FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

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FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

  1. 1. FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
  2. 2. PEOPLE IN A ORGANIZATION AS A STARTING POINT FOR UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS WE FIRST EXAMINE THE BASIC NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP. UNDERSTANDING HELPS US APPRECIATE THE NATURE OF DIFFERENCES
  3. 3. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS  WHENEVER WE BUY A CAR OR SELL A HOUSE. BOTH BUYE AND SELLER SIGN A CONTRACT THAT SPECIFIES THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT WHO PAYS WHAT WHOM WHEN ITS PAID AND ITS SO FORTH A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS RESEMBLES A STANDARD LEGAL CONTRACTS IN SOME WAYS BUT IS LES FORMAL AND LESS DEFINED
  4. 4. THE PERSON JOB FIT  ONE SPECIFIC ASPECT OF MANAGING PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS IS MANAGEMENT OF THE PERSON JOB FIT. A GOOD PERSON JOB FIT IS ONE IN WHICH THE EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION MATCH THE INDUCEMENT THE ORGANIZTION OFFERS.
  5. 5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  AS ALREADY NOTED EVERY NDIVIDUAL IS UNIQUE. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNCES ARE PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES THAT VARY FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES MAY BE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGIAL AND EMOTIONAL
  6. 6. PERSONALITY AND ORGANIZATION  PERSONALITY IS THE RELATIVELY STABLES SET OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES THAT DISTINGUISH ONE PERSON FROM ANOTHER A LONGSTANDING DEBATE AMONG PSYCHOLOGIST OFTEN EXPRESS AS NATURE VERSUS NURTURE
  7. 7. THE BIG FIVE PERSONALTY TRAITS  PSYCHOLOGIST HAVE IDENTIFIED LITERALLY THOUSANDS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DIMENSIONS THAT DIFFERETIATE OONE PERSON TO ANOTHER
  8. 8. THE BIG FIVE PESONALITY FRAMEWORK  AGREEABLENESS – REFERS TO A PERSONS ABLITY TO GET ALONG WITH OTHER  CONSCIENTIOUSNESS -REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF GOALS ON WHICH PERSON FOCUSES  EXTRAVERSION- REFLECTS A PERSONS COMFORT LEVEL WITH RELATIONSHIP  OPENNESS- REFLECTS A PERSONS RIGIDITY OF BELIEFS AND RANGE OF INTEREST  NEUROTISM- CHARACTERIZED A PERSONS TENDENCY TO EXPERIENCE UNPLEASANT EMOTIONS SUCH AS ANGER, ANXIETY, FEELINGS OF VULNERABILITY
  9. 9. THE MYERS-BRIGGS FRAMEWORK  THIS FRAMEWORK BASED ON THE CLASSICAL WORK OF CARL JUNG, DIFFFERENTIATE PEOPLE IN TERMS OF FOUR GENERAL DIMENSION; SENSING, INTUITING, JUDGING AND PERCEIVING
  10. 10. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE  REFERS TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE ARE SELF AWARE CAN MANAGE THEIR EMOTIONS CAN MOTIVATE THEMSELVES EXPRESS EMPHATHY FOR OTHERS AND POSSESS SOCIAL SKILLS
  11. 11. VARIOUS DIMENSIONS  SELF AWARENESS- THIS IS THE BASIS FOR THE OTHER COMPETENT  MANAGING EMOTIONS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSONS CAPACITIES TO BALANCE ANXIETY FEAR AND ANGER  MOTIVATING ONESELF- THIS DIMENSIONS REES TO PERSONS ABILITY TO REMAIN OPTIMISTIC  EMPHATY- REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND HOW OTHERS ARE FEELING EVEN WITHOUT BEING EXPLICITY  SOCIAL SKILLS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY TO GET ALONG WITH OTHERS
  12. 12. PERSONALTY TRAITS OF WORK  SELF EFFICACY- IS A RELATED BUT SUBTLY DIFFERENT PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS  AUTHORITARIANISM- THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIVE THAT POWER STATUS DIFFERENCES ARE APPROPRIATE WITHIN HIERARCHICAL SOCIAL SYSTEM  MACHIAVALISM- EXPLAIN HOW NOBILITY COULD MORE EASILY GAIN AND USE POWER  SELF ESTEEM-IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PERSON BELIEVES THAT HE OR SHE IS WORTHWHILE AND DESERVING INDIVIDUAL  LOCUS OF CONTROL- IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT IF THEY BEHAVIOR HAS AREAL EFFECT ON WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM  RISK PROPENSITY- DEGREE TO WHICH PERSON IS WILLING TO TAKE CHANCE
  13. 13. ATTITUDES IN ORGANIZATION  ATTITUDES ARE COMPLEXES OF BELIEFS AND FEELINGS THAT PEOPLE HAVE ABOUT SPECIFIC IDEAS SITUATONS OR OTHER PEOPLE
  14. 14. HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED  ATTITUDES ARE FORMED BY VARIETY OF FORCES INCLUDING OUR PERSONAL VALUES OUR EXPERIENCES AND OUR PERSONALITIES  ATTITUDE STRUCTURE- VIEWED AS STABLE DISPOSITIONS TO BEHAVE TOWARD OBJECTS IN A CERTAIN WAY  COGNITIVE DISSONANCE- OCCUR WHEN PEOPLE BEHAVE IN FASHION  ATTITUDE CHANGE- ARE NOT STABLE AS PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES
  15. 15. JOB SATISFACTION  JOB SATISFACTION- REFLECT TO EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE FIND GRATIFICATION OR FULLFILLMENT IN THEIR WORK
  16. 16. ORGANIZATONAL COMMITMENT  REFLECTS AN INDIVIDUALS IDENTIFICATON WITH ATTACHMENT TO THE ORGANIZATION. A HIGHLY COMMITED PERSON WILL PROBABLY SEE HERSELF AS TRUE MEMBER OF THE FIRM
  17. 17. PERCEPTION IN ORGANIZATION  PERCEPTION- THE SET OF PROCESSES BY WHICH INDIVIDUAL BECOMES AWARE OF AND INTERPRETS INFORMATION ABOUT ENVIRONMENT
  18. 18. BASIC PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES  SELECTIVE PERCEPTION- IS THE PROCESS OF SCREENING OUT OF INFORMATION THAT WE ARE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH OR THAT CONTRADICTS OUR BELIEF  STEREOTYPING- IS CATEGORIZING OR LABELING PEOPLE ON THE BASIS OF A SNGLE ATTRIBUTE.
  19. 19. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION  ATTRIBUTION THEORY- HAS ETENDED OUR UNDERSTANDING AFFECTS BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS , THIS THEORY SUGGESTS THAT WE OBSERVE BEHAVIOR AND THEN ATTRIBUTES CAUES TO IT
  20. 20. TYPES OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR- IS A PATTERN IN ORGANIZATION THAT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY INFLUENCES THE ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS PERFORMANCE BEHAVIORS- ARE THE TOTAL SET OF WORK RELATED BEHAVIORS DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORS- ARE THOSE THAT DETRACT FROM RATHER THAN CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
  21. 21. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP  REFERS TO THE BEHAVIORS OF INDIVIDUALS WHO MAKE A POSITIVE OVERALL CONTRIBUTION TO THE OGANIZATION
  22. 22. END

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