KALAHI also emphasizes the convergenceof local poverty interventions. The NationalAnti-Poverty Commission (NAPC) serves asthe lead agency in coordinating the convergenceof programs.
-This seeks to ensure an adequate and coherent institutional framework for aholistic management of the housing and urban development sector.-This seeks to require developers of proposed condominium projects todevelop socialized housing projects (costing at least 20 percent of theprojects) as compliance with the 20 percent balanced housing requirementfor subdivisions, per Section 18 of the Urban Development and Housing Actor RA 7279.-This seeks to create Local Housing Boards in every city and municipality thatshall serve as the focal unit in the delivery of housing services, local shelterplanning and disposition of underutilized assets of shelter agencies andnational government.-This seeks to establish a national land use framework that will define theindicative priorities for land utilization and allocation. NALUA shall integrateefforts, monitor developments related to land use, and evolve policies,regulations and directions of land use planning processes.The NALUA mandates the formulation of national planning and zoningguidelines and standards, to guide LGUs in the formulation of their CLUPsand enactment of zoning ordinances.-This seeks to enact the continuation of CISFA or RA 7835, to increasebudget appropriation for the socialized housing program of the government,and significantly increase the provision of housing and tenure security topoor informal settlers, and in order to attain the MDGs
HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION
The state’s response to poverty is crucial in terms of
how deeply and quickly poverty can be reduced.
The State Response
From pursuing economic growth in the period
immediately following the Second World War, the Government
of the Philippines shifted its development strategy toward
poverty reduction in the 1970s and 1980s. Since then,
succeeding administrations have launched flagship poverty
programs. Despite these different interventions and
approaches, various assessments suggest that the government’s
anti-poverty efforts have not made much impact in reducing
the number of poor people in the country.
Kapit–Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan (KALAHI) is still the current
administration’s framework and strategy aimed at reducing poverty,
improving governance, and empowering communities. The KALAHI
strategies were drawn from the social reform and antipoverty agendas
that were articulated in consultations with the basic sectors. Its core
strategies include the following:
Accelerated asset reform.
Improved access to human development services.
Provision of employment and livelihood opportunities.
Security from violence and social protection (including safety nets for
Institutionalized and strengthened participation
of the basic sectors in governance.
Pro-poor infrastructure development.
Poverty reduction remains a huge
policy challenge for the Philippines not only
because absolute poverty in the country is
high and widespread, but the pace of its
reduction is also very slow compared with
that of other Asian countries at broadly
similar income levels. Slow reduction has to
do with the rather low rate of economic
growth, especially after accounting for the
country’s rapid population growth.
Since the new president was elected in 2010, reducing
poverty in the Philippines has become an official
challenge/target of the new government led by Benigno
Aquino. But the country seems to be struggling to maintain
the healthy growth of 2010 (above 7%), that remains
important to keep the country on the right path.
President Benigno Aquino once said in his inaugural
speech on June 30, 2012 that “Our foremost duty is to lift the
nation from poverty through honest and effective
New anti-poverty program
With fighting poverty at the center of the new
government's policy, the trendy type of social assistance known as
conditional cash transfer (CCT) has been the weapon of choice
since 2008 in this war against poverty in the Philippines. The CCT
program provides cash to poor families as long as they fulfill their
civic duties by making sure that they receive basic healthcare (e.g.
vaccines) and send their kids to school the whole year. Note that
money is given exclusively to the female head of the family. It
seems men have a tendency to spend money in alcohol.
Since 2008, the conditional cash transfer program has
been extended to over 2 million families, with a budget of about
$450m – not that much considering the number of people
concerned by this. With the help of the international
organizations including the World Bank, almost half of poor
families are now receiving CCTs.
1. Economic growth did not translate into poverty reduction in
2. Poverty levels vary greatly by regions.
3. Poverty levels are strongly linked to educational attainment.
4.Poverty remains a mainly rural phenomenon though urban
poverty is on the rise.
6. The poor have large families, with six or more members.
7. There is weak local government capacity for implementing
poverty reduction programs.
Is Poverty Gods’ Will?
What does it mean to respond to poverty in a biblical
manner? Should believers address poverty within their own
resources, within the Church body, with or without
government resources? Is money the key to solving
poverty? These are all questions which are raised in
addressing how Christians should respond to poverty.
Church as definitely having a responsibility to care
for the poor, physically, but also spiritually.
