Chapter 7 - Science 10 - Text Power Point
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Chapter 7 - Science 10 - Text Power Point

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Chapter 7 - Science 10 - Text Power Point Chapter 7 - Science 10 - Text Power Point Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 7 Compounds, Ions, and Molecules • Compounds result when elements bond together in fixed proportions. • Bohr diagrams can illustrate how ions form by focusing on the atom’s electrons. • Atoms tend to acquire the same number of valence electrons as their nearest noble gas.
  • CHAPTER 7 Compounds, Ions, and Molecules • A chemical bond (a force that holds atoms together to form compounds) can involve electron transfer or electron sharing. • Ionic bonds involve a transfer of electrons between atoms. Ionic bonding forms ionic compounds. • Covalent bonds involve a sharing of electrons between atoms. Covalent bonds form molecular compounds. • Rules for writing chemical formulas and for naming ionic compounds are based on ion charge balances. • Example: The chemical formula for sodium oxide is Na2O.
  • CHAPTER 7 Compounds, Ions, and Molecules • Rules for writing chemical formulas and for naming molecular compounds are based on a prefix system. Ionic bonds involve a transfer of electrons between atoms. Ionic bonding forms ionic compounds. • Molecular compounds result when atoms of non-metals bond by sharing electrons.
  • CHAPTER 7 Compounds, Ions, and Molecules Activity • In chapter 6, we looked at chemical families (the columns) in the Periodic Table. • In pairs, examine columns 1, 2, 16, and 17. Determine how many electrons each element would lose or gain to have the same number of electrons as its nearest noble gas. • Do you notice a pattern within the chemical families? • What generalizations can you make about the families and the ions they may form? • Can you predict the ions group 13 elements will form? • Confirm your predictions using the textbook (pages 172–173).
  • CHAPTER 7 Compounds, Ions, and Molecules Key Ideas • Compounds result when elements bond together in fixed proportions. • Bohr diagrams can illustrate how ions form. • Bonding can involve electron transfer (ionic) or electron sharing (covalent). • Rules for writing chemical formulas and for naming ionic compounds are based on ion charge balances. • Rules for writing chemical formulas and for naming molecular compounds are based on a prefix system.
  • 7.1 Compounds, Atoms, and Ions VOCABULARY• The simplest form of matter is an element. bond • The smallest particle of an element is an atom. valence shell• Some elements like to combine, or bond, to form valence electron compounds in fixed proportions. ion • For example NaCl and H2O are compounds.• Each compound has properties that are different than those of the elements they are composed of.• For an element, the tendency to bond or form an ion is determined by the number of electrons in its outermost shell called the valence shell. • Bohr diagrams focus on the valence electrons.
  • 7.1 Compounds, Atoms, and Ions VOCABULARY• Atoms tend to acquire the same number of valence bond electrons as their nearest noble gas. Noble gases valence shell have complete valence shells. valence electron ion• An atom and an ion of the same element have completely different properties, such as size. • For example the Na atom is larger than the Na+ ion.
  • 7.2 Chemical Bonding VOCABULARY• A chemical bond is a force that holds atoms chemical bonds together to form compounds. ionic compounds ionic bonding• There are two general types of bonds: ionic and covalent covalent. molecular compounds• Ionic bonds involve a transfer covalent bonding of electrons between atoms. molecule Ionic bonding forms ionic diatomic molecules compounds. phases • For example CaF2 states• Covalent bonds involve a sharing of electrons between atoms. The basic unit of a covalently bonded compound is a molecule. Covalent bonds form molecular compounds. • For example O2
  • 7.2 Chemical Bonding VOCABULARY• Ionic compounds separate into ions when chemical bonds dissolved in water and can conduct electricity, ionic compounds while covalent compounds do not separate into ionic bonding ions, nor do they conduct electricity. covalent molecular compounds covalent bonding molecule diatomic molecules phases states
  • Ionic Compounds: Chemical Formulas7.3 and Naming VOCABULARY• A chemical formula describes the proportions of the chemical formula component elements. ion charge balance• The chemical formulas for ionic compounds can be multivalent predicted by balancing ion charges. polyatomic ions • The fundamental rule for determining the chemical formula for any ionic compound is that the total ion charge for the compound is zero.• The chemical names are derived from the ion names. • For example: NaCl = sodium chloride K2O = potassium oxide• Ionic compounds can be divided into three types: • binary ionic compounds • ionic compounds with multivalent elements • ionic compounds with polyatomic ions
  • Molecular Compounds: Chemical7.4 Formulas and Naming• Molecular compounds result when atoms of non-metals share electrons to bond.• The chemical formulas for molecular compounds are derived from their chemical names (and vice versa) based on a prefix system. • Charge balancing is not required for molecular compounds.