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Pneumonia
 

Pneumonia

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    Pneumonia Pneumonia Presentation Transcript

    • Pneumonia, an inflammation of the lungs caused by infections agent in which the air sacs are filled with pus or exudates so that air is excluded and lungs become solid. General Classification of Pneumonia: Primary: are those produced as direct result or inhalation or aspiration of pathogen or noxious substances. Secondary: Is that pneumonia that develops as a complication to a disease.
    • Community Acquired pneumonia Hospital Acquired pneumonia
    • Mode of transmission: Droplet infection - from the mouth and nose of an infected person via nasopharynx, through intimate contact with carriers. Indirect contact- by contaminated object is possible; systemic infection inhalation of caustic or toxic chemicals, aspiration of food, fluid or vomitus.
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae Klebsiella pneumoniae  Hemophilus influenza Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia is not a single disease. It can have over 30 different causes; however, there are five main causes of pneumonia: •Bacteria •Viruses •Mycoplasma •Other infectious agents, such as fungi •Various chemicals
    • Some people are more likely than others to develop pneumonia. Individuals at higher risk include those who: -Smoke -Abuse alcohol. -Have other medical conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema, asthma, or HIV/AIDS. -Are younger than 1 year of age or older than 65. -Have a weakened or impaired immune system. -Have recently recovered from a cold or influenza infection. -Are malnourished. -Have been exposed to certain chemicals or pollutants.
    • Pneumonia can be a serious and life- threatening infection. This is true especially in the elderly, children, and those who have other serious medical problems, such as COPD, heart disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. Fortunately, with the discovery of many potent antibiotics, most cases of pneumonia can be successfully treated. In fact, pneumonia can usually be treated with oral antibiotics without the need for hospitalization.
    • Chest X-ray Blood test Bronchoscopy Sputum analysis, smear, culture
    • Pneumonia treatments depend on the type of pneumonia and the severity of symptoms. Bacterial pneumonias are usually treated with antibiotics, whereas viral pneumonias are treated with rest and plenty of fluids. Fungal pneumonias are usually treated with antifungal medications. Hospitalization for pneumonia may be required if symptoms are especially bad or a patient has a weakened immune system or other serious illness. At the hospital, patients generally are treated with intravenous antibiotics and possibly put on oxygen.
    • There are several ways to prevent pneumonia. There are two vaccines that are available to prevent pneumococcal disease : pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar) pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumovax) Prevention and Control: Prevent common colds, influenza, and other upper respiratory infection Immunization with pneumonia vaccine. Environmental factors such as exposure to cold, pollution and physical conditions of fatigue or alcoholism.
    • Nursing Management: Maintain a patient airway and adequate oxygenation. Teach the patient how to cough and perform deep breathing exercises to clear secretions. Obtain sputum specimen as needed. Maintain adequate nutrition to offset high caloric utilization. Control the spread of infection by disposing secretions properly. Control temperature by doing cooling measures. Monitor vital signs closely.