One might be incredibly lazy and
refuse to work, again, directly
resulting in poverty. This is directly
due to one’s choices. The Bible speaks
over and over again about laziness
resulting in poverty (Proverbs 10:4,
6:10-11, 14:3, 28:19).
Church needs to be highly involved in
addressing the needs of the poor, and not just their
material needs, but their spiritual needs as well. In the
Bible, Christ commands believers to “defend the rights
of the poor and needy” (Proverbs 31:9), and those who
help the poor are shown to be righteous and good (Acts
9:36, Proverbs 29:7). The Bible also teaches of Christ
preaching the Gospel to the poor (Matthew 11:15, Luke
4:18) Jesus Himself is an example of not only providing
physically for the poor, but also spiritually. He is our
ultimate example and we need to emulate Him. We as
Christians, therefore, have a responsibility to minister
physically and spiritually to the poor, by virtue of His
example and His commands to help the poor.
Comparatively, crime rates are higher in
poorer neighbourhoods and in areas with higher
population density, deteriorated living conditions
and many unemployed members of the labour
Following the pattern of other countries,
rapid urbanization, industrialization and
migration to the cities are major factors that
contribute to higher crime rates in Philippine
Crimes Associated with Urbanization
In the Philippines, there are a number of
crimes directly related to urbanization that pose
serious concern for the government and civil
society, foremost of these are street crimes, illegal
drug trafficking, robbery, violent crimes against
women and children, and terrorism.
Economically, urbanization has worsened
poverty. This is further aggravated by unemployment,
underemployment, a decrease in real wages due to
persistent inflation and uncontrolled migration.
It has long been a staple of the poverty literature in
developing countries that most poor people live in rural
areas. Yet, in the Philippines, 55 per cent of the population
now live in cities and towns. Some 1.4 million poor
households inhabit informal slum settlements.
In the Philippines, less than 1/3 can afford
proper shelter. In Metro Manila alone, there is a 3
to 1 ratio of informal settlers; 23% stay in
government land, 22% in private properties, 15%
in danger zones (which include the streets,
bridges, riversides, and along train tracks), and
40% on infrastructure sites. There still exists a
huge problem on housing in the Philippines.
Various factors affect this such as financing,
government policies and interventions,
institutional subsidies, and the values and culture
the Filipino people illustrate.
Strategic Plan and Focus:
The housing sector is guided by the
theme: Gaganda ang buhay kung may
bahay at hanap-buhay (Life will improve
with housing and livelihood.) The vision
is to provide a holistic framework of a
home and eventually a harmonious
community through provision of
housing infrastructure, integration of
basic services, and implementation of
standards. It targets the provision of
some 1.47 million housing units for the
Plan period 2011- 2016.
1. Create alternative funds and mobilize resources, to spur housing
production through the revival of the SSS, GSIS and GFIs’ contribution
in the housing sector pool; reinstate the entitlements of the housing
sector under the Comprehensive and Integrated Shelter Finance Act
(RA 7835); involve rural banks, cooperatives and microfinance
institutions in implementing a housing micro-finance program, catering
to the marginalized sector and rural homebuyers; and develop an
effective and viable secondary mortgage market and rationalization of
the guarantee system;
2. Build strong partnerships with LGUs to accelerate housing
production through land use and local shelter planning, land inventory
and creation of Local Housing Boards (LHB); re-channel development
funds to LGUs for housing projects for their constituents; and set aside
lands for socialized housing in accordance with the Urban
Development and Housing Act (RA 7279);
3. Engage NGOs (e.g., Gawad Kalinga, Habitat for Humanity, ABS-
CBN Foundation) and the private sector in building and scaling up
socialized housing projects;
4. Promote the use of “green” technology and materials in housing
construction and in building “disaster resilient homes”; and
5. Develop a strong, cohesive and responsive shelter team (e.g., key
shelter agencies and stakeholders) to bring significant changes and
institutional reforms, including simplifying loan application processing
for development and homebuyer’s loans, and reducing red tape in the
issuance of land titles and housing and development permits, at the
national and local levels; and ensure transparency and good
governance in the housing sector.
