Petroleum 65.8% Electricity 18 % Biogas 95.6% MHP 3.3% Coal 16.3% 1 toe = 42.6217 GJ (Source: MoF Nepal, Economic Survey FY 2009/10, p-152) 24
    • 23. Per Capita Electricity Consumption (kWh), 2010, of Selected Countries 16,000 14,000 13,395 12,000 10,000 8,000 7,215 5,732 6,000 4,000 2,944 2,335 2,000 103 274 626 2,977 2,907 1,915 1,035 639 641 258 299 155 0 (Source: The World Bank Database, 2011) 25
    • 24. Electricity Consumption Trend by Sector 1600 1400 Industry: 37% 1200 1000 Domestic 800 Industrial Others Commercial 600 Non-Commercial Linear (Industrial) 400 200 0 2009 2010 2011 2012 (Source: NEA Annual Report, 2012/13) 2013 26
    • 25. The Problem: National Electricity Crisis TSO Generation Consumption (Source: http://ghampower.com) 27
    • 26. Diesel or Petrol Price Hike Trend 140 Petrol Diese 120 100 80 60 40 20 http://www.nepaloil.com.np/main/?opt1=sellingprice&opt2=previoussellingprice Jul-13 May-13 Mar-13 Jan-13 Nov-12 Sep-12 Jul-12 May-12 Mar-12 Jan-12 Nov-11 Sep-11 Jul-11 May-11 Mar-11 Jan-11 Nov-10 Sep-10 Jul-10 May-10 Mar-10 Jan-10 0 28
    • 27. DG Power Vs NEA Hydro-Power Cost NEA Average Cost: NRs 7 to 13 per Unit (or kWh) Diesel Generator Average Cost: NRs 35 to 40 per Unit (or kWh)
    • 28. Group Work: PROBLEM 1 A desktop computer uses a 150 Watt power when it is plugged in. NEA Electricity costs NRs 8/kWh. Calculate how much it would cost to operate 10 computers for 1 year for 7 hours per day. Given: Power = 150 W * 10 (converted to kW = 10 x150W/1000 = 1.50 kW) Time = 7 hours per day for 300 days = 2,100 hours Cost of electricity = NRs 8/kWh Annual cost to operate laptop = power used x time x cost of electricity Hence, cost to operate = 1.50 * 2,100 * 8 = NRs 25,200 It would cost NRs 25,000 to operate 10 computers for 7 hours per day for 300 days.
    • 29. Group Work: PROBLEM 2 A Lap computer uses a 50 Watt power when it is plugged in. NEA Electricity costs NRs 8/kWh. Calculate how much it would cost to operate 10 Laptops for 1 year for 7 hours per day. Given: Power = 50 W * 10 (converted to kW = 10 x50W/1000 = 0.50 kW) Time = 7 hours per day for 300 days = 2,100 hours Cost of electricity = NRs 8/kWh Annual cost to operate laptop = power used x time x cost of electricity Hence, cost to operate = 0.50 * 2,100 * 8 = NRs 8,400 It would cost NRs 8,400 to operate 10 Laptop computers for 7 hours per day for 300 days.
    • 30. Energy Efficiency in Electrical System Mr. Rajeeb Thapa Energy Efficiency Expert GIZ-Integration EEC/FNCCI
    • 31. Electrical Power Power • The rate at which work is done Types • True power(active power) • Reactive power • Apparent power
    • 32. Electrical Power (Contd.) •True power(active power) It is the power that actually powers the equipment and performs useful work. It is the actual power used by the load. True power =VICOSØ
    • 33. Power Factor • Power factor (pf) is the ratio between true power and apparent power. • True power is the power consumed by an AC circuit • Reactive power is the power that is stored in an AC circuit.
    • 34. Power Factor
    • 35. Alternate Current & Voltage
    • 36. Nature of load on different parameter • Resistor • Inductor • Capacitor
    • 37. Fundamentals of Electrical Hazards • Introduction An average of one worker is electrocuted on the job every day There are four main types of electrical injuries: – Electrocution (death due to electrical shock) – Electrical shock – Burns – Falls
    • 38. Fundamentals of Electrical Hazards Electrical Shock • Received when current passes through the body • Severity of the shock depends on: – Path of current through the body – Amount of current flowing through the body – Length of time the body is in the circuit • LOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARD
    • 39. Fundamentals of Electrical Hazards • To flow electricity must have a complete path. • Electricity flows through conductors – water, metal, the human body • Insulators are non-conductors • The human body is a conductor.
    • 40. Basic Rules of Electrical Action • Electricity isn’t live until current flows • Electrical current won’t flow until there is a complete loop, out from and back to the power source.
    • 41. Preventing Accidental Electrical Contact Electrocution Prevention Time GFCI ground-fault circuit-interrupters
    • 42. Energy Efficiency
    • 43. Energy Efficiency The use of energy at the Right Place at the Right Time with Optimal Utilization.
