Office automation2


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These are labour saving devices. All factories have offices. The offices concentrate on mental work. It is an age of mechanisation. Nowadays, machineries have replaced workmen in factories.

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Office automation2

  1. 1. Office AutomationThese are labour saving devices. All factories have offices.The offices concentrate on mental work. It is an age ofmechanisation. Nowadays, machineries have replacedworkmen in factories.Advantages of employing machines in an office1. They are labour saving devices2. They work at a great speed with little error.
  2. 2. Objectives of Introducing Machines Machineries do work at great speed. Mechanization involves capital Machines wont complain of fatigue. Work that is complained as monotonous by workers can be carried out well by machines. There is accuracy.Advantages:1. Work can be done at a greater speed2. It is labour saving thus labour cost saving.
  3. 3. 3.Idle time is reduced.4.Standardisation is possible.5. The information stored and produced by machines are accurate.6. The computer records enormous information in discs.7. No overtime pages have to paid.8. Quality of work is also enhanced.9. It is easy to control machines than controlling men.10. It is said that a machine will replace three men
  4. 4. Disadvantages:1. Mechanization will lead to termination of employment.2. Machines are not flexible3. Machines have to properly maintained involving overheads4. Office machine may not be used to its fullest5. When machineries are big they need extra space6. Machines cannot adopt itself to changes.
  5. 5. Factors to consider before purchasing a machine:1. Cost – an investment decision is always based on cost-benefit analysis.2. Utility of machinery- the office shall never purchase a machinery which it can never be use.3. Availability of spare parts – it has to be seen that the spare parts must be available in the local market.4. Operating cost – machine cost should be minimum5. Electricity consumption- electricity consumption / hour must also be minimum.
  6. 6. 6. Size of the machine- big sized machineries will occupy more space leading to congestion.7. Life of the machine- the life of the machinery is also to be considered. It must be durable8. Easy to handle- the machinery shall not involve more complex operation.9. Appearance – the style of the machinery also adds beauty to an office.
  7. 7.  OFFICE EQUIPMENT LEASESAdvantages of Leasing1. Efficient use of funds- leasing arrangement allow the lessee to acquire the use of the asset without having to own it.2. Cheaper source- leasing as a mode of financing for the use of office machines/equipments, is found to be less expensive as compared to other modes such as the buying option.3. Enhanced borrowing capacity- leasing is considered advantageous to the lessee since it helps enhance the ability to borrow in a diversified way.
  8. 8. 4. Tax benefit – the extent of benefit that would be derived by owning an asset.5. Guards against obsolescence- always possible for the lessee to terminate the existing lease arrangement anytime.Disadvantages of Leasing1. Unfavorable terms2. Rental money on outdated equipment3. Poor quality
  9. 9. Machines used in an officeA. Machines for Communication Typewriter - most common machines used by offices in India.1. Electronic typewriter- it is leather touch. The operator need not type hard2. Variables type machines- the style, size of the letters can be adjusted like that of in a computer3. Silent typewriter- noise proof4. Portable typewriter- light in weight and portable like personal computers.
  10. 10. Device for oral comunication1. Telephone – it facilitate direct communication, company and costumer can talk directly2. Headsets- it must be compatible with the company current phone system.3. Cellular phones- cell phones are now used everywhere by everyone4. Private branch exchange- system fills the needs of the largest companies.5. Intercom- it is also a telephone with extension to various department.6. Dictaphones – these are dictating machines
  11. 11. 4 Types of Dictating machines1. Electronic type2. Disc type3. Cylinder type4. Acoustic cylinder typeDictaphones require two machine1. Dictating machines2. Transcription machine7. Recording and digital equipment- tape machines now come with special features such as capability to screen out background noises.
  12. 12. 8. Telephone with voicemail- a special arrangement is made to the telephone. Whenever the receiver of the message is away the telephone will record the message and the telephone number of the caller to be heard later by the receiver of the message.9. Projectors – computers can produced amazing presentation with colours, graphics, sounds and animation.
  13. 13. C. Duplicating MachinesWhen more than one copy of letter or document is required duplicating machines are used.Types of Duplicating Machines1. Spirit duplicator (Hectograph)- make copies of matter typewritten and handwritten including drawings2. Stencil duplicator or Mimeograph-a stencil is a cut on typewriter or by hand. Special stencil sheet and pen are used for cutting the stencil by hand. The pen creates impression of the letters on the paper.