Creation of the Department of Housing and
Balanced Housing Requirement for Condominium
Establishment of Local Housing Boards
National Land Use Act (NALUA)
Comprehensive and Integrated Shelter Finance
Act (CISFA) II
The demographic and economic history of the Philippines is
characterized by continued rapid population growth and an uneven
Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning
In 2006 the President ordered the Department of
Health, POPCOM and local governments to direct and
implement the Responsible Parenthood and Family Planning
The Responsible Parenthood and Natural Family
Planning Program's primary policy objective is to promote
natural family planning, birth spacing (three years birth
spacing) and breastfeeding which are good for the health of
the mother, child, family, and community. While LGUs can
promote artificial family planning because of local autonomy,
the national government advocates natural family planning.
Over 80% of Filipinos are Catholic, so
it is not surprising to encounter assertions
that population management infrastructure
and operations "largely reflect the Catholic
Church's position on family planning which
emphasizes responsible parenting, informed
choice, respect for life and birth
spacing."The Catholic bishops of the country
have been accused of opposing and
hampering population management and
fertility reduction policies.
In the Encyclical Letter of His Holiness, Humanae
Vitae, Pope Paul VI stresses that the marital relationship is
the one institution where decisions about responsible
parenthood are to be made. By definition, responsible
parenthood is based on conjugal love, in which "children
are the most precious gift of marriage and contribute
immensely to the good of the parents themselves." For that
reason, "responsible parenthood is exercised either by the
thoughtfully made and generous decision to raise a large
family, or by the decision, made for grave motives and
with respect for the moral law, the avoid a new birth for
the time being, or even an indeterminate period."
In conclusion, the fate of the
Philippine population remains in
the hands of its leaders who will
decide what measures are taken
to ensure growth for the country
as a whole.
Globalization also fosters cultural
fragmentation and purification, the abstraction of
culture and social space from geographical space,
and a reduction of culture to identity.
These additional challenges are evaluated
from the perspective of the mark of catholicity,
which is proposed as a theological resource for an
ecclesial response to the challenges of globalization.
The State further declares its determination to
eliminate hunger and to reduce all forms of malnutrition;
That, hunger and malnutrition are unacceptable to end this
The State maintains that nutrition is both an end-
goal and a means to achieve development. It is a multi-
factorial concern requiring inputs from all sectors. As such,
nutrition shall be a priority of the government to be
implemented by all its branches in collaboration with non-
government organizations and the private sector in an
integrated manner with focus to nutritionally and
economically depressed areas, communities and households.
Senate Bill No.· 1326
Introduced by Senator Manny Villar
“AN ACT STRENGTHENING THE NATIONAL
NUTRITION PROGRAM, APPROPRIATING FUNDS
THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES”
Objectives.--The Nutrition Act of aims to improve the nutritional
status of the country and its citizenry. Specifically, it aims to:
(a) Strengthen the National Nutrition Council (NNC) as the
body on nutrition:
(b) Provide a policy environment conducive to nutrition
(c) Provide mechanisms, strategies and approaches in
implementing programs and projects to improve nutritional
status and to eradicate malnutrition and hunger;
(d) Insure participation and cooperation of NNC-member
agencies, other National Government Agencies (NGAs), Local
Government Units (LGUs), NonGovernment Organizations
(NGOs), and the private sector in an integrated manner for the
promotion of the nutritional well-being of the population.
Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition
(PPAN) and Strategies:
The PPAN aims to reduce prevalence of
protein-energy malnutrition, Vitamin A
deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and iodine
The PPAN shall employ a twin strategy:
promotion of household food security; and
the prevention, control and elimination of
The PPAN shall employ a twin strategy: promotion
of household food security; and the prevention,
control and elimination of micro-nutrient
The National Nutrition Council.--The
National Nutrition Council (NNC), composed
of a Governing Board and a Secretariat, is the
highest policymaking body on nutrition. It
coordinates the formulation and the
implementation of the Philippine Plan of
Action for Nutrition (PPAN). It shall provide
overall direction for the nutrition plans and
programs and coordinate all others agencies
which contribute resources and expertise for
Bread for the World (BFW), established in 1974, is a
nonprofit, nonpartisan Christian citizens’ movement which
performs a unique and critical role within the faith community by
working to eradicate hunger from the face of the earth by using
their network of thousands of local Covenant Churches across
America to lobby elected officials to change policies to provide
opportunities to establish a sustainable livelihood for all people.
BFW’s main campaign is an annual nationwide “Offering of
Letters,” which not only provides church members with the
opportunity to write members of Congress concerning hunger-
related issues, but also enables congregations to incorporate into
their worship experience, their passionate concerns for those that
are starving and suffering from malnutrition.