    • 44. Why Energy Efficiency? • Energy prices are rising and becoming increasingly Unstable • Energy brings prosperity and gives us a comfortable life • In developed countries energy is needed to improve the quality of life and reduce costs, whereas for us it is a matter of survival • Use of energy also has disadvantages like; environmental pollution, climate change
    • 45. Why Energy Efficiency? • It is difficult for existing energy resources to meet the increasing energy demand • New constructions for generation of power are cost intensive • What can be done then? • We must reduce the energy demand, by using energy as efficiently as possible • We must use fossil fuels in the cleanest possible way
    • 46. Measures Carried Out In Electrical System Installation of Capacitor Bank to improve Power Factor Reduce Peak Load / Load management Use efficient Motors Replace Old and Rewound Motors Install optimal capacity of Equipments i.e. Transformer, Generator, Motors etc.
    • 47. Measures Carried Out In Electrical System Reduction in compressor pressure settings Arresting the compressed air leakage‘s Replacing low efficient pumps with high efficient pumps Replacement of Metal blades with FRP blades in CT fan  Use Efficient Lighting
    • 48. Specific Electrical Energy consumption for Various Sectors S. No. Sector 1 Cement Sub-sector / Product Limestone based Clinker based 2 3 Electrical Energy 105 kWh/ T of cement 35 kWh / T of cement Pulp & Paper Bleached Paper 1175 kWh/MT Food Beverage Non-alcoholic Alcoholic Dairy 60 kWh/100 cases 480 kWh/100 cases 10 kWh/kL
    • 49. Specific Electric Energy consumption for Various Sectors S. No. Sector 4 Metal 5 Hotel Sub-sector / Product Iron Rods/ Bars Electrical Energy 120-200 kWh/MT 116 for luxury Room (kWh/room/day) 57 for budget, & 40 for classified
    • 50. Energy Cost and Energy Saving Potential (TERI) Cement Sector: Energy cost is 34.5% of cost of production Saving potentials is 10 – 15% Iron & Steel Sector: Energy cost is 15.8% of the cost of production Saving potentials is 8 – 10% Pulp & Paper : Energy Cost is 22.8% of the cost of production Saving potential is 20 - 25%
    • 51. Energy Cost and Energy Saving Potential (TERI) Sugar: Energy Cost is 3.4% of the cost of production Saving potential is 25 – 30% Fruit & Vegetable Processing Units : Energy Cost is 5 – 7% of the cost of production Energy Saving potential around 10% Milk Product: Energy Cost is 5 – 7% of the cost of production Energy Saving potentials is above 15%
    • 52. Potential Energy Saving for Various sector (ESPS) S. N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sector Pulp & paper Food Metal Soap & Chemical Hotel Cold storage Potential energy Saving in % Electrical Thermal 2.49 22.52 5.54 15.6 6.17 22.97 9.71 39.46 45.24 16.18 5.93
    • 53. Potential Energy Saving for Food Sub-sectors (ESPS) S. No. Sub-sector Potential energy Saving in % Electrical 29.47 9.09 6.31 Thermal 15.38 19.25 13.91 1 2 3 Biscuit Brewery Dairy 4 Vegetable Oil, ghee 5.49 11.07 5 Instant Noodle 6.15 11.38 6 Sugar 14.55 20.73
    • 54. Baseline study of 200 industries Saving Potential = 83,660 kWh
    • 55. Case Study in Electrical System • Power Factor Improvement • Replacing Fluorescent Tube Lights (FTL) with CFL
    • 56. Power Factor Improvement S. No. Parameter Units Value 1 Present Power Factor 0.8 2 Proposed Power Factor 0.95 3 Present Max. Demand KVA 4,375 4 Ref. connected load KW 3,500 5 Envisaged Max. Demand KVA 3,685 6 Potential Reduction in Max KVA 690 demand
    • 57. Power Factor Improvement S. No. Parameter Units Value 7 Demand Charge KVA 220 8 Annual Demand Saving by NRs 1,821,600 Improving P.F 9 Additional kVAr Required KVAR 1,505 10 Envisaged Investment for NRs 2,257,500 Months 14.87 Capacitors and APFC Panel 11 Simple Payback Period
    • 58. Replacing Fluorescent Tube Lights (FTL) with CFL No. of 40 watts FTLs 65 Nos Total connected load of FTL 3.575 kW Envisaged load after replacement by 20watt CFL 1.3 kW Reduction in load 2.275 kW Annual energy savings (300days & 12hrs) 8,190 kWh Annual monetary savings (NRs10/kWh) 81,900 NRs/yr Estimated investment (NRs 400/CFL) 26,000 NRs Simple payback period 5 Months
    • 59. Lighting
    • 60. Case Study Lighting Option-1 60 watts -11 watts Net saving: 49 watts per day Operation: 5 hours/day No. of bulbs : 10 Total power saving per year = 735 units Cost saving: Rs. 7350 Investment: Rs.2000 Pay back Period: 5 Month
    • 61. Case Study Lighting Option -2 60 watts -5 watts Net saving: 55 watts per day Operation: 5 hours/day No. of bulbs : 10 Total power saving per year = 825 units Cost saving: Rs. 8250 Investment: Rs.8000 Pay back Period: 12 Month
    • 62. Electrical Panel Board Cost • 45 watts • 1080 watts/days • 394 units/year
    • 63. Insulated heaters 30% cost saving in Electricity bill
    • 64. Thank you

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