FOUNDATION OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR

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  • 1. FOUNDATIONS OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
  • 2. PEOPLE IN A ORGANIZATION AS A STARTING POINT FOR UNDERSTANDING THE BEHAVIOR OF PEOPLE IN ORGANIZATIONS WE FIRST EXAMINE THE BASIC NATURE OF INDIVIDUAL ORGANIZATION RELATIONSHIP. UNDERSTANDING HELPS US APPRECIATE THE NATURE OF DIFFERENCES
  • 3. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS  WHENEVER WE BUY A CAR OR SELL A HOUSE. BOTH BUYE AND SELLER SIGN A CONTRACT THAT SPECIFIES THE TERMS OF THE AGREEMENT WHO PAYS WHAT WHOM WHEN ITS PAID AND ITS SO FORTH A PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS RESEMBLES A STANDARD LEGAL CONTRACTS IN SOME WAYS BUT IS LES FORMAL AND LESS DEFINED
  • 4. THE PERSON JOB FIT  ONE SPECIFIC ASPECT OF MANAGING PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACTS IS MANAGEMENT OF THE PERSON JOB FIT. A GOOD PERSON JOB FIT IS ONE IN WHICH THE EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTION MATCH THE INDUCEMENT THE ORGANIZTION OFFERS.
  • 5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  AS ALREADY NOTED EVERY NDIVIDUAL IS UNIQUE. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNCES ARE PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES THAT VARY FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES MAY BE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGIAL AND EMOTIONAL
  • 6. PERSONALITY AND ORGANIZATION  PERSONALITY IS THE RELATIVELY STABLES SET OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES THAT DISTINGUISH ONE PERSON FROM ANOTHER A LONGSTANDING DEBATE AMONG PSYCHOLOGIST OFTEN EXPRESS AS NATURE VERSUS NURTURE
  • 7. THE BIG FIVE PERSONALTY TRAITS  PSYCHOLOGIST HAVE IDENTIFIED LITERALLY THOUSANDS OF PERSONALITY TRAITS AND DIMENSIONS THAT DIFFERETIATE OONE PERSON TO ANOTHER
  • 8. THE BIG FIVE PESONALITY FRAMEWORK  AGREEABLENESS – REFERS TO A PERSONS ABLITY TO GET ALONG WITH OTHER  CONSCIENTIOUSNESS -REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF GOALS ON WHICH PERSON FOCUSES  EXTRAVERSION- REFLECTS A PERSONS COMFORT LEVEL WITH RELATIONSHIP  OPENNESS- REFLECTS A PERSONS RIGIDITY OF BELIEFS AND RANGE OF INTEREST  NEUROTISM- CHARACTERIZED A PERSONS TENDENCY TO EXPERIENCE UNPLEASANT EMOTIONS SUCH AS ANGER, ANXIETY, FEELINGS OF VULNERABILITY
  • 9. THE MYERS-BRIGGS FRAMEWORK  THIS FRAMEWORK BASED ON THE CLASSICAL WORK OF CARL JUNG, DIFFFERENTIATE PEOPLE IN TERMS OF FOUR GENERAL DIMENSION; SENSING, INTUITING, JUDGING AND PERCEIVING
  • 10. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE  REFERS TO THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE ARE SELF AWARE CAN MANAGE THEIR EMOTIONS CAN MOTIVATE THEMSELVES EXPRESS EMPHATHY FOR OTHERS AND POSSESS SOCIAL SKILLS
  • 11. VARIOUS DIMENSIONS  SELF AWARENESS- THIS IS THE BASIS FOR THE OTHER COMPETENT  MANAGING EMOTIONS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSONS CAPACITIES TO BALANCE ANXIETY FEAR AND ANGER  MOTIVATING ONESELF- THIS DIMENSIONS REES TO PERSONS ABILITY TO REMAIN OPTIMISTIC  EMPHATY- REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND HOW OTHERS ARE FEELING EVEN WITHOUT BEING EXPLICITY  SOCIAL SKILLS- THIS REFERS TO A PERSON ABILITY TO GET ALONG WITH OTHERS