  14. 14. 3. Electronic stencil duplicator- is the latest innovation, the master sheets are electronically scanned.4. Photocopying machine- it is used when exact copy of any material printed/written is required.D. Machines for Accounting Method1. Calculator – useful for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing or doing arithmetical operations.2. Accounting machines- these are like typewriters. They are used for posting accounts.
  15. 15. 3. Bookkeeping machine – with the help of books, machines, account books and final accounts are prepared. There are no mistake such as error of omission. Commission etc.E. Machines for Handling Cash1. Cash register-it is a device for recording and checking cash receipts2. Coin Counter- this machine counts the coin.3. Cheque protector-cheque writing machines- the machine writes the amount , does crossing etc… on the surface of the cheque.
  16. 16. 4. Fake note detector- it is a box like machine. It is used to detect good notes from fake currency notes.5. Currency Sorting Machines- multifunctional parallel working desktop banknote processing system for counting and sorting of mixed bundles of notes by currency, denomination, orientation and suspected counterfeits.Other Office Machines1. Addressing Machine –it is used to print the address on envelopes, labels, postcards, wage sheet, invoices, notices, dividends and warrants etc.
  17. 17. Three type of addressing machine: Metal plate machine – the addresses are stenciled or embossed on a metal process. Film stencil machine – film stencil machine uses a film stencil mounted in a cardboard frame. Spirit master process addressing machine- these machine work on the same principle as the spirit duplicators2. Letter openersIt is a machine having a revolving knife edge which can cut open envelop at a great speed.
  18. 18. 3. Franking machine- these are used to affix stamps on the envelops. Where there are hundreds of outgoing letters, franking machines are used.4. Paper folding machine- these are used by large business houses to fold papers, circulars, documents, etc..5. envelope-sealing machine- this machine automatically seals the envelope.6. Time recording clock- it records the time of entry or exit of worker by inserting a card in the machine.7. Card punching machine- they are used in invoicing, calculating wages, stocks control, budgeting etc.
  19. 19. ComputersComputers have also replaced many types of machinery hitherto used in offices such as calculators, adding machine, punched card machines etc..PrintersGiven the amount of documentation created in business, a printer is the most necessary piece of equipment needed next to the computer.Following points are to be considered before choosing a printer1. Printing speed- this is the number of pages the printer can print out per minute.
  20. 20. 2. Paper tray capacity – a capacity of up to 250 pages in one tray is adequate for some and not for others.3. Black and white versus colour – graphic artist and people involved in marketing communications probably have a regular need for colour printing.ScannerA scanner is a device that can read text and graphics. A copy of the scanned image is stored on magnetic media as it simultaneously reproduces on a monitor.
  21. 21.  Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)This device contains a large battery and circuitry.When the circuitry detects a surge or spike, it switches the computer from AC to DC power.Value added data communication servicesThe communications software handles logging on and off the communications network, dialing, saving messages and sending or receiving information from a central computer.1. E-mail- is becoming a necessity for many of todays businesses.
  22. 22. 2. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI)A worldwide movement, is the computer-to-computer exchange of business information.3. Fax machines- are installed with telephone connections at both end (sending end and receiving end)the document paper is inserted into the machine.4. Telex- it is an improved version of the electro-mechanical teleprinter. Telex machines have to be registered with the public telex exchange operated by Telecommunications Department.
  23. 23. 5. High speed digital duplicatorsThis new Risograph offers proprietary technologies to achieve outstanding results with the speed and ease.6. Cheque encodersSpecially designed for high volume cheque processing7. Table top reader sorterReading and sorting of all encoded bank itemsProcessing of medical prescriptions
  24. 24. 8. Signature imprinting machines- is an automatic signature printing machine used for signing cheques, documents etc. when the volume is high.9. Table top cheque scanner- designed for banking documents processing MICR, OCR, barcode reading, endorsing , front and rear scanning10. Network document scanner for cheque processing- on board image compression for a faster transmission to the computer system.
  25. 25. 11. Digital electronic safeSafety lockers can be kept as table top.Ideal for storage of cas, documents etc..Electronically operated with master code and password.12. Multitier storage- these systems are highly versatile and modular in nature and can be configured anytime to your changing needs.13. Drawing file cabinet- designed specifically to store A1 to A5 sized safely and systematically.14. Vertical drawing storage- designed specifically for filing & storing architectural plans, construction drawings, blueprints, engineering drawings, charts, maps, arts graphics and other organized sheets.