Models and Ontologies: differences

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Overview of major differences between Models and Ontologies.


a work by Marija Bjekovic, of ee-team.eu, Jan 2011.

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Models and Ontologies: differences

  1. 1. Relationship between models andontologiesMarija Bjekovic
  2. 2. Models• Model is an abstraction of (some part of) reality, intended for some definite purpose- Abstraction of details, conceptualization- Provides a set of statements about reality that must be faithful (causal connection)- Pragmatic usage for a certain purpose
  3. 3. Models• Descriptive model – describes the reality but the reality is not constructed from it• Prescriptive model – prescribes the structure or behavior of reality and reality is constructed according to the model => specification• Reality – domain, language, system…2/14/2012 3
  4. 4. Ontologies• “An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization” (Gruber, 1993)• “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” (Studer et al, 1998)• Abstraction of details, conceptualization• Causal connection• Explicitly defined• Shared by a group (consensual)• Formal• Based on first order logic2/14/2012 4
  5. 5. Ontologies - expressivity• Taxonomy• Thesaurus• Ontology• Logical theory2/14/2012 5
  6. 6. Ontology Model • Conceptualization • Causal connection • Conceptualization • Explicit • Causal connection • Formal • Consensual • Based on first- order logic Formality• By definition, ontologies have to be formal representations• When supported by OCL, UML models can be created to satisfy the requirement of formality• At least domain models have the goal of explicitly representing domain2/14/2012 6
  7. 7. Ontology Model • Conceptualization • Causal connection • Conceptualization • Explicit • Causal connection • Formal • Consensual • Based on first- order logic Shared/consensual knowledge• Model is not restricted to the representation of private (non shared) information.• In the end…. any model is intended to be means of communication within a group• Shared/consensual aspect of the ontology is not precisely determined in its definition2/14/2012 7
  8. 8. Ontology Model • Conceptualization • Causal connection • Conceptualization • Explicit • Causal connection • Formal • Consensual • Based on first- order logic Common misconceptions (Atkinson et al, 2006)• Models focus on realization, ontologies do not.• Ontologies are for run-time knowledge exploitation, models are not.• Ontologies are for representing web-based information, models are not.• Ontologies are formal, models are not.• Ontologies can support reasoning, models cannot.• Models use closed world assumptions, ontologies use open world assumptions.2/14/2012 8
  9. 9. Model OntologyConceptualizationCausal connection Explicit & Formal & Based on first order logic & Standard/universally applicable knowledge Distinguishing criteria by (C.Atkinson et al 2006)
  10. 10. Selected references(Atkinson et al., 2006) C.Atkinson, M. Gutheil and K.Kiko, On the Relationship of Ontologies and Models, Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Meta-Modelling, WoMM 2006, p.47-60, 2006.(Assman et al., 2006) U.Assman, S.Zschaler, and G.Wagner, Ontologies, Metamodels and the Model-Driven Paradigm, In Coral Calero, Francisco Ruiz, and Mario Piattini (eds.): Ontologies for Software Engineering and Technology. Springer, 2006.(Sellers, 2011) B. Henderson-Sellers, Bridging Metamodels and Ontologies in Software Engineering, The Journal of Systems and Software 84 (2011), p. 301-313, 2011.(Parreiras et al., 2007) F.S.Parreiras, S.Staab, A.Winter, On Marrying Ontological and Metamodeling Technical Spaces, ESEC/SIGSOFT FSE 2007, p.439-448, 2007.2/14/2012 10
  11. 11. Selected references(Gruber, 1993) Thomas R. Gruber, A Translation Approach to Portable Ontology Specifications, Knowledge Acquisition, 5(2), pages 199- 220, 1993.(Studer et al., 1998) Studer R., Benjamins VR., Fensel D., Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods, IEEE Transactions on Data and Knowledge Engineering 25(1-2), pages 161-197, 1998.2/14/2012 11

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