  • 12. PERSONALTY TRAITS OF WORK  SELF EFFICACY- IS A RELATED BUT SUBTLY DIFFERENT PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS  AUTHORITARIANISM- THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIVE THAT POWER STATUS DIFFERENCES ARE APPROPRIATE WITHIN HIERARCHICAL SOCIAL SYSTEM  MACHIAVALISM- EXPLAIN HOW NOBILITY COULD MORE EASILY GAIN AND USE POWER  SELF ESTEEM-IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PERSON BELIEVES THAT HE OR SHE IS WORTHWHILE AND DESERVING INDIVIDUAL  LOCUS OF CONTROL- IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT IF THEY BEHAVIOR HAS AREAL EFFECT ON WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM  RISK PROPENSITY- DEGREE TO WHICH PERSON IS WILLING TO TAKE CHANCE
  • 13. ATTITUDES IN ORGANIZATION  ATTITUDES ARE COMPLEXES OF BELIEFS AND FEELINGS THAT PEOPLE HAVE ABOUT SPECIFIC IDEAS SITUATONS OR OTHER PEOPLE
  • 14. HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED  ATTITUDES ARE FORMED BY VARIETY OF FORCES INCLUDING OUR PERSONAL VALUES OUR EXPERIENCES AND OUR PERSONALITIES  ATTITUDE STRUCTURE- VIEWED AS STABLE DISPOSITIONS TO BEHAVE TOWARD OBJECTS IN A CERTAIN WAY  COGNITIVE DISSONANCE- OCCUR WHEN PEOPLE BEHAVE IN FASHION  ATTITUDE CHANGE- ARE NOT STABLE AS PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES
  • 15. JOB SATISFACTION  JOB SATISFACTION- REFLECT TO EXTENT TO WHICH PEOPLE FIND GRATIFICATION OR FULLFILLMENT IN THEIR WORK
  • 16. ORGANIZATONAL COMMITMENT  REFLECTS AN INDIVIDUALS IDENTIFICATON WITH ATTACHMENT TO THE ORGANIZATION. A HIGHLY COMMITED PERSON WILL PROBABLY SEE HERSELF AS TRUE MEMBER OF THE FIRM
  • 17. PERCEPTION IN ORGANIZATION  PERCEPTION- THE SET OF PROCESSES BY WHICH INDIVIDUAL BECOMES AWARE OF AND INTERPRETS INFORMATION ABOUT ENVIRONMENT
  • 18. BASIC PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES  SELECTIVE PERCEPTION- IS THE PROCESS OF SCREENING OUT OF INFORMATION THAT WE ARE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH OR THAT CONTRADICTS OUR BELIEF  STEREOTYPING- IS CATEGORIZING OR LABELING PEOPLE ON THE BASIS OF A SNGLE ATTRIBUTE.
  • 19. PERCEPTION AND ATTRIBUTION  ATTRIBUTION THEORY- HAS ETENDED OUR UNDERSTANDING AFFECTS BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS , THIS THEORY SUGGESTS THAT WE OBSERVE BEHAVIOR AND THEN ATTRIBUTES CAUES TO IT
  • 20. TYPES OF WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR WORKPLACE BEHAVIOR- IS A PATTERN IN ORGANIZATION THAT DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY INFLUENCES THE ORGANIZATION EFFECTIVENESS PERFORMANCE BEHAVIORS- ARE THE TOTAL SET OF WORK RELATED BEHAVIORS DYSFUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORS- ARE THOSE THAT DETRACT FROM RATHER THAN CONTRIBUTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
  • 21. ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP  REFERS TO THE BEHAVIORS OF INDIVIDUALS WHO MAKE A POSITIVE OVERALL CONTRIBUTION TO THE OGANIZATION
  • 22. END