Pneumonia, an inflammation of the lungs
caused by infections agent in which the air sacs are
filled with pus or exudates so that air is excluded
and lungs become solid.
General Classification of
Primary: are those produced as
direct result or inhalation or
aspiration of pathogen or noxious
Secondary: Is that pneumonia
that develops as a complication
to a disease.
Mode of transmission:
Droplet infection - from the mouth
and nose of an infected person via
nasopharynx, through intimate
contact with carriers.
Indirect contact- by contaminated
object is possible; systemic
infection inhalation of caustic or
toxic chemicals, aspiration of food,
fluid or vomitus.
Pneumonia is not a single
disease. It can have over 30
different causes; however, there
are five main causes of
•Other infectious agents, such as
Some people are more likely than others to develop
pneumonia. Individuals at higher risk include those who:
-Have other medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, asthma, or
-Are younger than 1 year of age or older than 65.
-Have a weakened or impaired immune system.
-Have recently recovered from a cold or influenza infection.
-Have been exposed to certain chemicals or pollutants.
Pneumonia can be a serious and life-
threatening infection. This is true especially in
the elderly, children, and those who have other
serious medical problems, such as COPD, heart
disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.
Fortunately, with the discovery of many potent
antibiotics, most cases of pneumonia can be
successfully treated. In fact, pneumonia can
usually be treated with oral antibiotics without
the need for hospitalization.
Sputum analysis, smear, culture
Pneumonia treatments depend on the type of
pneumonia and the severity of symptoms. Bacterial
pneumonias are usually treated with antibiotics, whereas
viral pneumonias are treated with rest and plenty of fluids.
Fungal pneumonias are usually treated with antifungal
medications. Hospitalization for pneumonia may be
required if symptoms are especially bad or a patient has a
weakened immune system or other serious illness. At the
hospital, patients generally are treated with intravenous
antibiotics and possibly put on oxygen.
There are several ways to prevent
pneumonia. There are two vaccines that are
available to prevent pneumococcal disease :
pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar)
pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax)
Prevention and Control:
Prevent common colds, influenza, and other
upper respiratory infection
Immunization with pneumonia vaccine.
Environmental factors such as exposure to
cold, pollution and physical conditions of
fatigue or alcoholism.
Maintain a patient airway and adequate
Teach the patient how to cough and perform
deep breathing exercises to clear secretions.
Obtain sputum specimen as needed.
Maintain adequate nutrition to offset high
Control the spread of infection by disposing
Control temperature by doing cooling measures.
Monitor vital signs closely.